Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, a distinct city prior to its 5th century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, industrial, maritime and cultural life in Greece. In 2012, Athens was ranked the world's 39th richest city by purchasing power and the 67th most expensive in a UBS study. Athens is a global one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe.
It has a large financial sector, its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, the second largest in the world. While at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe; the Municipality of Athens had a population of 664,046 within its administrative limits, a land area of 38.96 km2. The urban area of Athens extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 over an area of 412 km2. According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union, with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is the southernmost capital on the European mainland; the heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery.
Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, 108 years it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once. In Ancient Greek, the name of the city was Ἀθῆναι a plural. In earlier Greek, such as Homeric Greek, the name had been current in the singular form though, as Ἀθήνη, it was rendered in the plural on, like those of Θῆβαι and Μυκῆναι.
The root of the word is not of Greek or Indo-European origin, is a remnant of the Pre-Greek substrate of Attica. In antiquity, it was debated whether Athens took its name from its patron goddess Athena or Athena took her name from the city. Modern scholars now agree that the goddess takes her name from the city, because the ending -ene is common in names of locations, but rare for personal names. During the medieval period, the name of the city was rendered once again in the singular as Ἀθήνα. However, after the establishment of the modern Greek state, due to the conservatism of the written language, Ἀθῆναι became again the official name of the city and remained so until the abandonment of Katharevousa in the 1970s, when Ἀθήνα, Athína, became the official name. According to the ancient Athenian founding myth, the goddess of wisdom, competed against Poseidon, the god of the seas, for patronage of the yet-unnamed city. According to the account given by Pseudo-Apollodorus, Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a salt water spring welled up.
In an alternative version of the myth from Vergil's Georgics, Poseidon instead gave the Athenians the first horse. In both versions, Athena offered the Athenians the first domesticated olive tree. Cecrops declared Athena the patron goddess of Athens. Different etymologies, now rejected, were proposed during the 19th century. Christian Lobeck proposed as the root of the name the word ἄθος or ἄνθος meaning "flower", to denote Athens as the "flowering city". Ludwig von Döderlein proposed the stem of the verb θάω, stem θη- to denote Athens as having fertile soil. In classical literature, the city was sometimes referred to as the City of the Violet Crown, first documented in Pindar's ἰοστέφανοι Ἀθᾶναι, or as τὸ κλεινὸν ἄστυ. In medieval texts, variant names include Setines and Astines, all derivations involving false splitting of p
Eurovision Song Contest 1968
The Eurovision Song Contest 1968 was the 13th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in London, United Kingdom, following Sandie Shaw's win at the 1967 contest in Vienna, Austria with the song "Puppet on a String", it was the third time the event took place in the UK. The contest was held at the Royal Albert Hall on Saturday 6 April 1968, was hosted by Katie Boyle. Seventeen countries participated in the contest. No countries returned or withdrew in this edition; the winner was Spain with the song "La, la, la", performed by Massiel, written/composed by Manuel de la Calva and Ramón Arcusa. This was Spain's first victory - and their first top five placing - in the contest. Prior to the contest, the United Kingdom's entry, Cliff Richard with the song "Congratulations", was hotly tipped as the favourite to win, but lost out to Spain's Massiel by a margin of just one point. Spain entered Joan Manuel Serrat to sing "La La La", but his demand to sing in Catalan was an affront to the Francoist State dictatorship.
Serrat was replaced by Massiel, who sang the same song in Spanish. The contest was held at the Royal Albert Hall in London; the Royal Albert Hall is known for hosting the world's leading artists from several performance genres, award ceremonies, the annual summer Proms concerts and other events since its opening in 1871, has become one of the United Kingdom's most treasured and distinctive buildings. 1968 was the first time. The countries that broadcast it in colour were France, the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom, although in the UK it was broadcast as an encore presentation in colour on BBC Two the next day. All of Eastern Europe and Tunisia broadcast the contest. Katie Boyle hosted the contest for a third time. In May 2008, a documentary by Spanish film-maker Montse Fernández Villa, 1968. Yo viví el mayo español, centred on the effects of May 1968 in Francoist Spain, alleged that the 1968 Eurovision Song Contest was rigged by the Spanish caudillo Francisco Franco, who would have sent state television officials across Europe offering cash and promising to buy television series and contract unknown artists.
