Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Palace Hotel (Copenhagen)
Palace Hotel is a residential hotel on the eastern side of City Hall Square in Copenhagen, Denmark. Influenced by the Art Nouveau style, the red building was designed by Anton Rosen. In 1907, he purchased a lot on the square in front of the new Copenhagen City Hall which had completed in the grounds of the citys old Haymarket just two years earlier. The architect Anton Rosen was commissioned to design the hotel which was inaugurated on 15 July 1910, king Frederik VII was among the first to visit the hotel. Rosen not only designed the building but everything from furniture to wallpaper, uniforms, luggage tags and he designed cutlery and door handles in collaboration with Georg Jensen. In 1927, Jensen sold the hotel to Valdemar Nielsen, who changed its original name Palads to the more international Palace Hotel, in 1937, the hotel changed hands once again when it was acquired by the Danish-Norwegian hotelier Waldemar Jensen. Assisted by his Hungarian architects, he converted the Marble Garden into the Ambassadeur, the Danish businessman Fritz Schur purchased the building in November 1999.
From 2005 until 2009, the hotel was run by the Starwood chain and was put through a renovation which was to upgrade it to a five-star hotel under the Le Méridien brand. After failed negotiations between Schur and Starwood, the hotel was taken over by Scandic Hotels, the Palace Hotel building is considered one of Rosens most important works and shows clear evidence of his appreciation of Jugendstil. He received the commission shortly after completing the Løvenborg building on nearby Vesterbrogade, the building is constructed in red brick and stands on a sandstone plinth. The portal and other details on the facade are in sandstone, the copper canopy above the main entrance is a addition. A distinctive feature of the exterior is the tower which together with those of the City Hall. The copper-roofed tower is 65 metres high and decorated with mosaics by the painter Johannes Kragh on all four sides, symbolizing morning, evening, the hotel is noted for its beautiful lobby. Anton Rosen designed the block between the City Hall Square and Mikkel Bryggers Gade where the Grand Cinema is now located.
It was heritage listed in 1985, Palace Hotel is owned and operated by Scandic Hotels but marketed under the Summit Hotels and Resorts brand. It has 162 rooms,40 of which have balconies overlooking the City Hall Square, other facilities include five conference rooms and a restaurant and cocktail bar on the ground floor. The hotel has been used as a location in the films Dorte, Hendes store aften, Mariannes bryllup, Official site Official hotel page at Scandic Hotels site A modern History of Palace Hotel Copenhagen, book about the hotel Images from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station
Enghave Brygge is a waterfront area in the Souterhn Docklands of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located between Teglholmen to the south and Kalvebod Brygge to the north, currently an abandoned industrial site, a plan for its redevelopment was adopted in July 2013. The most prominent landmark in the area is the H. C, the land is owned by NPV A/S, JM Danmark samt By & Havn. The plan for the area has created by Juul Frost Arkitekter, Gröning Arkitekter. The area will comprise 2,400 apartments and about 37.800 square metres of commercial and retail space. A central element in the plan is the creation of a 700 metres long canal, Enghave Canal, the buildings along the water will be located on 11 individual islands. A greenspace will mark the transition to H. C, Enghave Brygge will be a station on the planned South Harbour Line of the Copenhagen Metro. Bridges will connect Enghave Brygge to Teglholmen to the south and across the harbor to the part of Islands Brygge
Nimb Hotel, or simply the Nimb, is a five-star boutique hotel in the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen, Denmark. The hotel is located in a building from 1909, built in a Moorish-inspired Historicist style. In 2009, Condé Nast Traveller ranked it as #40 on their list of the best hotels in the world, when Tivoli opened in 1843, there was already a Bazar in Chinese style almost at the site of the current building. It housed a restaurant and shops but burned down in 1862, a new building in the same style was ready the following year. Yje Vazar Building was torn down in 1908 in connection with the construction of Copenhagen Central Station, the existing building was built close to the original site, this time designed by architect and Tivoli director Knud Arne Petersen in Moorish style. The building took its name from Wilhelm and Louise Nimb, who had created a restaurant dynasty in Copenhagen and they were brought in by Tivoli to manage the restaurant Divan 2, which still exists. Under their supervision, it gained popularity and became a favoured hang-out for the citys establishment.
The couples two daughters and Serina, were brought up to part in the family business. Later the building housed various establishments but kept its name, before undergoing major renovation and reopening in 2008 as the Nimb Hotel, in October 2015 Nimb was awarded Hotel of the Year by Small Luxury Hotels from 520 hotels across 82 countries around the world
A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest services and facilities, Hotel rooms are usually numbered to allow guests to identify their room. Some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms, some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food, in Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities. The precursor to the hotel was the inn of medieval Europe. For a period of about 200 years from the mid-17th century, inns began to cater to richer clients in the mid-18th century. One of the first hotels in a sense was opened in Exeter in 1768. Hotels proliferated throughout Western Europe and North America in the early 19th century, Hotel operations vary in size and cost. Most hotels and major hospitality companies have set standards to classify hotel types. Full service hotels often contain upscale full-service facilities with a number of full service accommodations, an on-site full service restaurant.
Boutique hotels are independent, non-branded hotels that often contain upscale facilities. Small to medium-sized hotel establishments offer a limited amount of on-site amenities, economy hotels are small to medium-sized hotel establishments that offer basic accommodations with little to no services. Extended stay hotels are small to medium-sized hotels that offer full service accommodations compared to a traditional hotel. Timeshare and destination clubs are a form of property ownership involving ownership of a unit of accommodation for seasonal usage. A motel is a small-sized low-rise lodging with direct access to rooms from the car park. Boutique hotels are typically hotels with an environment or intimate setting. A number of hotels have entered the public consciousness through popular culture, some hotels are built specifically as a destination in itself, for example at casinos and holiday resorts. The organizational chart and volume of job positions and hierarchy varies by size and class
Vesterbros Torv is a public square located at the corner of Vesterbrogade and Gasværksvej in the heart of the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is dominated by Elijahs Church, the square was established in 1850. Its triangular shape of the space was determined by a series of walks which used to be located at the site. The two buildings which flank Elijahs Church date from the establishment of the square, the church was completed as an infill in 1907. It is designed by Martin Nyrop, the theatre was inaugurated in 1908 and is built to a design which mixes Art Nouveaux with other styles. The Hercules Fountain dates from 1915 and was a gift from the society Hovedstadens forskønnelse and it was designed by the sculptor Rasmus Harboe who had previously created the reliefs on the facade of Elijahs Church. 55A commemorates the World War II resistance fighter Erik Koch Michelsen and he was shot at the site on 3 March 1945. In 1901 city architect Ludvig Fenger fitted the square with underground lavatories, similar facilities were constructed at the City Hall Square and Nyhavn
Carlsberg is an area located straddling the border of Valby and Vesterbro districts in central Copenhagen, Denmark approximately 2.4 km from the City Hall Square. The area emerged when J. C. Jacobsen founded his brewery in the district in 1847. The first brewing took place on November 11,1847, and production took place continuously ever since, until October 30,2008, the Jacobsen House Brewery is however still located in the district and produces specialty beers. The entire brewery grounds spread over more than 30 hectares and is currently being transformed into a new city district in Copenhagen, the area is dominated by numerous historic and restored 19th- and early 20th-century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse, Italianate villas and a museum, after the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and it will feature ten slim towers.
The planned district will aim at sustainability and an urban life. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival, Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north, in search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsens brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King, construction of the new brewery started in January 1847 and the first batch of beer was brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsbergs main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy was inaugurated in 1853, in 1857 the brewery was devastated by a fire but the buildings were rebuilt the same year. In 1870 the brewery was extended with a brewery, which was leased by J. C. Jacobsens son Carl Jacobsen after disagreements with his father, Jacobsen established the Carlsberg Foundation and the Carlsberg Laboratory. Jacobsen terminated his sons lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises, with his fathers consent he named it Ny Carlsberg, while Carlsbergs name was changed to Gammel Carlsberg.
Jacobsen died and his Carlsberg Foundation inherited his brewery, over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1892 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building, in 1902, Carl Jacobsen founded the Ny Carlsberg Foundation as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation, resulting in common ownership. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they were merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries
Meatpacking District, Copenhagen
The Meatpacking District is a district of Vesterbro in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is situated between the lines going into Copenhagen Central Station and the street Sønder Boulevard. The modern English-language name Meatpacking District is taken from the Meatpacking District in New York, the district consists of three separate areas, referred to as the White and Brown Kødby for the dominant colour of their buildings. The brown part is the oldest area, closest to the Central Station and it has since c.2000 been changed into a new creative cluster with galleries, art cafés, nightlife and small creative businesses like studios and architecture firms in the historical buildings. It is home to DGI-byen, a sports and conference complex, the newer white area is a 400 ×600 m enclave of white modernistic structures, built in 1934 to the design of city architect Poul Holsøe. A municipal master plan aims at creating an area, encouraging cultural, design. In 1671 a cattle market was established at the initiative of Court Butcher Niels Olufsen at the border of Frederiksberg.
Called Trommesalen because it was opened to the sound of a drum in the morning, in 1878, due to shortage of space and fear of cholera epidemics, the City decided to construct a new cattle market. A municipal committee suggested a location at Kalvebod Beach, which at the time was situated where the square Halmtorvet is today, the site was located on the grounds of a large estate which the city had acquired from the Royal Copenhagen Shooting Society in 1870. The new cattle market was constructed partly on an area occupied by shooting ranges. The new market opened on 28 November 1879, planned and designed by architect Hans Jørgen Holm, the market, stretching from Halmtorvet to the gasworks harbour, was dissected by a broad internal road lined with cattle stables, sheep pens and dealers offices on both sides. In 1883, three slaughterhouse for cattle were constructed and a slaughterhouse for pigs and two slaughterhouses for cattle and lambs were added, the market area housed cooling houses and various rendering businesses like tallow melting houses and blood dryers producing blood meal.
Mandatory meat control was introduced, requiring all fresh meat coming into the city to be inspected and stamped. In 1901, the market was extended with construction of Øksnehallen. It housed dealers offices and had a capacity for 1600 head of cattle, the extension included new pens for cattle and sheep and was built by city architect L. P. Fenger. With no vacant space at the market area, the new market hall was placed on reclaimed land where the Falck Headquarters is today. On April 15,1910, the a new complex was inaugurated, besides a 6,500 m² market hall, it included a cooling house and administration. From that date all trade in pork at Gammeltorv was prohibited
Curtain wall (architecture)
A curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep the weather out and the occupants in. As the curtain wall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material, when glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advantage is that natural light can penetrate deeper within the building. The curtain wall façade does not carry any dead load weight from the other than its own dead load weight. The wall transfers horizontal wind loads that are incident upon it to the building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building. A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, sway induced by wind and seismic forces acting on the building, curtain-wall systems are typically designed with extruded aluminum members, although the first curtain walls were made of steel. The aluminium frame is infilled with glass, which provides an architecturally pleasing building. However, parameters related to solar gain control such as thermal comfort, other common infills include, stone veneer, metal panels and operable windows or vents.
Buildings were constructed with the walls of the building supporting the load of the entire structure. The exterior walls could be non-load-bearing and thus much lighter and more open than the masonry load-bearing walls of the past and this gave way to increased use of glass as an exterior façade, and the modern-day curtain wall was born. Oriel Chambers and 16 Cook Street, both built in Liverpool, England, by architect and civil engineer Peter Ellis, are characterised by their extensive use of glass in their facades. Towards the courtyards they even boasted metal-framed glass curtain walls, which makes two of the worlds first buildings to include this structural feature. The extensive glass walls allowed light to penetrate further into the building, utilizing more floor space, oriel Chambers comprises 43,000 sq ft set over five floors without an elevator which had only recently been invented and was not yet widespread. An early example of a curtain wall used in the classical style is the Kaufhaus Tietz department store on Leipziger Straße, Berlin.
Some of the first curtain walls were made with steel mullions, eventually silicone sealants or glazing tape were substituted, using a glass mullion system. Some designs included a cap to hold the glass in place. The first curtain wall installed in New York City, in the Lever House building, was this type of construction, earlier modernist examples are the Bauhaus in Dessau and the Hallidie Building in San Francisco. During the 1970s began the use of aluminium extrusions for mullions. Aluminum offers the advantage of being able to be easily extruded into nearly any shape required for design
Copenhagen Admiral Hotel
Admiral Hotel is a hotel in central Copenhagen, located on the waterfront between the mouth of the Nyhavn canal and the royal residence Amalienborg Palace. The building is a former warehouse, the buildings were completed in 1787 to designs by engineering officer Ernst Peymann. They were taken over by the Crown in 1788 and came into use as grainaries, the two buildings were connected in 1885, creating the long building seen today. The building stored up to 30,000 barrels of grain, the building was acquired by private investors in 1973 for redevelopment as a hotel. The architects Flemming Hertz and Ole Ramsgaard Thomsen undertook the conversion which was rewarded with an Nostra diploma from the European Union, the hotel opened its foors in January 1978. The main entrance is on Toldbodgade, the hotel is surrounded by the Royal Playhouse and Sankt Annæ Plads to the south, Amalienborg to the west and Amalie Garden to the north. It contains facilities and SALT restaurant & bar which was designed by London-based Conran & Partner.
Official website Pictures of Copenhagen Admiral Hotel on flickr. com
Havneholmen is a mixed-use development located on reclaimed land off Kalvebod Brygge in the harbor of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located just east of the shopping centre Fisketorvet from which it is separated by a narrow canal, Havneholmen is connected to Islands Brygge on the other side of the harbor by Brygge Bridge, a foot and cycling bridge. Tømmergraven Canal deparates it from Enghave Brygge to the south, the area was formerly known as Kalvebod Pladsvej and was an industrial site. The plan for its redevelopment was adopted by the City in 2003, a masterplan for the area was created by Gert Wingårdh and construction began in 2006. The development comprises about 91,000 square metres of buildings and it consists of a mixture of housing, offices and a hotel. The Havneholmen Housing Estate was built by Sjælsø Group between 2005 and 2009 and it was designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg and received the RIBA European Award in 2001. Another residential project, consisting of 148 apartments distributed on four buildings in a fan-like arrangement perpendicular to the water, is designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen Arkitekter, Aller House is the headquarters of Aller Media and was designed by PLH Arkitekter.
376-roomm Hotel Copenhagen Island is located on its own island and it was designed by Kim Utzon for the Arp-Hansen Hotel Group. Havneholmen Atrium and Havneholmen Towers were designed by Wingårdh, the nearest S-train station is Dybbølsbro station. The station is served by the A, B, C, E and H trains, nearby bus lines include 1A which travls along Ingerslevsgade on the other side of the railway tracks on its way to Kongens Nytorv. The super bikeway Søruten connects Havneholmen and the Brygge Bridge to Østerbrogade along the west side of The Lakes, on the other side of the harbor, the Lake Route connects to Universitetsruten and Havneruten, which continues to University of Copenhagens Søndre Campus and along the harbourfront respectively. The new bicycle bridge Cykelslangen, opened at Havneholmen in 2014 to ensure fast, the structure was designed by Dissing + Weitling