National Security Advisor (United States)
The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs referred to as the National Security Advisor or at times informally termed the NSC Advisor, is a senior aide in the Executive Office of the President, based at the West Wing of the White House, who serves as the chief in-house advisor to the President of the United States on national security issues. The National Security Advisor is appointed by the President and does not require confirmation by the Senate, but an appointment of a three or four-star general to the role requires Senate reconfirmation of military rank; the National Security Advisor participates in meetings of the National Security Council and chairs meetings of the Principals Committee of the NSC with the Secretary of State and Secretary of Defense. The National Security Advisor is supported by NSC staff who produce research and briefings for the National Security Advisor to review and present, either to the National Security Council or directly to the President; the influence and role of the National Security Advisor varies from administration to administration and depends not only on the qualities of the person appointed to the position, but on the style and management philosophy of the incumbent President.
Ideally, the National Security Advisor serves as an honest broker of policy options for the President in the field of national security, rather than as an advocate for his or her own policy agenda. However, the National Security Advisor is a staff position in the Executive Office of the President and does not have line or budget authority over either the Department of State or the Department of Defense, unlike the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, who are Senate-confirmed officials with statutory authority over their departments. In times of crisis, the National Security Advisor is to operate from the White House Situation Room or the Presidential Emergency Operations Center, updating the President on the latest events in a crisis situation; the National Security Council was created at the start of the Cold War under the National Security Act of 1947 to coordinate defense, foreign affairs, international economic policy, intelligence. The Act did not create the position of the National Security Advisor per se, but it did create an executive secretary in charge of the staff.
In 1949, the NSC became part of the Executive Office of the President. Robert Cutler was the first National Security Advisor in 1953; the system has remained unchanged since particularly since President John Kennedy, with powerful National Security Advisors and strong staff but a lower importance given to formal NSC meetings. This continuity persists despite the tendency of each new president to replace the advisor and senior NSC staff. President Richard Nixon's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, enhanced the importance of the role, controlling the flow of information to the President and meeting him multiple times per day. Kissinger holds the distinction of serving as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State at the same time from September 22, 1973, until November 3, 1975. Brent Scowcroft is the only person to have held the job in two non-consecutive administrations: in the Ford administration and in the G. H. W. Bush administration. Robert Cutler held the job twice, both times during the Eisenhower administration.
Henry Kissinger holds the record for longest term of service. Michael Flynn holds the record for shortest term of service. Three and four-star generals require Senate confirmation due to the statutory nature requiring Congress to appoint their military rank; the prior National Security Adviser, H. R. McMaster, is a three-star lieutenant general and his military rank was reconfirmed by the Senate on March 15, 2017. On Thursday, March 22, 2018, President Donald Trump announced, via Twitter, that McMaster would be replaced as the National Security Advisor by former U. S. Ambassador to the United Nations John R. Bolton, effective April 9, 2018. White House Chief of Staff Homeland Security Council Homeland Security Advisor 2009-02: The National Security Advisor and Staff. WhiteHouseTransitionProject.org. 2009. Www.whitehouse.gov/nsc
The Khmer Rouge was the name popularly given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea and by extension to the regime through which the CPK ruled in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. The name had been used in the 1950s by Norodom Sihanouk as a blanket term for the Cambodian left; the Khmer Rouge army was built up in the jungles of Eastern Cambodia during the late 1960s, supported by the North Vietnamese army, the Viet Cong and the Pathet Lao. Despite a massive American bombing campaign against them, the Khmer Rouge won the Cambodian Civil War when in 1975 they captured the Cambodian capital and overthrew the government of the Khmer Republic. Following their victory, the Khmer Rouge led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen and Khieu Samphan renamed the country as Democratic Kampuchea and set about forcibly evacuating the country's major cities; the regime murdered hundreds of thousands of their perceived political opponents. The Cambodian genocide led to the deaths of 1.5 to 3 million people, around 25% of Cambodia's population.
The Khmer Rouge regime was autocratic, xenophobic and repressive. The genocide was in part the result of the regime's social engineering policies, its attempts at agricultural reform through collectivisation led to widespread famine while its insistence on absolute self-sufficiency in the supply of medicine, led to the death of many thousands from treatable diseases such as malaria. The Khmer Rouge's racist emphasis on national purity included several genocides of Cambodian minorities. Arbitrary executions and torture were carried out by its cadres against perceived subversive elements, or during genocidal purges of its own ranks between 1975 and 1978; the regime was removed from power in 1979 when Vietnam entered Cambodia and destroyed most of the Khmer Rouge's army. The Khmer Rouge fled to Thailand whose government saw them as a buffer force against the Communist Vietnamese; the US and China and their allies, notably the Thatcher government, backed Pol Pot in exile in Thailand, providing the Khmers with intelligence, food and military training.
