Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain known as Philippe Pétain, Marshal Pétain and The Old Marshal, was a French Nazi collaborator and general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944. Pétain, 84 years old in 1940, ranks as France's oldest head of state. During World War I Pétain led the French Army to victory at the nine-month-long Battle of Verdun. After the failed Nivelle Offensive and subsequent mutinies he was appointed Commander-in-Chief and succeeded in repairing the army's confidence. Pétain emerged as a national hero. During the interwar period he was head of the peacetime French Army, commanded joint Franco-Spanish operations during the Rif War and served twice as a government Minister. With the imminent Fall of France in June 1940 in World War II, Pétain was appointed Prime Minister of France by President Lebrun at Bordeaux, the Cabinet resolved to make peace with Germany.
The entire government subsequently moved to Clermont-Ferrand to the spa town of Vichy in central France. His government voted to transform the discredited French Third Republic into the French State, an authoritarian regime that collaborated with the Nazis and the Axis Powers. After the war, Pétain was convicted for treason, he was sentenced to death, but due to his age and World War I service his sentence was commuted to life in prison and he died in 1951. Pétain was born in Cauchy-à-la-Tour in 1856, his father, Omer-Venant, was a farmer. His great-uncle, a Catholic priest, Father Abbe Lefebvre, had served in Napoleon's Grande Armée and told the young Pétain tales of war and adventure of his campaigns from the peninsulas of Italy to the Alps in Switzerland. Impressed by the tales told by his uncle, his destiny was from on determined. Pétain was a bachelor until his sixties, known for his womanising. Women were said to find his piercing blue eyes attractive. After World War I Pétain married his former girlfriend, Eugénie Hardon, "a beautiful woman", on 14 September 1920.
After rejecting Pétain's first marriage proposal, Hardon had married and divorced François de Hérain by 1914 when she was 35. At the opening of the Battle of Verdun in 1916, Pétain is said to have been fetched during the night from a Paris hotel by a staff officer who knew that he could be found with Eugénie Hardon, she had no children by Pétain but had a son from her first marriage, Pierre de Hérain, whom Pétain disliked. Pétain joined the French Army in 1876 and attended the St Cyr Military Academy in 1887 and the École Supérieure de Guerre in Paris. Between 1878 and 1899, he served in various garrisons with different battalions of the Chasseurs à pied, the elite light infantry of the French Army. Thereafter, he alternated between regimental assignments. Pétain's career progressed as he rejected the French Army philosophy of the furious infantry assault, arguing instead that "firepower kills", his views were proved to be correct during the First World War. He was promoted to captain in 1890 and major in 1900.
Unlike many French officers, he served in mainland France, never French Indochina or any of the African colonies, although he participated in the Rif campaign in Morocco. As colonel, he commanded the 33rd Infantry Regiment at Arras from 1911. In the spring of 1914, he was given command of a brigade. However, aged 58 and having been told he would never become a general, Pétain had bought a villa for retirement. Pétain led his brigade at the Battle of Guise. At the end of August 1914 he was promoted to brigadier-general and given command of the 6th Division in time for the First Battle of the Marne. After leading his corps in the spring 1915 Artois Offensive, in July 1915 he was given command of the Second Army, which he led in the Champagne Offensive that autumn, he acquired a reputation as one of the more successful commanders on the Western Front. Pétain commanded the Second Army at the start of the Battle of Verdun in February 1916. During the battle, he was promoted to Commander of Army Group Centre, which contained a total of 52 divisions.
Rather than holding down the same infantry divisions on the Verdun battlefield for months, akin to the German system, he rotated them out after only two weeks on the front lines. His decision to organise truck transport over the "Voie Sacrée" to bring a continuous stream of artillery and fresh troops into besieged Verdun played a key role in grinding down the German onslaught to a final halt in July 1916. In effect, he applied the basic principle, a mainstay of his teachings at the École de Guerre before World War I: "le feu tue!" or "firepower kills!"—in this case meaning French field artillery, which fired over 15 million shells on the Germans during the first five months of the battle. Although Pétain did say "On les aura!", the other famous quotation attributed to him – "Ils ne passeront pas!" – was uttered by
Liberation of Paris
The Liberation of Paris was a military battle that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944. Paris had been ruled by Nazi Germany since the signing of the Second Compiègne Armistice on 22 June 1940, after which the Wehrmacht occupied northern and western France; the liberation began when the French Forces of the Interior—the military structure of the French Resistance—staged an uprising against the German garrison upon the approach of the US Third Army, led by General George Patton. On the night of 24 August, elements of General Philippe Leclerc's 2nd French Armored Division made their way into Paris and arrived at the Hôtel de Ville shortly before midnight; the next morning, 25 August, the bulk of the 2nd Armored Division and US 4th Infantry Division entered the city. Dietrich von Choltitz, commander of the German garrison and the military governor of Paris, surrendered to the French at the Hôtel Meurice, the newly established French headquarters.
