L'Anse aux Meadows

L'Anse aux Meadows is an archaeological site on the northernmost tip of the Great Northern Peninsula on the island of Newfoundland in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archaeological evidence of a Norse presence was discovered at L'Anse aux Meadows in the 1960s, it is the only confirmed Norse or Viking site in or near North America outside of the settlements found in Greenland. Dating to c. 1000, L'Anse aux Meadows is accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact. It is notable for its possible connection with Leif Erikson, with the Norse exploration of North America, it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1978. L'Anse aux Meadows is a French-English name. How the village itself came to be named "L'Anse aux Meadows" is debated. One possibility is that "L'Anse aux Meadows" is a corruption of the French designation L'Anse aux Méduses, which means "Jellyfish Cove"; the shift from Méduses to "Meadows" may have occurred because the landscape in the area tends to be open, with meadows..

A more recent supposition is that it is derived from "L'Anse a la Médée", or "The Medea's Cove", the name it bears on an 1862 French naval chart. Whether Medea or Medusa, it is possible. Before the Norse arrived in Newfoundland, there is evidence of aboriginal occupations in the area of L'Anse aux Meadows, the oldest dated at 6,000 years ago. None were contemporaneous with the Norse occupation; the most prominent of these earlier occupations was by the Dorset people, who predated the Norse by about 200 years. The Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows has been dated to 1,000 years ago, an assessment that tallies with the relative dating of artifact and structure types. Today the area consists of open, grassy lands, but 1000 years ago, there were forests that were convenient for boat-building, house-building and iron extraction; the remains of eight buildings were found. They are believed to have been constructed of sod placed over a wooden frame. Based on associated artifacts, the buildings were identified as workshops.

The largest dwelling consisted of several rooms. Three small buildings may have been workshops or living quarters for lower-status crew or slaves. Workshops were identified as an iron smithy containing a forge and iron slag, a carpentry workshop, which generated wood debris and a specialized boat repair area containing worn rivets. Other things found at the site consisted of common everyday Norse items, including a stone oil lamp, a whetstone, a bronze fastening pin, a bone knitting needle and part of a spindle. Stone weights, which were found in building G, may have been part of a loom; the presence of the spindle and needle suggests. There is no way of knowing; the entire population of Greenland at the time was about 2,500, meaning that the L'Anse aux Meadows site was less than 10 percent of the Norse settlement on Greenland. As Julian D. Richards notes: "It seems unlikely that the Norse had sufficient resources to construct a string of such settlements."Food remains included butternuts, which are significant because they do not grow north of New Brunswick.

Their presence indicates the Norse inhabitants traveled farther south to obtain them. There is evidence to suggest; these included caribou, fox, lynx, all types of birds and fish, seal and walrus. This area is no longer rich in game due in large part to the harsh winters; this forces the game to either hibernate or venture south as the wind, deep snow, sheets of ice cover the area. These losses made the harsh winters difficult for the Norse people at L'Anse aux Meadows; this lack of game supports archaeologists' beliefs that the site was inhabited by the Norse for a short time. Eleanor Barraclough, a lecturer in medieval history and literature at Durham University, suggests the site was not a permanent settlement, instead a temporary boat repair facility, she notes there are no findings of burials, agriculture or animal pens—suggesting the inhabitants abandoned the site in an orderly fashion. According to a 2019 PNAS study, there may have been Norse activity in L'Anse aux Meadows for as long as a century.

Adam of Bremen, a German cleric, was the first European to mention Vinland. In a text he composed around 1073, he wrote that He told me of another island discovered by many in that ocean, it is called Vinland because vines grow there on their own accord, producing the most excellent wine. Moreover, that unsown crops abound there, we have ascertained not from fabulous conjecture but from the reliable reports of the Danes; this excerpt is from a history Adam composed of the archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen who held ecclesiastical authority over Scandinavia at the time. Norse sagas are written versions of older oral traditions. Two Icelandic sagas called the Saga of the Greenlanders and the Saga of Erik the Red, describe the experiences of Norse Greenlanders who discovered and attempted to settle land to the west of Greenland, which they called Vinland; the sagas suggest that the Vinland settlement failed because of conflicts within the Norse community, as well as between the Norse and the native people they encountered, whom they called Skrælingar.

Modern archaeological studi


Everberg is a town in the Belgian province Flemish-Brabant and is part of the municipality of Kortenberg. The territory covers an area of 925 ha; the neighbouring towns or municipalities are Leefdaal, Erps-Kwerps, Sterrebeek and Tervuren. A small hamlet, called Vrebos, can be found in Everberg. During the Roman era an important Roman road Bruges-Cologne ran through Everberg. Countless implements have been found on this Roman road; the earliest records on Everberg are dated from a charter from the year 1112. Everberg was spelled as Eversberg. In this document from 1112 it is mentioned that Bishop Odo of Cambrai donated the altar of Everberg to the Xenodochium or the Guesthouse of Leuven; the patron of the church, Saint Martin, is a reference to the old age of the church of Everberg, which goes back to the 8th century. According to some, Everberg would have been the main parish of the area, from which other parishes have been founded; the Guesthouse of Leuven was established by Count of Louvain. This Guesthouse received the tithes of Everberg.