The allegation was based on a testimony by journalist José María Íñigo, a TVE employee at the time, who claimed the rigging was common knowledge and suggested that Spanish record label representatives offered to release albums by Bulgarian and Czech artists. The documentary claimed that the contest should in fact have been won by the United Kingdom's entry – "Congratulations" performed by Cliff Richard – which finished second by one vote. Massiel, the performer of the winning entry, was outraged by the allegations, claimed that if there had been fixes, "other singers, who were more keen on Francoist Spain, would have benefited". José María Iñigo, author of the statement in the documentary apologized to Massiel and said that he had repeated a widespread rumour. Both Massiel and Iñigo accused television channel La Sexta, broadcaster of the documentary, of manufacturing the scandal. There were débutant nations in the 1968 contest; each performance had a maestro. Only one artist returned in this year's contest.
The winner of the 1962 contest, Isabelle Aubret, returned once more for France. The table below shows the order in which votes were cast during the 1968 contest along with the spokesperson, responsible for announcing the votes for their respective country; each national broadcaster sent a commentator to the contest, in order to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language. Details of the commentators and the broadcasting station for which they represented are included in the table below. Several non-participating countries decided to broadcast the contest on their respective television stations. Official website
Mad Men is an American period drama television series created by Matthew Weiner and produced by Lionsgate Television. The series premiered on July 19, 2007, on the cable network AMC. After seven seasons and 92 episodes, Mad Men's final episode aired on May 17, 2015. Mad Men is set in the 1960s–initially at the fictional Sterling Cooper advertising agency on Madison Avenue in New York City. According to the pilot episode, the phrase "Mad men" was a slang term coined in the 1950s by advertisers working on Madison Avenue to refer to themselves, a claim that has since been disputed; the plot focuses on the business of the agencies as well as the personal lives of the characters depicting the changing moods and social mores of the United States in the 1960s. The series ends November 1970 with the conclusion of season seven. Don Draper is the focus in the series as the talented creative director at Sterling Cooper and a founding partner at Sterling Cooper Draper Pryce, as are the people in his personal and professional lives.
Mad Men won critical acclaim for its writing, directing, visual style and historical authenticity. The show was the first basic cable series to receive the Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series, winning in each of its first four seasons, it is regarded as one of the greatest television series of all-time. In 2000, while working as a staff writer for Becker, Matthew Weiner wrote the first draft as a spec script for the pilot of what would be called Mad Men. Television producer David Chase recruited Weiner to work as a writer on his HBO series The Sopranos after reading the pilot script in 2002. "It was lively, it had something new to say," Chase said. "Here was someone who had written a story about advertising in the 1960s, was looking at recent American history through that prism."Weiner and his representatives at Industry Entertainment and ICM tried to sell the pilot script to HBO, which expressed an interest, but insisted that David Chase be named executive producer which Chase declined, despite his enthusiasm for Weiner's writing and the pilot script.
HBO CEO Richard Plepler, who became a fan of the show and congratulated AMC on their success with it named passing on Mad Men as his biggest regret from his time at HBO, calling it "inexcusable" and attributing their doing so to "hubris". Weiner moved on to Showtime, which passed. Lacking a suitable network buyer, they tabled sales efforts until years when a talent manager on Weiner's team, Ira Liss, pitched the series to AMC's Vice President of Development, Christina Wayne; the Sopranos was completing its final season and the cable network happened to be getting into the market for new series programming. "The network was looking for distinction in launching its first original series," according to AMC Networks president Ed Carroll, "and we took a bet that quality would win out over formulaic mass appeal." Weiner listed Alfred Hitchcock as a major influence on the visual style of the series the film North by Northwest. He was influenced by director Wong Kar-wai in the music, mise en scène, editorial style.
Weiner noted in an interview that M*A*S*H and Happy Days, two television shows produced in the 1970s about the 1950s, provided a "touchstone for culture" and a way to "remind people that they have a misconception about the past, any past." He said that "Mad Men would have been some sort of crisp, soapy version of The West Wing if not for The Sopranos." Peggy's "psychic scar for the entire show, after giving away that baby", Weiner said, is "the kind of thing that would have never occurred to me before I was on The Sopranos". Tim Hunter, the director of a half-dozen episodes from the show's first two seasons, called Mad Men a "very well-run show", he said: They have a lot of production meetings during pre-production. The day the script comes in we all meet for a first page turn, Matt starts telling us how he envisions it. There's a "tone" meeting a few days where Matt tells us how he envisions it, and there's a final full crew production meeting where Matt again tells us how he envisions it...