General Charles de Gaulle arrived to assume control of the city as head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic. It was a major turning point in leading the resistance into Germany. Although the Allied strategy emphasized destroying German forces retreating towards the Rhine, the French Forces of the Interior, led by, staged an uprising in. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Supreme Commander of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force, did not consider the liberation of Paris to be a primary objective; the goal of the U. S. and British Army was to destroy the German forces, therefore end World War II in Europe, which would allow the Allies to concentrate all their efforts on the Pacific front. Eisenhower stated, he was aware that Adolf Hitler had ordered the German military to destroy the city in the event of an Allied attack. Eisenhower was keen to avoid a drawn-out battle of attrition, such as the Battle of Stalingrad or the Siege of Leningrad, it was estimated that, in the event of a siege, 4,000 short tons of food per day, as well as significant amounts of building materials and engineering skill, would be required to feed the population after the liberation of Paris.
Basic utilities would have to be restored, transportation systems rebuilt. All these supplies were needed in other areas of the war effort. De Gaulle was concerned that military rule by Allied forces would be implemented in France with the implementation of the Allied Military Government for Occupied Territories; this administration, planned by the American Chiefs of Staff had been approved by US President Franklin Roosevelt but had been opposed by Eisenhower. General Charles de Gaulle of the French Army, upon seeing the French Resistance having risen up against the German occupiers, unwilling to allow his countrymen to be slaughtered as was happening to the Polish Resistance in the Warsaw Uprising, petitioned for an immediate frontal assault, he threatened to detach the French 2nd Armored Division and order them to single-handedly attack Paris, bypassing the SHAEF chain of command. On 15 August, in the northeastern suburb of Pantin, 1,654 men, 546 women, all political prisoners, were sent to the concentration camps of Buchenwald and Ravensbrück, on what was to be the last convoy to Germany.
Pantin had been the area of Paris from which the Germans had entered the capital in June 1940. That same day, employees of the Paris Métro, the Gendarmerie, Police went on strike, they were soon joined by workers across the city, causing a general strike to break out on 18 August. On 16 August, 35 young FFI members were betrayed by a certain Capitaine Serge, a double agent of the Gestapo, they had gone to a secret meeting near the Grande Cascade in the Bois de Boulogne and were gunned down there. On 17 August, concerned that the Germans were placing explosives at strategic points around the city, Pierre Taittinger, the chairman of the municipal council, met Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris; when Choltitz told them that he intended to slow the Allied advance as much as possible and Swedish consul Raoul Nordling attempted to persuade Choltitz not to destroy Paris. All over France, from the BBC and the Radiodiffusion nationale the population knew of the Allies' advance toward Paris after the end of the battle of Normandy.
RN had been in the hands of the Vichy propaganda minister, Philippe Henriot, since November 1942 until de Gaulle took it over in the Ordonnance,On 19 August, continuing their retreat eastwards, columns of German vehicles moved down the Champs Élysées. Posters calling citizens to arm had been pasted on walls by FFI members; these posters called for a general mobilization of the Parisians, arguing that "the war continues". Other posters assured that "victory is near" and promised "chastisement for the traitors", i.e. Vichy loyalists, collaborators; the posters were signed by the "Parisian Committee of the Liberation", in agreement with the Provisional Government of the Fr
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Mystery of the Yellow Room
The Mystery of the Yellow Room is a mystery novel written by French author Gaston Leroux. One of the first locked-room mystery novels, it was first published serially in France in the periodical L'Illustration from September 1907 to November 1907 in its own right in 1908, it is the first novel starring fictional reporter Joseph Rouletabille and concerns a complex, impossible, crime in which the criminal appears to disappear from a locked room. Leroux provides the reader with detailed, precise diagrams and floorplans illustrating the crime scene; the emphasis of the story is on the intellectual challenge to the reader, who will certainly be hard pressed to unravel every detail of the situation. The novel finds its continuation in The Perfume of the Lady in Black, wherein a number of the characters familiar from this story reappear. Reporter and amateur sleuth Joseph Rouletabille is sent to investigate a criminal case at the Château du Glandier and takes along his friend the lawyer Sainclair, who narrates.
Mathilde Stangerson, the 30-something daughter of the castle's owner, Professor Joseph Stangerson, was found near-critically battered in a room adjacent to his laboratory on the castle grounds, with the door still locked from the inside. She recovers but can make no useful testimony. Rouletabille meets and interrogates several characters: the castle's concierges Mr & Mrs Bernier, the old servant Jacques, an unfriendly inn landlord and a womanising gamekeeper, begins a friendly rivalry with France's top police detective Frédéric Larsan, assigned the case. Larsan suspects Ms Stangerson's fiancé, another scientist called Robert Darzac, to Rouletabille's dismay. More attempts are made on Ms Stangerson's life despite Rouletabille and Larsan's protection, the perpetrator appears to vanish on two occasions when they are closing in on him, echoing Professor's Stangerson's research into "matter dissociation"; the game-keeper is murdered during the second attempt. Larsan arrests Darzac, charged with murder attempts.
Rouletabille suspects that Darzac has secret reasons not to defend himself and he disappears to make further investigations. Two-and-a-half months as Darzac's trial opens, Rouletabille reappears sensationally and tells the court that the culprit is Frédéric Larsan himself, whom he accuses of being an alter-ego of a master criminal called Ballmeyer. Larsan appeared to vanish on the two occasions he was nearly collared. Darzac is released when it emerges that Larsan has vanished after Rouletabille warned him he would accuse him in court; the mystery of the locked Yellow Room is explained thus: Larsan assaulted Ms Stangerson earlier in the day than thought, but she hid the traces of the attack and locked herself away. During the night, traumatised by the event, she fell off her bed and inflicted the gravest of the wounds by hitting her temple on the corner of her bed-side table; the background to these events is kept secret in court but explained by Sainclair. Ballmeyer, in a different guise, had seduced Ms Stangerson in her youth and married her secretly in the United States.
They had a child before he was arrested and his identity revealed to her. Ms Stangerson had arranged for her son's care and education and hidden the whole saga from her father. Ballmeyer however, hearing that she was engaged, had decided to reappear in her life and claim her as his wife once more, by force if necessary. Joseph Rouletabille – the young journalist and amateur detective, protagonist Jean Sainclair – Rouletabille's friend and lawyer, the narrator Frédéric Larsan – the police detective Professor Stangerson – the scientist, owner of "Chateau du Glandier" Mlle. Mathilde Stangerson – daughter of a famous scientist, the victim "Daddy" Jacques – an old servant in the Stangerson family John Dickson Carr, the master of locked-room mystery, has his detective Dr. Gideon Fell declare this the "best detective tale written", in his novel The Hollow Man. Agatha Christie admired the novel and in her early years said she would like to try writing such a book. In a 1981 poll by Edward D. Hoch of 17 mystery writers and reviewers, this novel was voted the third-best locked-room mystery of all time, behind Hake Talbot's Rim of the Pit and John Dickson Carr's The Hollow Man.