The Khmer Rouge continued to fight the Vietnamese and the new People's Republic of Kampuchea government during the Cambodian–Vietnamese War which ended in 1989. The Cambodian governments-in-exile held onto Cambodia's United Nations seat until 1993, when the monarchy was restored and the name of the Cambodian state was changed from Democratic Cambodia to Kingdom of Cambodia. A year thousands of Khmer Rouge guerrillas surrendered themselves in a government amnesty. In 1996, a new political party called the Democratic National Union Movement was formed by Ieng Sary, granted amnesty for his role as the deputy leader of the Khmer Rouge; the organisation was dissolved by the mid-1990s and surrendered in 1999. In 2014, two Khmer Rouge leaders, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, were jailed for life by a United Nations-backed court, which found them guilty of crimes against humanity for their roles in the Khmer Rouge's genocidal campaign; the Khmer Rouge dissolved sometime in December 1999. The term "Khmers rouges", French for "Red Khmers", was coined by Cambodian head of state Norodom Sihanouk and adopted by English speakers.
It was used to refer to a succession of communist parties in Cambodia which evolved into the Communist Party of Kampuchea and the Party of Democratic Kampuchea. Its military was known successively as the Kampuchean Revolutionary Army and the National Army of Democratic Kampuchea. In power, the movement's ideology was shaped by a power struggle during 1976 in which the so-called Party Centre led by Pol Pot defeated other regional elements of the leadership; the Party Centre's ideology combined elements of Marxism with a xenophobic form of Khmer nationalism. Due in part to secrecy and changes in the government's presentation of itself, academic interpretations of its political position within Marxist thought vary ranging from interpreting it as the "purest" Marxist-Leninist movement to characterising it as an anti-Marxist "peasant revolution", its leaders and theorists, most of whom had been exposed to the Stalinist outlook of the French Communist Party during the 1950s, developed a distinctive and eclectic "post-Leninist" ideology that drew on elements of Stalinism and the postcolonial theory of Frantz Fanon.
In the early 1970s, the Khmer Rouge looked to the model of Enver Hoxha's Albania, which they believed was the most advanced communist state in existence. Many of the regime's characteristics, such as its focus on the rural peasantry rather than the urban proletariat as the bulwark of revolution, its emphasis on Great Leap Forward-type initiatives, its desire to abolish personal interest in human behaviour, its promotion of communal living and eating and its focus on perceived common sense over technical knowledge appear to have been influenced by Maoist ideology. However, the Khmer Rouge displayed these characteristics in a more extreme form. While the CPK described itself as the "number 1 Communist state" once it was in power, some communist regimes such as Vietnam saw it as a Maoist deviation from orthodox Marxism; the Maoist and Khmer Rouge belief that human willpower could overcome material and historical conditions was at odds with mainstream Marxism, which emphasised materialism and the idea of history as inevitable progression.
Khmer ultranationalism was a defining characteristic of the regime, which combined an idealisation of the Angkor Empire with an exis
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties. The term "politburo" in English comes from the Russian Politbyuro, itself a contraction of Politicheskoye Byuro; the Spanish term Politburó is directly loaned from Russian. Chinese uses a calque, from which the Vietnamese, Korean terms derive; the first politburo was created in Russia by the Bolshevik Party in 1917 to provide strong and continuous leadership during the Russian Revolution occurring during the same year. The first Politburo had seven members: Lenin, Kamenev, Stalin and Bubnov. During the 20th century, nations that had a politburo included the USSR, East Germany, Afghanistan and China, amongst others. Today, there are five countries. In Marxist-Leninist states, the party is seen as the vanguard of the people and from that legitimizes itself to lead the state. In that way, the party officials in the Politburo informally lead the state; the Party Congress elects a Central Committee which, in turn, elects the Politburo and General Secretary in a process termed democratic centralism.
The Politburo was theoretically answerable to the Central Committee. Under Stalin this model was reversed, it was the General Secretary who determined the composition of the Politburo and Central Committee; this tendency decreased to some extent after Stalin's death, though in practice the Politburo remained a self-perpetuating body whose decisions de facto had the force of law. In Trotskyist parties, the Politburo is a bureau of the Central Committee tasked with making day-to-day political decisions, which must be ratified by the Central Committee, it is appointed by the Central Committee from among its members. The post of General Secretary carries far less weight in this model. See, for example, the Lanka Sama Samaja Party. Central Committee Eastern Bloc politics Executive Committee Orgburo Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Politburo of the Communist Party of China Politburo of the Communist Party of Cuba Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam Politburo of the Communist Party of India Politburo of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania Politburo of the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan Politburo of the Polish United Workers' Party Politburo of the Workers' Party of Korea Political Bureau of the Central Committee of FRELIMO Politburo of the Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front Presidium
North Vietnam the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, was a country in Southeast Asia from 1954 to 1975. Vietnamese revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh declared independence from French Indochina on 2 September 1945 and announced the creation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. France reasserted its colonial dominance and a war ensued between France and the Viet Minh, led by President Ho Chi Minh; the Viet Minh was a coalition of nationalist groups led by communists. In February 1951, the communists announced the creation of the Lao Động Party marginalizing non-communists in the Việt Minh. Between 1946 and 1954, the Việt Minh controlled most of the rural areas of Vietnam. In 1954, after the French were defeated, the negotiation of the Geneva Accords ended the war between France and the Việt Minh and granted Vietnam independence; the Geneva Accords divided the country provisionally into northern and southern zones, stipulated general elections in July 1956 to "bring about the unification of Viet-Nam".
The northern zone was called North Vietnam, the southern zone was called South Vietnam. Supervision of the implementation of the Geneva Accords was the responsibility of an international commission consisting of India and Poland; the United States did not sign the Geneva Accords, which stated that the United States "shall continue to seek to achieve unity through free elections supervised by the United Nations to insure that they are conducted fairly". In July 1955, the prime minister of the Republic of Vietnam, Ngô Đình Diệm, announced that South Vietnam would not participate in elections to unify the country, he said that South Vietnam was not bound by it. After the failure to reunify Vietnam by elections, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam attempted to unify the country by force in the Vietnam War. North Vietnam and the Việt Cộng insurgents supported by their communist allies, including the Soviet Union and China, fought against the military of South Vietnam, the United States and other anti-communist military forces, including South Korea, Australia and smaller players.
North Vietnam supported indigenous communist rebels in Cambodia and Laos against their respective U. S.-backed governments. The war ended when North Vietnamese forces and the Việt Cộng defeated South Vietnam and in 1976 united the two parts of the country into the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the expanded Democratic Republic retained North Vietnam's political culture under Soviet influence and continued its existing memberships in international organisations such as Comecon. After about 300 years of partition by feudal dynasties, Vietnam was again under one single authority in 1802 when Gia Long founded the Nguyễn dynasty, but the country became a French protectorate after 1883 and under Japanese occupation after 1940 during World War II. Soon after Japan surrendered on 2 September 1945, the Việt Minh in the August Revolution entered Hanoi, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was proclaimed on 2 September 1945: a government for the entire country, replacing the Nguyễn dynasty. Hồ Chí Minh became leader of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
U. S. President Franklin Roosevelt had spoken against French rule in Indochina, the U. S. was supportive of the Viet Minh at this time. The Democratic Republic of Vietnam under Ho Chi Minh claimed dominion over all of Vietnam, but during this time South Vietnam was in profound political disorder; the successive collapse of French Japanese power, followed by the dissension among the political factions in Saigon had been accompanied by widespread violence in the countryside. On 16 August 1945, Hồ Chí Minh organized the National Congress in Tân Trào; the Congress adopted 10 major policies of the Việt Minh, passed the General Uprising Order,decided the National Flag, in the middle with 5-pointed gold star, selected the national anthem and selected the National Committee for the Liberation of Vietnam becoming the Provisional Revolutionary Government, led by Hồ Chí Minh. On 12 September 1945, the first British troops arrived in Saigon. On 23 September 28 days after the people of Saigon seized political power, French troops occupied the police stations, the post office, other public buildings.
The salient political fact of life in Northern Vietnam was Chinese Nationalist army of occupation, the Chinese presence had forced Ho Chi Minh and the Viet Minh to accommodate Chinese-backed Viet Nationalists. In June 1946, Chinese Nationalist troops evacuated Hanoi, on the 15 June, the last detachments embarked at Haiphong. After the departure of the British in 1946, the French controlled a part of Cochinchina, South Central Coast, Central Highlands since the end Southern Resistance War. In January 1946, the Viet Minh held an election to establish a National Assembly. Public enthusiasm for this event suggests that the Viet Minh enjoyed a great deal of popularity at this time, although there were few competitive races and the party makeup of the Assembly was determined in advance of the vote. On 18 and 19 September 1945, the Việt Minh held secret meetings with Việt Quốc. In these two meetings, Nguyễn Hải Thần represented Việt Cách and Nguyễn Tường Tam represent Việt Quốc. Hồ Chí Minh agree to unite the Việt Minh with Việt Quốc.
Thus, the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam led by the Việt Minh will receive the financial and political support of the Republic of China. For this proposal, within the Việt Minh there are many different opinions. Võ Nguyên Giáp disagrees with the suggestion that the proposals are not valid and not honest, as if replacing French col
Paris Peace Accords
The Paris Peace Accords titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War. The treaty included the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, the Republic of Vietnam, the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. US ground forces up to that point had been sidelined with deteriorating morale and withdrawn to coastal regions, not partaking in offensive operations or much direct combat for the preceding two-year period; the Paris Agreement Treaty would in effect remove all remaining US Forces, including air and naval forces in exchange for Hanoi's POWs. Direct U. S. military intervention was ended, fighting between the three remaining powers temporarily stopped for less than a day. The agreement was not ratified by the United States Senate; the negotiations that led to the accord began after various lengthy delays.
As a result of the accord, the International Control Commission was replaced by the International Commission of Control and Supervision to fulfill the agreement. The main negotiators of the agreement were United States National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese politburo member Lê Đức Thọ; the agreement's provisions were frequently broken with no response from the United States. Fighting broke out in March 1973, North Vietnamese offenses enlarged their control by the end of the year. Two years a massive North Vietnamese offensive conquered South Vietnam; the agreement called for: The withdrawal of all U. S. and allied forces within sixty days. The return of prisoners of war parallel to the above; the clearing of mines from North Vietnamese ports by the U. S. A cease-fire in place in South Vietnam followed by precise dilineations of communist and government zones of control; the establishment of a “National Council of National Reconciliation and Concord” composed of a communist and neutralist side to implement democratic liberties and organize free elections in South Vietnam.
The establishment of “Joint Military Commissions” composed of the four parties and an “International Commission of Control and Supervision” composed of Canada, Hungary and Poland to implement the cease-fire. Both operate by unanimity; the withdrawal of foreign troops from Laos and Cambodia. A ban on the introduction of war materials in South Vietnam unless on a replacement basis. A ban on introducing further military personnel into South Vietnam. U. S. financial contributions to “healing the wounds of war” throughout Indochina. Following the success of anti-war candidate Eugene McCarthy in the New Hampshire primary, in March 1968 U. S. President Lyndon B. Johnson halted bombing operations over the northern portion of the North Vietnam, in order to encourage Hanoi to begin negotiations. Although some sources state that the bombing halt decision announced on March 31, 1968 was related to events occurring within the White House and the Presidents counsel of Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford and others rather than the events in New Hampshire.
Shortly thereafter, Hanoi agreed to discuss a complete halt of the bombing, a date was set for representatives of both parties to meet in Paris, France. The sides first met on May 10, with the delegations headed by Xuân Thuỷ, who would remain the official leader of the North Vietnamese delegation throughout the process, U. S. ambassador-at-large W. Averell Harriman. For five months, the negotiations stalled as North Vietnam demanded that all bombing of North Vietnam be stopped, while the U. S. side demanded. One of the largest hurdles to effective negotiation was the fact that North Vietnam and the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam in the South, refused to recognize the government of South Vietnam. Harriman resolved this dispute by developing a system by which North Vietnam and U. S. would be the named parties. S. allies. A similar debate concerned the shape of the table to be used at the conference; the North favored a circular table, in which all parties, including NLF representatives, would appear to be "equal"' in importance.
The South Vietnamese argued that only a rectangular table was acceptable, for only a rectangle could show two distinct sides to the conflict. A compromise was reached, in which representatives of the northern and southern governments would sit at a circular table, with members representing all other parties sitting at individual square tables around them. Bryce Harlow, a former White House staff member in the Eisenhower administration, claimed to have "a double agent working in the White House.... I kept Nixon informed." Harlow and Henry Kissinger separately predicted Johnson's "bombing halt". Democratic senator George Smathers informed President Johnson that "the word is out that we are making an effort to throw the election to Humphrey. Nixon
1975 Spring Offensive
The 1975 Spring Offensive or known as The General Offensive and Uprising of the Spring 1975 was the final North Vietnamese campaign in the Vietnam War that led to the capitulation of South Vietnam. After the initial success capturing Phước Long Province, the North Vietnamese leadership increased the scope of the People's Army of Vietnam's offensive and captured and held the key Central Highlands city of Buôn Ma Thuột between March 10 and 18; these operations were intended to be preparatory to launching a general offensive in 1976. Following the attack on Buôn Ma Thuôt, the South Vietnamese realized they were no longer able to defend the entire country and ordered a strategic withdrawal from the Central Highlands; the retreat from the Central Highlands, was a debacle as, under fire, civilian refugees fled with soldiers along a single highway reaching from the highlands to the coast. This situation was exacerbated by confusing orders, lack of command and control, a well-led and aggressive enemy, which led to the utter rout and destruction of the bulk of South Vietnamese forces in the Central Highlands.
A similar collapse occurred in the northern provinces. Surprised by the rapidity of the South Vietnamese collapse, North Vietnam transferred the bulk of its northern forces more than 350 miles to the south in order to capture the South Vietnamese capital of Saigon in time to celebrate their late President Ho Chi Minh's birthday and end the war. South Vietnamese forces regrouped around the capital and defended the key transportation hubs at Phan Rang and Xuân Lộc, but a loss of political and military will to continue the fight became more manifest. Under political pressure, South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu resigned on 21 April, in hopes that a new leader, more amenable to the North Vietnamese could reopen negotiations with them, it was, too late. Southwest of Saigon IV Corps, remained stable with its forces aggressively preventing VC units from taking over any provincial capitals. With PAVN spearheads entering Saigon, the South Vietnamese government under the leadership of Dương Văn Minh, capitulated on 30 April 1975.
Both ARVN generals in the Mekong Delta, Le Van Hung and Nguyen Khoa Nam, committed suicide after the surrender. The signing of the Paris Peace Accords in January 1973 did not end the fighting in South Vietnam since both sides violated the cease-fire and attempted to gain control of as much territory as possible. Occupation meant population control in any future negotiations or reunification effort; the fighting that erupted was not small in scale. The three-phase North Vietnamese "Land-grabbing-and population nibbling" campaign, for example, included four division-sized attacks to seize strategically advantageous positions; the International Commission of Control and Supervision, established by a protocol of the Paris agreement, had been assigned the task of monitoring the implementation of the cease-fire. The principles of consultation and unanimity among the members, doomed any effort to control the situation or to stop cease-fire violations, the ICCS ceased to function in any meaningful way within a few months of its establishment.
At the end of 1973, there was serious debate among the Hanoi leadership over future military policy as the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Vietnam convened to assess the progress of its efforts in the south. General Văn Tiến Dũng, PAVN chief of staff, Defence Minister Võ Nguyên Giáp urged the resumption of conventional military operations, warning that increasing passivity would affect the morale of the army. Premier Phạm Văn Đồng, feared resuming operations would drain vital resources needed for reconstruction in the north; the final result of this debate was Resolution 21, which called for "strategic raids" on South Vietnamese forces in order to regain territory lost to the ARVN since the conclusion of the Peace Accords and to test the reaction of both the South Vietnamese military and the American government. The first blows of the new policy were delivered between March and November 1974, when the communists attacked ARVN forces in Quảng Đức Province and at Biên Hòa. Hanoi's leaders watched and anxiously as strikes by American B-52 Stratofortress bombers failed to materialize.
During these operations, however, PAVN retook the military initiative, gaining experience in combined arms operations, depleting ARVN forces, causing them to expend large quantities of ammunition, gaining avenues of approach and jump-off points for any new offensive. South Vietnamese President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu had made his position on the cease-fire agreement quite public by proclaiming the "Four Nos": no negotiations with the communists. Thiệu still believed the promise made by President Richard Nixon to reintroduce American air power to the conflict if any serious violations of the agreement took place, it was assumed that U. S. financial and military aid would continue to be forthcoming at previous levels. On 1 July 1973, the U. S. Congress passed the Case–Church Amendment, legislation that all but prohibited any direct or indirect U. S. combat activities over or in Laos and both Vietnams. On 7 November the legislative branch overrode Nixon's veto of the War Powers Act. During 1972–1973, South Vietnam had received $2.2 billion in U.
S. assistance. In 1973–1974, that figure was slashed to $965 million, a more than 50 perce
Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam
The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam was formed on June 8, 1969, by North Vietnam as a purportedly independent shadow government opposed to the government of the Republic of Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu. Delegates of the National Liberation Front, as well as several smaller groups, participated in its creation; the PRG was recognized as the government of South Vietnam by most communist states. It signed the 1973 Paris Peace Treaty as an independent entity, separate from both South Vietnam and North Vietnam, it became the provisional government of South Vietnam following the military defeat of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on April 30, 1975. On July 2, 1976, the PRG and North Vietnam merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam; the Provisional Revolutionary Government was preceded Alliance of National and Peace Forces made up of anti-government forces and headed by Trinh Dinh Thao. The Alliance was a collection of individuals who wanted a new South Vietnamese government but disagreed with the ever-present Northern Communist presence.
There had been talk of setting up an Alliance as early as 1966, but this was halted when South Vietnamese intelligence operatives arrested an influential anti-government organizer, Ba Tra. Ba Tra gave the South Vietnamese government extensive information on anti-government forces working in the city; this setback was compounded by his identification of one of the key cadre in the financial division. Under torture, Ba Tra identified more figures in the underground, who were arrested. By 1967, the entire Saigon organization had been sent further underground; the Tet Offensive during 1968 triggered a wave of oppression. These people – businessmen, middle class and other professionals – started The Alliance; the then-new American president, Richard Nixon, started a process of Vietnamization to allow the American Armed Forces to withdraw from Vietnam. One of the tenets of Vietnamization was responsible government in South Vietnam. To prevent the Americans from installing their own government, a conference was held on June 6–8, 1969, off Route 22 in Cambodia's Fishhook region.
The Alliance as well as other groups met and formed the Provisional Revolutionary Government on June 8, 1969. According to Justice Minister Trương Như Tảng, the new group's main purpose was to help the Vietcong "acquire a new international stature."There were delegates from the NLF, the Alliance of National and Peace Forces, the People's Revolutionary Party and "the usual assortment of mass organizations, ethnic groups, geopolitical regions." Banners displayed prominently at the convention proclaimed that "South Vietnam is independent, democratic and neutral". The PRG reflected a number of nationalist, anti-imperialist and communist political viewpoints, including those of the Vietnam Workers Party. Following the military and political results of the 1968 Tet Offensive and related military offensives in the South, in which the Vietcong suffered serious military losses, the PRG was envisioned as a political counter-force that could influence international public opinion in support of reunification and in opposition to the United States and the Republic of Vietnam.
The declared purpose of the PRG was to provide a formal governmental structure to the National Liberation Front and enhance its claim of representing "the Southern people". Included in this strategy was the pursuit of a negotiated settlement to the war leading to reunification, organized during the initial phase of Vietnamization. During the period 1969–70, most of the PRG's cabinet ministries operated near the Cambodian border. Starting on March 29 to late April 1970, the US and South Vietnamese offensives forced the PRG to flee deeper into Cambodia; the stressful escape caused many of the PRG officials to need extensive medical furloughs. After Trương Như Tạng returned, he noticed that new cadres from the north were causing problems for the non-communist members of the PRG. One member in particular, Ba Cap, harshly denounced most of the PRG as bourgeois. Tạng was rebuffed. Tạng saw this as the point when the PRG turned from being an independent South Vietnam-based alternative government to being a mouthpiece for Northern Vietnamese communists.
The central bodies of the PRG functioned as a provisional government. The PRG maintained diplomatic relations with many countries of the Non-Aligned Movement, such as Algeria, as well as with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. After the surrender of Saigon on April 30, 1975, the PRG assumed power in the South and subsequently participated in the political reunification of the country; the national anthem of the Government was To Liberate the South. The song was written in 1961 by Lưu Hữu Phước and adopted at that time as the anthem of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam. Porter, Gareth. Vietnam: the politics of bureaucratic socialism. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-2168-6. - Total pages: 227 Tảng, Truong Như. A Vietcong memoir. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-15-193636-6.- Total pages: 350 GovernmentProvisional Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam LeadersRulers WORLD STATESMEN, Vietnam National anthem"Ethnic Music" Room