The pilot episode was shot at Silvercup Studios in New York City and various locations around the city. It is available in high definition for showing on AMC HD and on video-on-demand services available from various cable affiliates; the writers, including Weiner, amassed volumes of research on the period in which Mad Men takes place so as to make most aspects of the series—including detailed set design, costume design, props—historically accurate, producing an authentic visual style that garnered critical praise. On the scenes featuring smoking, Weiner stated: "Doing this show without smoking would've been a joke, it would've been sanitary and it would've been phony." Each episode had a budget between US$2–2.5 million. Robert Morse was cast in the role of senior partner Bertram Cooper. Weiner collaborated with cinematographer Phil Abraham and production designers Robert Shaw and Dan Bis
"Nel blu, dipinto di blu", popularly known as "Volare", is a song recorded by Italian singer-songwriter Domenico Modugno. Written by Franco Migliacci and Domenico Modugno, it was released as a single on 1 February 1958. Winning the eighth Sanremo Music Festival, the song was chosen as the Italian entry to the Eurovision Song Contest in 1958, where it won third place out of ten songs in total; the combined sales of all the versions of the song exceed 22 million copies worldwide, making it one of the most popular Eurovision songs of all time and the most successful Sanremo Music Festival song ever. It spent five non-consecutive weeks atop the Billboard Hot 100 in August and September 1958 and was Billboard's number-one single for the year. Modugno's recording subsequently became the first Grammy winner for Record of the Year and Song of the Year at the 1st Annual Grammy Awards in 1958; the song was translated in several languages and it was recorded by a wide range of performers. The song was featured in the film "The 15:17 To Paris".
Franco Migliacci started working on the lyrics of the song in June 1957, inspired by two paintings by Marc Chagall. He had planned to go to the sea with Domenico Modugno, but while waiting for Modugno to show up, Migliacci started drinking wine and fell asleep, he had vivid dreams, when he woke up, he looked at the Chagall paintings on the wall. In "Le coq rouge" was a yellow man suspended in midair, while in "Le peintre et la modelle", half the painter's face was coloured blue. So he started penning a song about a man who dreams of painting himself blue, being able to fly; that same night, Migliacci discussed his lyrics with Modugno, for several days they worked on the song, tentatively entitled "Sogno in blu". Much in 2008, Franca Gandolfi recalled that her husband, Domenico Modugno, after a storm forced open his window, had the idea of modifying the chorus of the song, introducing the word "Volare", now the popular title of the song; the song is a ballad in a dramatic chanson style, in which Modugno describes the feeling he has, which resembles flying when with his lover.
The song opens with a surreal prelude which the cover versions left out: "Penso che un sogno così non ritorni mai più. Mi dipingevo le mani e la faccia di blu; the English lyrics were written by Mitchell Parish. Alternative English lyrics were written in 1958 by Gracie Fields, they were used in most concerts she performed in from until her death in 1979, she changed the words to suit her performance and age. In 1958, the song participated in the selection process for the eighth Sanremo Music Festival, held in 1958; the jury charged with selecting the entries to the competition was going to reject "Nel blu dipinto di blu", but in the end it was one of the 20 admitted songs. On 31 January 1958, the song was performed for the first time, during the second night of the eighth Sanremo Music Festival, by Domenico Modugno and Johnny Dorelli, it was Dorelli's first appearance on the Sanremo Music Festival. According to his team-partner, Dorelli was so nervous that he had to be punched by Modugno to be persuaded to perform on the stage.
After being admitted to the final, held at the Sanremo Casino on 1 February 1958, the song was performed again, it won the contest, beating the song "L'edera" by Nilla Pizzi and Tonina Torrielli, which came in second place. Dorelli's performance didn't have a big impact on the audience, while Modugno's is now considered to be the event which changed the history of Italian music. During his performance, Modugno opened his arms; this contributed to making it the most successful Sanremo Music Festival song, marked a change in the way of performing, since Italian singers were used to standing with their arms on their chest, without moving on the stage. Following the first place at the Sanremo Music Festival, the song was chosen to represent Italy at the Eurovision Song Contest 1958, which took place on 12 March in Hilversum, Netherlands. Domenico Modugno was chosen as the singer; the song was performed first on the night, preceding the Netherlands' Corry Brokken with "Heel de wereld". Due to a transmission fault, the song was not heard in all countries transmitting the event, so it was performed at the end as well, before the voting took place.