In the following centuries, Everberg was described "as the pantry of the Guesthouse of Leuven". The act of 1112 is the oldest act of the Guesthouse; the Mistress of the Guesthouse had the right to propose the priest of Everberg. The priests were appointed by the Bishop of Cambrai on by the Bishop of Mechelen; the Guesthouse gained its income from the tithes in Everberg. They were responsible for the repairs of the church and the presbytery; the tithes were collected in a tithe barn, the large barn of the Guesthouse's courtyard. The priest of Everberg received an annual salary. At the church itself two chapels were connected, the Chapel of Souls and the Chapel of Saint John and Our Lady. At the end of the 19th century, the church dedication was expanded to Saint Martin and Saint Ludovicus; the latter was the patron saint of count Louis de Mérode, who donated significant sums for restoration of the church by H. Beyaert and Hankas; the de Merode castle is a reconstruction of the court of Montenaken.

The court of Montenaken was only about a few hundred meters away from the castle. The de Merode castle was built in the 16th century and contains three separate buildings: the residence, a building for the animals and a building for employees and the stabling of the carriages; when Louise-Brigitte married Filips-Frans de Merode, the castle became property of the de Merode family. The influences of the family de Merode were of great significance among other things because they managed a large part of the forest and the estates and participated in church and administrative policy in the village. On this day the family de Merode still lives in the castle; the domain is regarded among the surrounding forest. The gamekeeper's house lies alongside the cobbled Princes Lane in Everberg and was built around 1770; the house was more familiar as the New Hostel. This house was rented. Art historians described it as an 18th-century house in provincial regency style. In the end of the 19th century the house became the gamekeeper's house of de Merode Castle.

The latter is the owner of the house as well. The gamekeeper's house is known in Everberg as the previous house of'Jef van Vinus' or Jozef Meersman, the actual gamekeeper. Today this house is uninhabited; the church of Saint Martin of Tours was built in Romanesque style. The lower part of the tower is the proof of that; the church was, as most churches, a place of prayer for the local community. The church was therefore a community church, not an independent court church. St. Martin's church can be found in the center of Everberg. In the church itself a relic shrine of Saint Martin has its own place. In the 14th century a Late Gothic choir with Brabant buttresses and the northern transept with the Our Lady Chapel, has been added. During the 17th century, the upper part of the tower was rebuilt. In 1773, plans were made by J. B. De Ronde to enlarge the church; the church was in a disastrous condition during the 19th century. Countess Louise de Merode, sister-in-law of Count Amaury de Merode, donated 71.000 Belgian francs in 1881 to make a restoration possible.

The new church was finished in 1893. The actual construction was executed under supervision of Paul Hankar and Hendrik Beyaert, the architects; the farmstead, Biest Court, is located on the corner of the roads Bankstraat. For years it was the castle farmstead of the de Merode Castle. A'biest' was a place where grass-like rushes grew, a moist piece of puddle; this farmstead was built adjacent to such a biest. It contained two residences which have been put together in the 14th century. Above the entrance, the number 1647 is mentioned, which refers to the construction year of the farmstead as we know it today. At the end of the 17th century, the Princes de Rubempré got hold of the ownership. During the 19th century, two mayors used to live there and it was a free school for a certain time. More a number restoration works have been executed. Today the Biest Court continues being a farmstead. In 1564, a play house or little castle was located in the Kwikstraat: the van Grave Court; the van Grave family has always been an important noble family, starting during the Middle Ages.

Maria-Anna van Grave married Juste-Philibert de Baron of Herent. By inheritance, the Counts de Gage and the van der Linden family, Barons d'Hoogvorst, became the rightful owners of the castle. At the end of the 18th century

U.S.D. Arre Bagnoli Candiana ABC

U. S. D. Arre Bagnoli Candiana ABC is an Italian association football club located in Bagnoli di Sopra and represents the cities of Bagnoli di Sopra and Candiana; the team was founded in 1967 as U. S. Bagnoli. In the 1984–1985 season, played in Serie D. In the 2005, after the merger between U. S. Bagnoli and San Siro Calcio, changed its name to U. S. D. Bagnoli San Siro. Subsequently, changed its name to A. S. D. Bagnoli Calcio 1967. In the summer of 2018, the A. S. D. Bagnoli Calcio 1967, merges with Ciaobio Arre football team, creating the new football club, U. S. D. Arre Bagnoli Candiana ABC, which represents the cities of Bagnoli di Sopra and Candiana, its colors are orange. Official site Official old site History of the A. S. D. Bagnoli Calcio 1967 on official old site