Film and TV: The Mystery of the Yellow Room Mystère de la chambre jaune, Le on IMDb El misterio del cuarto amarillo on IMDb The Mystery of the Yellow Room Mystère de la chambre jaune, Le on IMDb The Mystery of the Yellow Room An episode of Jonathan Creek features a stage adaptation of the novel and centres around a similar event happening to one of its actors. Radio: Gaston Leroux — The Mystery of the Yellow Room, BBC Radio 4, 1998, starring Nicholas Boulton and Geoffrey Whitehead 1907, France, L'illustration, Pub date? September 1907—? November 1907, magazine serial 1908, Editions Jacques Lafitte, Pub date?? 1908, hardback 1934, UK, Oxford University Press, Pub date? December 1934, paperback 1977, UK, Dover Publications, Pub date? April 1977, paperback 1978, UK, Pub date 25 August 1978, hardback 1996, US, Books on Tape, Pub date? January 1996, audio book 1996, US, Buccaneer Books, Pub date? June 1996, hardback 1997, UK, Dedalus Ltd, Pub date 10 August 1997, paperback 2002, US, Indypublish.com, Pub date 1 August 2002, paperback 2002, US
The Révolution nationale was the official ideological program promoted by the Vichy regime, established in July 1940 and led by Marshal Philippe Pétain. Pétain's regime was characterized by anti-parliamentarism, rejection of the constitutional separation of powers, personality cultism and state-sponsored anti-Semitism, promotion of traditional values, rejection of modernity and opposition to the theory of class conflict. Despite its name, the ideological project was more reactionary than revolutionary as it opposed most changes introduced to French society by the French Revolution; as soon as it was established, Pétain’s government took measures against the “undesirables”, namely Jews, métèques and Communists. The persecution of these four groups was inspired by Charles Maurras’ concept of the “Anti-France”, or “internal foreigners”, which he defined as the “four confederate states of Protestants, Jews and foreigners”; the regime persecuted Gypsies and left-wing activists in general. Vichy imitated the racial policies of the Third Reich and engaged in natalist policies aimed at reviving the “French race”, although these policies never went as far as the eugenics program implemented by the Nazis.
The ideology of the French State was an adaptation of the ideas of the French far-right by a crisis government, born out of the defeat of France against Nazi Germany. It included: The conflation of legislative and executive powers: the Constitutional Acts drafted by Marshal Pétain on 11 July 1940 gave to him "more powers than to Louis XIV", including that of drafting a new Constitution. Anti-parliamentarism and rejection of the multi-party system. Personality cultism: Marshal Pétain’s portrait was omnipresent, printed on money, walls or represented in sculptures. A song to his glory, Maréchal, nous voilà!, became the unofficial national anthem. Obedience to the leader and to the hierarchy was exalted. Corporatism, with the establishment of a Labour Charter. Stigmatization of those seen as responsible for the military defeat, expressed in particular during the Riom Trial: the Third Republic, in particular the Popular Front, Jews, etc; the defendants of the Riom Trial included Blum, Édouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud, Georges Mandel and Maurice Gamelin.
State-sponsored anti-Semitism. Jews, national or not, were excluded from the Nation, prohibited from working in public services; the first Statute on Jews was promulgated on 3 October 1940. Thousands of naturalized Jews were deprived of their citizenship, while all Jews were forced to wear a yellow badge. A numerus clausus drastically limited their presence at the University, among physicians, filmmakers, bankers or small traders. Soon the list of off-limits works was increased. In less than a year, more than half of the Jewish population in France was deprived of any means of subsistence. Foreign Jews first all Jews were at first detained in concentration camps in France, before being deported to Drancy internment camp where they were sent to Nazi concentration camps. “Organicism” and rejection of class conflict. Promotion of traditional values; the Republican motto of “Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité” was replaced by the conservative motto of “Labour, Fatherland”. Rejection of cultural modernism and of intellectual and urban elites.
Policy of “return to the earth”. None of these changes were forced on France by Germany; the Vichy government instituted them voluntarily as part of the National Revolution, while Germany interfered little in internal French affairs for the first two years after the armistice as long as public order was maintained. It was suspicious of the aspects of the National Revolution that encouraged French patriotism, banned Vichy veteran and youth groups from the Occupied Zone; the Révolution nationale attracted three groups of persons. The Pétainistes gathered those who supported the personal figure of Marshal Pétain, considered at that time a war hero of the Battle of Verdun; the Collaborateurs include those who collaborated with Nazi Germany or advocated collaboration, but who are considered more moderate, or more opportunistic, than the Collaborationistes, advocates of a French fascism. Supports of collaboration were not supporters of the National Revolution, vice versa. Pierre Laval was a collaborationist but was dubious about the National Revolution, while others like Maxime Weygand opposed collaboration but supported the National Revolution because they believed that reforming France would help it avenge its defeat.