At the end of the voting, it had received 13 points, placing 3rd in a field of 10. Despite this, it became one of the most successful songs performed in Eurovision Song Contest history, it was succeeded as Italian entry at the 1959 contest by "Piove" performed by Modugno. The song became an instant success in Italy; as of February 2013, according to RAI's estimates, the single had sold 800,000 copies in its domestic market. Following the results obtained in Italy, the song was released in the United States and in the rest of Europe. In the United Kingdom, Modugno's single was released on 23 August 1958, together with eight other versions recorded by international artists; the single obtained global acclaim. In the United States, the single debuted at number 54 on the first Billboard Hot 100, on 4 August 1958, the next week it climbed at number two, marking the biggest jump to the runner-up spot in the chart's history. On 18 August 1958, it topped
Eurovision Song Contest 2006
The Eurovision Song Contest 2006 was the 51st edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Athens, following Helena Paparizou's win at the 2005 contest in Kiev, Ukraine with the song "My Number One". Held at the Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall in Athens, Greece on 18 May and 20 May 2006, the organising was done by the Greek national broadcaster Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation; the Finnish band Lordi won the contest with the song "Hard Rock Hallelujah", written by lead singer Mr. Lordi. "Hard Rock Hallelujah" was the first hard rock song to win the contest, since Eurovision is associated with softer pop music and schlager. This was Finland's first victory in Eurovision after waiting forty-five years, it is noted that they scored the same amount of points in the semi-final and the grand final. The hosts of the Eurovision Song Contest in Athens were Greek singer Sakis Rouvas, the Greek representative at Eurovision in 2004 and 2009, the Greek American television presenter and actress, Maria Menounos.
In the semi-final, both the hosts sang Katrina and the Waves' contest-winning "Love Shine A Light". For one of the intervals, Sakis Rouvas sang an English version of his Greek hit "S'eho Erotefthi" called "I'm in love with you". Helena Paparizou, who performed the winning song in Kiev, returned to the Eurovision stage in Athens. Following the examples of Sertab Erener and Marie N in the last three years, she sang twice in the final, "My Number One" in the opening and her current song "Mambo!" in the interval. An official CD and DVD was released and a new introduction was an official fan book released from this year, every year to come with detailed information of every country; the 2006 contest saw the 1,000th song to be performed in the contest, when "Every Song Is a Cry for Love" by Ireland's Brian Kennedy was sung in the semi-final. Armenia entered the contest for the first time; the venue, chosen as the host venue was the Nikos Galis Olympic Indoor Hall, located in the Athens Olympic Sports Complex, in the capital city of Greece.
Completed in 1995, it was the largest indoor venue in use for sporting events at the 2004 Summer Olympics. The official logo of the contest remained the same from 2004 and 2005 with the country's flag in the heart being changed; the 2006 sub-logo created by the design company Karamela for Greek television was based on the Phaistos Disc, a popular symbol of ancient Greece. According to ERT, it was "inspired by the wind and the sea, the golden sunlight and the glow of the sand". Following Istanbul's "Under The Same Sky" and Kiev's "Awakening", the slogan for the 2006 show was "Feel The Rhythm"; this theme was the basis for the postcards for the 2006 show, which emphasized Greece's historical significance as well as being a major modern tourist destination. To save time in the final, the voting time lasted ten minutes and the voting process was changed: points 1-7 were shown on-screen; the spokespersons only announced the countries scoring 10 and 12 points. Despite this being intended to speed proceedings up, there were still problems during voting – EBU imaging over-rode Maria Menounos during a segment in the voting interval and some scoreboards were slow to load.
The Dutch spokesperson Paul de Leeuw caused problems, giving his mobile number to presenter Rouvas during the Dutch results, slowing down proceedings by announcing the first seven points. Constantinos Christoforou saluted from "Nicosia, the last divided capital in Europe"; this voting process has been criticized because suspense was lost by only reading three votes instead of ten. And for the first time, the display for the Macedonian entry had the title spelled out in its entirety instead of being abbreviated as it has been in previous years. Participating countries in a Eurovision Song Contest must be active members of the EBU; the semi-final was held on 18 May 2006 at 21:00. 23 countries performed and all 37 participants and Serbia & Montenegro voted. Shaded countries qualified for the Eurovision Final Notes 1.^ The song contains phrases in Spanish. 2.^ The song contains phrases in French. The finalists were: the four automatic qualifiers France, Germany and the United Kingdom; the final was won by Finland.
Countries in bold automatically qualified for the Eurovision Song Contest 2007 Final. Notes 3.^ The song contains words in Spanish. The following people were the spokespersons for their countries. A spokesperson delivers the results of national televoting during the final night, awarding points to the entries on behalf of his or her country. A draw was held to determine each country's voting order. Countries revealed their votes in the following order: Although Serbia & Montenegro did not compete in the contest, they still regained voting rights due to a scandal, caused during their National Selection. Televoting was used in all nations except Albania. Monaco used a jury. Albania used a jury. In the semi final and Albania used the jury voting due to insufficient televoting numbers. Coincidentally and Monaco were two of the three countries that d
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem