Battle of An Lộc
The Battle of An Lộc was a major battle of the Vietnam War that lasted for 66 days and culminated in a tactical victory for South Vietnam. The struggle for An Lộc in 1972 was an important battle of the war, as South Vietnamese forces halted the North Vietnamese advance towards Saigon. Although South Vietnam won prolonged siege Battle of An Loc, North Vietnam launched a whole invasion much of South Vietnam in spring 1975. General Le Van Hung, the hero of An Loc, commit suicide in Can Tho after hearing the surrender on Black April. An Lộc is the capital of Bình Phước Province located northwest of Military Region III. During North Vietnam's Easter Offensive, of 1972, An Lộc was at the centre of People's Army of Vietnam strategy, its location on QL-13 near Base Area 708 in Cambodia allowed safeguarding supplies based out of a "neutral" location in order to reduce exposure to U. S. bombing. To protect this critical area, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam had a single division in Bình Phước Province, the 5th Division.
During the battle, the 5th Division was outnumbered by a combined force consisting of three PAVN and Viet Cong divisions. This fighting which ensued became the most protracted conflict of the 1972 Easter Offensive. On the same day that Lộc Ninh, a small town 20 miles north of An Lộc on the border with Cambodia was assaulted, the PAVN 7th Division launched an attack on QL-13 in an attempt to cut off An Lộc from Saigon. To control route QL-13 was to control the road to Saigon 90 miles to the south; this prevented resupply of ARVN forces in An Lộc battle. On the evening of April 7, elements of the PAVN 9th Division overran Quần Lợi Base Camp, its defenders, the 7th Regiment of the 5th Division, were ordered to destroy their heavy equipment and fall back to An Lộc. Once captured, the PAVN used Quần Lợi as a staging base for units coming in from Cambodia to join the siege of An Lộc. Key members of COSVN were based there to oversee the battle. On April 8, the small town of Lộc Ninh was overrun and about half of the defenders escaped to An Lộc.
The ARVN defenders of An Lộc were made up of several units of the 5th Division, including the Division's 8th Regiment with about 2,100 men. The defenders were reinforced by the elite 81st Airborne Commando Battalion and the 1st Airborne Brigade, brought in by air because QL-13 was blocked by the PAVN; because the ARVN defense had little artillery, it was reliant on U. S. air support. Other reinforcements consisted of the 21st Division, plagued by a slow move from the Delta area in the south of the country and cleared QL-13 after protracted fighting; the ARVN defenders did have one card to play throughout the battle, the immense power of U. S. air support. The use of B-52 Stratofortress bombers in a close support tactical role, as well as AC-119 Stinger and AC-130E Spectre gunships, fixed wing cargo aircraft of varying sizes, AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters and Republic of Vietnam Air Force A-37s; these methods worked to blunt the PAVN offensive. At this stage in the war, the PAVN attacked with PT-76 amphibious and T-54 medium tanks spearheading the advance preceded by a massive artillery barrage.
These tactics reflected Soviet doctrine, as the PAVN had been supplied with Soviet and Chinese Communist equipment, including jets and surface to air missiles since the beginning of the war. The battle stagnated and became a periodic trade of artillery barrages; this was most a result of casualties sustained in the frustrated attacks on entrenched enemy positions in control of a withering array of supporting firepower. The first attack on the city was preceded by a powerful artillery barrage; the PAVN captured several hills to the north and penetrated the northern portion of the city held by the 8th Regiment and 3rd Ranger Group. ARVN soldiers were not accustomed to dealing with tanks, but early success with the M72 LAW, including efforts by teenaged members of the PSDF went a long way to helping the overall effort; the 5th Division commander, General Hung ordered tank-destroying teams be formed by each battalion, which included PSDF members who knew the local terrain and could help identify strategic locations to ambush tanks.
They took advantage of the fact that the PAVN forces, who were not used to working with tanks let the tanks get separated from their infantry by driving through ARVN defensive positions. At that point, all alone inside ARVN lines, they were vulnerable to being singled out by tank-destroying teams. April 15 saw the second attack on the city; the PAVN were concerned that because the ARVN 1st Airborne Brigade had air-assaulted into positions west of the city, that they were now coming to reinforce the defenders. Again the PAVN preceded their attack with an artillery barrage followed by a tank-infantry attack. Like before, their tanks became separated from their infantry and fell prey to ARVN anti-tank weapons. PAVN infantry followed behind the tank deployment, assaulted the ARVN defensive positions, pushed farther into the city. B-52 strikes helped break up some PAVN units assembling for the attack; this engagement lasted until tapering off on the afternoon of April 16. Unable to take the city, the PAVN kept it under constant artillery fire.
They moved in more anti-a
Huế (Vietnamese: is a city in central Vietnam, the capital of Đàng Trong Kingdom from 1738 to 1775 and of the Nguyễn Dynasty from 1802 to 1945. A major attraction is its 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls, it encompasses the Imperial City, with shrines. The city was the battleground for the Battle of Huế, one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War; the oldest ruins in Huế belong to the Kingdom of Lâm Ấp, date back to the 4th century AD. The ruins of its capital, the ancient city of Kandapurpura is now located in Long Thọ Hill, 3 kilometers to the west of the city. Another Champa ruin, the ancient city of Hóa Châu is dated back to the 9th century. In 1306, the King of Champa Chế Mân offered Vietnam two Chăm prefectures, Ô and Lý, in exchange for marriage with a Vietnamese princess named Huyền Trân; the Vietnamese King Trần Anh Tông accepted this offer. He took and renamed Ô and Lý prefectures to Thuận prefecture and Hóa prefecture with both of them referred to as Thuận Hóa region.
In 1592, the Mạc dynasty was forced to flee to Cao Bằng and the Lê emperors were enthroned as de jure Vietnamese rulers under the leadership of Nguyễn Kim, the leader of Lê Dynasty loyalists. Kim was poisoned by a Mạc Dynasty general which paved the way for his son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm, to take over the leadership. Kim's eldest son, Nguyễn Uông, was assassinated in order to secure Trịnh Kiểm's authority. Nguyễn Hoàng, another son of Nguyễn Kim, feared a fate like Nguyễn Uông's so he pretended to have mental illness, he asked his sister Ngoc Bao, a wife of Trịnh Kiểm, to entreat Kiểm to let Hoàng govern Thuận Hóa, the furthest south region of Vietnam at that time. Because Mạc dynasty loyalists were revolting in Thuận Hóa and Trịnh Kiểm was busy fighting the Mạc dynasty forces in northern Vietnam during this time, Ngoc Bao's request was approved and Nguyễn Hoàng went south. After Hoàng pacified Thuận Hóa, he and his heir Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên serectly made this region loyal to the Nguyễn family. Vietnam erupted into a new civil war between two de facto ruling families: the clan of the Nguyễn lords and the clan of the Trịnh lords.
The Nguyễn lords chose a northern territory of Thuận Hóa, as their family seat. In 1687 during the reign of Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Trăn, the construction of a citadel was started in Phú Xuân, a village in Thừa Thiên Province; the citadel was a power symbol of Nguyễn family rather than a defensive building because the Trịnh lords' army could not breach Nguyễn lords' defense in the north regions of Phú Xuân. In 1744, Phú Xuân became the capital of central and southern Vietnam after Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát proclaimed himseft Võ vương. Among westerners living in the capital at this period was the Portuguese Jesuit João de Loureiro from 1752 onwards. However, Tây Sơn rebellions broke out in 1771 and occupied a large area from Quy Nhơn to Bình Thuận, thereby weakening the authority and power of the Nguyễn lords. While the war between Tây Sơn rebellion and Nguyễn lord was being fought, the Trịnh lords sent south a massive army and captured Phú Xuân in 1775. After the capture of Phú Xuân, the Trịnh lords' general Hoàng Ngũ Phúc made a tactical alliance with Tây Sơn and withdrew all troops to Tonkin and left some troops in Phú Xuân.
In 1786, Tây Sơn rebellion occupied Phú Xuân. Under the reign of emperor Quang Trung, Phú Xuân became Tây Sơn dynasty capital. In 1802, Nguyễn Ánh, a successor of the Nguyễn lords, recaptured unified the country. Nguyễn Ánh rebuilt the citadel and made it the Imperial City capital of all of Vietnam; the city's current name is a non-Sino-Vietnamese reading of the Chinese 化, as in the historical name Thuận Hoá. In 1802, Nguyễn Phúc Ánh succeeded in establishing his control over the whole of Vietnam, thereby making Huế the national capital. Minh Mạng was the second emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841, he was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Cảnh, had died in 1801. Minh Mạng was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam, for his rigid Confucian orthodoxy. During the French colonial period, Huế was in the protectorate of Annam, it remained the seat of the Imperial Palace until 1945, when Emperor Bảo Đại abdicated and the DRV government was established with its capital at Hà Nội, in the north.
While Bảo Đại was proclaimed "Head of the State of Vietnam" with the help of the returning French colonialists in 1949, his new capital was Sài Gòn, in the south. During the Republic of Vietnam period, Huế, being near the border between the North and South, was vulnerable in the Vietnam War. In the Tết Offensive of 1968, during the Battle of Huế, the city suffered considerable damage not only to its physical features, but its reputation as well, due to a combination of the American military bombing of historic buildings held by the North Vietnamese, the massacre at Huế committed by the communist forces. After the war's conclusion in 1975, many of the historic features of Huế were neglected because they were seen by the victorious communist regime and some other Vietnamese as "relics from the feudal regime". There has since been a change of polic
Army of the Republic of Vietnam
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam known as the South Vietnamese army, were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in 1975. It is estimated to have suffered 1,394,000 casualties during the Vietnam War; the ARVN began as a post-colonial army trained and affiliated with the United States and had engaged in conflict since its inception. Several dramatic changes occurred throughout its lifetime from a'blocking-force' to a more modern conventional force using helicopter deployment in combat. During the U. S. intervention, the role of the ARVN was marginalised to a defensive role with an incomplete modernisation, transformed again most notably following Vietnamization as it was up-geared and reconstructed to fulfil the role of the departing U. S. forces. By 1974, it had become much more effective with foremost counterinsurgency expert and Nixon adviser Robert Thompson noting that Regular Forces were well-trained and second only to U. S. and IDF forces in the free world and with General Creighton Abrams remarking that 70% of units were on par with the U.
S. Army. However, the withdrawal of American forces through Vietnamization meant the armed forces could not fulfil all the aims of the program and had become dependent on U. S. equipment, given it was meant to fulfill the departing role of the United States. At its peak, an estimated 1 in 9 citizens of South Vietnam were enlisted and it had become the fourth-largest army in the world composed of Regular Forces and more voluntary Regional Militias and Village-level militias. Unique in serving a dual military-civilian administrative purpose in direct competition with the Viet Cong political and armed wing, the PLAF; the ARVN had in addition became a component of political power and notably suffered from continual issues of political loyalty appointments, corruption in leadership, factional in-fighting and occasional open conflict between itself. After the fall of Saigon to the North Vietnamese army, the ARVN was dissolved. While some high-ranking officers had fled the country to the United States or elsewhere, thousands of former ARVN officers were sent to reeducation camps by the communist government of the new, unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Five ARVN generals commit suicide on Black April to avoid captured by PAVN/VC. On March 8, 1949, after the Élysée Accords the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by the Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại, the Vietnamese National Army was soon created; the VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the Viet Minh forces led by Ho Chi Minh. The VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including but not limited to the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Atlas and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Benefiting from French assistance, the VNA became a modern army modelled after the Expeditionary Corps, it included infantry, signals, armored cavalry, airforce, navy and a national military academy. By 1953 troopers as well as officers were all Vietnamese, the latter having been trained in Ecoles des Cadres such as Da Lat, including Chief of Staff General Nguyễn Văn Hinh, a French Union airforce veteran. After the 1954 Geneva agreements, French Indochina ceased to exist and by 1956 all French Union troops had withdrawn from Vietnam and Cambodia.