Those who supported the ideology of the National Revolution rather than the person of Pétain himself could be divided, in general, into three groups: the counter-revolutionary reactionaries. The last current would include opportunists such as the journalist Jean Luchaire who saw in the new regime career opportunities; the “Reactionaries”, in the strict sense of the word: all those who dreamt of a return to "before", either:before 1936 before 1870 and the Thir
Albert Rudomine was a French photographer best known for his nudes. After a time spent studying Hebrew in New York, Rudomine settled in Paris in 1917, he worked first as a dressmaker before working as a photojournalist for L'Illustration in 1920 and opening a photographic studio in 1923. Collection Christian Bouqueret Bibliothèque nationale de France Cleveland Museum of Art Musée des beaux-arts du Canada Albert Rudomine, Rencontres de la photographie, France, 1983 Vente aux enchères chez Tajan, 2003 Galerie Michèle Chomette, Paris, 2004 Galerie Léon Herschtritt, Paris, 2006 Galerie Johannes Faber, Vienne Biographical note
Édouard Charton was an eminent French literary figure, the founder and, for fifty-five years, editor-in-chief of the publication Magasin pittoresque, in addition to serving for thirty years as director of publication for Hachette. A native of Sens in the Bourgogne région, Édouard Charton trained as a lawyer, receiving his degree at the age of 20, his first great dedication to a cause came two years when, during 1829–31, using his oratorical skills, he became a traveling propagator for the social philosophy of Saint-Simonism, which resulted for him in great disappointment. From his mid-forties onward, he spent many years in politics, serving in the National Assembly as Deputy and Senator, expressing his convictions which formed a continuation and refinement of the previous century's Age of Enlightenment: faith in progress and the emancipation of people through education, he reaffirmed the moral values acquired within his family and found inspiration in the works of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, the mystic who used "Unknown Philosopher" as his nom de plume.
He gathered experience in philanthropy, discovered the problems involved in the social condition of man, tested solutions, worked for what he felt were noble causes, establishing durable and useful friendships with men who shared common ideals. In 1833 he put into effect his ideals of "fighting ignorance" by starting a new publication Le Magasin pittoresque, he was inspired by the British Penny Magazine. He remained at the helm director of the successful enterprise until 1888, past his eightieth birthday. For more than a half-century, he always pursued the same aims, while collecting and writing texts, selecting engravings, supervising the printing and distribution of what he referred to as an "out-of-order encyclopedia". Applying the same rigor and consistency, he chose the best collaborators to propagate practical knowledge while stimulating curiosity and forming artistic tastes. L'Illustration, a renowned pictorial review, created in 1843 on his initiative, lasted a century. In 1860, he embarked upon a working partnership with Louis Hachette and his successors, which would continue for the remaining thirty years of his life.
It gave him the opportunity to reach new readers with the travel and exploration review Le Tour du Monde and the scientific publication Bibliothèque des merveilles. Based on the conviction that man could improve and progress through the acquisition of knowledge, Charton applied his considerable efforts disseminating "practical knowledge" to the greatest number, using his great writing talent only to inform and provide moral guidance. After the French Revolution of 1848, his friend Hippolyte Carnot, appointed the Minister of Public Instruction and Religion, recruited Charton as Secretary General of the Ministry, it was the beginning of his political career. Although an opponent of Napoleon III's 1852 Second Empire, Charton adapted to the circumstances, without denying his Republican convictions, he promoted public reading with the creation of popular libraries, participated in the creation of the Paris Museum of Anthropology and showed throughout his life a consistency of behavior as testified by his friends and two generations of colleagues.
He was described as a man of action able to overcome his anxiety-ridden personal nature. Faithful in friendship, he maintained relations with those who shared his belief in the moral progress of man, whereby the progress of each individual led to the progress of humanity as a whole. In the National Assembly, he remained in the background despite his talents as a speaker; when he did take the floor, it was to raise crucial points speak concerning questions of education, fine arts and the press, as well as to express his opposition to the death penalty. Encouraging his colleagues to reach a consensus, he could remain firm and intransigent on points of principle. During the Second Empire, he turned down the post of director of the Comédie française which would have necessitated swearing an oath to the Emperor. Political misalliances prevented him from attaining what would have been the crowning glories of his life—serving as Head of Administration, or as Minister of Fine Arts, both opportunities to demonstrate his organizational talents.
Édouard Charton died in Versailles at the age of 82. Lagarde-Fouquet, A. and Lagarde, C.. Édouard Charton et le combat contre l'ignorance, 248p. Rennes: Collection Carnot, Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Works by Édouard Charton at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Édouard Charton at Internet Archive Edouard Charton by Annie Lagarde-Fouquet in French Magasin pittoresque in French Le Tour du Monde in French Le Tour du Monde a été fondé par Édouard Charton en 1860 la Bibliothèque des Merveilles in French