In 1955, by the order of Prime Minister Diệm, the VNA crushed the armed forces of the Bình Xuyên. On October 26, 1955, the military was reorganized by the administration of President Ngô Đình Diệm who formally established the Army of the Republic of Vietnam on December 30, 1955; the air force was known as the Vietnamese Air Force. Early on, the focus of the army was the guerrilla fighters of the Vietnam National Liberation Front, formed to oppose the Diệm administration; the United States, under President John F. Kennedy sent advisors and a great deal of financial support to aid the ARVN in combating the insurgents. A major campaign, developed by Ngô Đình Nhu and resurrected under another name was the "Strategic Hamlet Program", regarded as unsuccessful by Western media because it was "inhumane" to move villagers from the countryside to fortified villages. ARVN leaders and President Diệm were criticized by the foreign press when the troops were used to crush armed anti-government religious groups like the Cao Đài and Hòa Hảo as well as to raid Buddhist temples, which according to Diệm, were harboring NLF guerrillas.
The most notorious of these attacks occurred on the night of August 21, 1963, during the Xá Lợi Pagoda raids conducted by the Special Forces, which caused a death toll estimated to range into the hundreds. In 1963 Ngô Đình Diệm was killed in a coup d'état carried out by ARVN officers and encouraged by American officials such as Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. In the confusion that followed, General Dương Văn Minh took control, but he was only the first in a succession of ARVN generals to assume the presidency of South Vietnam. During these years, the United States began taking more control of the war against the NLF and the role of the ARVN became less and less significant, they were plagued by continuing problems of severe corruption amongst the officer corps. Although the US was critical of the ARVN, it continued to be US-armed and funded. Although the American news media has portrayed the Vietnam War as a American and North Vietnamese conflict, the ARVN carried the brunt of the fight before and after large-scale American involvement, participated in many major operations with American troops.
Lai Khê was a former Army of the Republic of Vietnam and U. S. Army base, located along Highway 13 to the northwest of Saigon and about 20 km north of Thủ Dầu Một in southern Vietnam During the Vietnam War Lai Khê was a garrison town as the ARVN 5th Division was based there for most of the 1960s/70s. Lai Khê was the Headquarters for the U. S. Army's 1st Infantry Division from October 1967 until January 1970. Other U. S. Army units based at Lai Khê included: 2nd Surgical Hospital 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry 5th Battalion, 7th Cavalry 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment 6th Battalion, 15th Artillery 18th Surgical Hospital 2nd Battalion, 33rd Artillery 173rd Assault Helicopter Company 554th Engineer Battalion 337th Radio Research Company, 303rd Radio Research Battalion, 509th Radio Research Group 4TH Platoon of the 45th Medical Company Most of the base has been turned over to housing and farmland while part of the base remains in use by the People's Army of Vietnam
Sơn Tây, Hanoi
Sơn Tây is a provincial town in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. It was the capital of Son Tay province before merging with Ha Dong province to form Hà Tây province in 1965. Son Tay lies 35 km west of the capital Hanoi, it had a city status in Hà Tây province. However, when Hà Tây was absorbed into Hanoi, Sơn Tây was demoted from a city to a town, it is referred to as “soldier town” due to the proliferation of army barracks and military institutions that surrounds the town, including the Vietnamese People's Army Infantry Academy. Sơn Tây's future is seen as being much that of a satellite city of Hanoi and as a result there are plans to relocate universities and other public facilities to Son Tay where land is cheaper and more plentiful; the government have commenced this ambitious program by duplicating the main Hanoi—Sơn Tây carriageway, expected to be completed in 2009. Sơn Tây is known for its thousand year old villages, such as Duong Lam which retains a collection of vernacular architecture with buildings and temples built using laterite bricks.
Và Temple, or Đông Cung, dedicated to Tản Viên is located on a hill covered with ironwood trees in Vân Giã hamlet, Trung Hưng commune, Sơn Tây town. Pham Van Son, a general was from Son Tay. Sơn Tây Campaign Duong Lam village travel guide and tipsCổng thông tin Người Sơn Tây Diễn đàn Người Sơn Tây
History of writing in Vietnam
Until the beginning of the 20th century, Vietnamese literature, governmental and religious documents and temple signs were written in classical Chinese, using Chinese characters or chu han. This had been done since at least 111 BC. Since as early as the 8th century novels and poetry in Vietnamese were written in the chữ nôm script, which used Chinese characters for Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary and an adapted set of characters for the native vocabulary with Vietnamese approximations of Middle Chinese pronunciations; the two scripts coexisted until the era of French Indochina when the Latin alphabet quốc ngữ script became the written medium of both government and popular literature. In Vietnamese, Chinese characters go by a variety names: chữ Hán: "words from Han Chinese", Hán tự: "Han characters/words". Hán văn: "Han literature" denotes Chinese language literature; the Vietnamese word chữ is derived from a Middle Chinese pronunciation of 字, meaning'character'. Sino-Vietnamese refer to cognates or terms borrowed from Chinese into the Vietnamese language preserving the phonology of the original Chinese.
As for syntax and vocabulary this Sino-Vietnamese language was no more different from the Chinese of Beijing than medieval English Latin was different from the Latin of Rome. The term Chữ Nôm refers to the former transcription system for vernacular Vietnamese-language texts, written using a mixture of original Chinese characters and locally coined nôm characters not found in Chinese to phonetically represent Vietnamese sounds." However the character set for chữ nôm is extensive, containing up to 20,000 logograms, many are both arbitrary in composition and inconsistent in pronunciation. Hán Nôm may mean both Hán and Nôm taken together as in the research remit of Hanoi's Hán-Nôm Institute, or refer to texts which are written in a mixture of Hán and Nôm, or some Hán texts with parallel Nôm translations. There is a significant orthographic overlap between Hán and Nôm and many characters are used in both Hán and Nôm with the same reading, it may be simplest to think of Nom as the Vietnamese extension of Han characters.
The term chữ. During Chinese domination period from 111 BC to 938 AD, Vietnam was under Chinese rule and so Chinese characters or Chu Han were used for writing. In most cases, formal writings were done in the language of Classical Chinese. Chinese was used extensively used in government and administration for entry via the Confucian examination system in Vietnam, conducted in van ngon. Chinese was the language of medicine, religion and high literature such as poetry. According to Dao Duy Anh, Vietnam started to have Chinese studies when Shi Xie taught Vietnamese people to write. In this period of over a thousand years, most of the inscriptions written on steles are in Chinese characters. During this period, Vietnamese existed as an oral language, before the creation of the Chu Nom script to preserve and circulate less serious poetry and narrative literature; these writings were at first indistinguishable from contemporaneous classical Chinese works produced in China, Korea, or Japan. These include the first poems in chữ nho by the monk Khuông Việt, the Nam Quốc Sơn Hà, many Confucian and Buddhist scriptures.
It has been suggested that Chinese characters were present in Vietnam before 111 BC, based on the interpretation of the inscription considered as a word on a dagger. However, more research needs to be done. Moreover on the Dong Son bronze drums used between 700 BC-100 AD, supposed inscriptions have yet to be deciphered. Between 939-1919, Chu Han continued to be used as the major means of writing among scholars and in government. In Vietnam, classical Chinese texts were read with the vocalization of Chinese text as such, equivalent to the Chinese on-yomi in Japanese kambun or the assimilated vocalizations in Korean hanmun; this occurred alongside the diffusion of Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary into the vernacular Vietnamese language, created a Sinoxenic dialect. The Sinologist Edwin G. Pulleyblank was the one of the first linguists to employ "Sino-Vietnamese" to recover the earlier history of Chinese. From the 13th Century the dominance of Chu Han began to be challenged by Chu Nom, a system of modified and invented characters modeled loosely on Chinese characters.
Unlike the system of chữ nho, allowed for the expression of purely Vietnamese words, was created in Vietnam at least as early as the 13th century. However, the earliest known use of chu Nom is documented to be from the 8th century. While designed for native Vietnamese speakers, chữ nôm required the user to have a fair knowledge of chữ Hán, thus chữ nôm was used for literary writings by cultural elites, while all other official writings and documents continued to be written in classical Chinese until the 20th century. Though technically different from chu Han, it is simplest to think of it as a descendant of chu Han--with modifications thereof as well as new Vietnamese-coined logograms. Together, they are called Han Nom. Quoc Ngu is the currently-used script of