Nickelodeon is an American pay television network, launched on December 1, 1977 as the first cable channel for children. It is owned by Viacom through its Viacom Media Networks division's Nickelodeon Group unit and is based in New York City, it broadcasts from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. on weekdays, Saturdays from 7:00 a.m. to 9:30 p.m. and Sundays from 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. It is aimed at children and adolescents aged 2–17; the channel was first tested as Pinwheel on December 1, 1977. Pinwheel was at the time only available on QUBE, the first two-way major market interactive cable television system, owned by Warner Cable. Pinwheel relaunched as Nickelodeon on April 1, 1979, expanded to other cable providers nationwide, it was commercial-free and remained without advertising until 1984. Warner sold Nickelodeon, along with its sister networks MTV and VH1, to Viacom in 1986; as of January 2016, the channel is available to about 92.056 million households in the United States. The channel's name comes from the first five cent movie theaters called nickelodeons.
Its history dates back to December 1, 1977, when Warner Cable Communications launched the first two-way interactive cable system, QUBE, in Columbus, Ohio. Under the name Pinwheel Network, the C-3 cable channel carried Pinwheel daily from 7:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m. Eastern Time. Nickelodeon launched on April 1, 1979 distributed to Warner Cable systems via satellite on the RCA Satcom-1 transponder. Commercial-free, advertising was introduced in January 1984. Nickelodeon's schedule consists of original series aimed at children, pre-teens and young teenagers, including animated series, to live-action comedy and action series, as well as series aimed at preschoolers, it airs reruns of select original series that have ended their runs, as well as occasional original made-for-TV movies. It aired bi-monthly special editions of Nick News with Linda Ellerbee, a newsmagazine series aimed at children that debuted in 1992 as a weekly series which ended in 2015. Nicktoons is the branding for Nickelodeon's original animated television series.
Until 1991, the animated series that aired on Nickelodeon were imported from foreign countries, some original animated specials were featured on the channel up to that point. Original animated series continue to make up a substantial portion of Nickelodeon's lineup, with 6 to 7 hours of these programs airing on the weekday schedule and around nine hours on weekends, including a five-hour weekend morning animation block. Since the late 2000s, after the channel struck a deal with DreamWorks Animation in 2006 to develop the studio's animated films into weekly series, the network has begun to incorporate Nicktoons that use three-dimensional computer animation in addition to those that are produced through traditional or digital ink and paint. Nickelodeon does not air direct-to-video movies on a regular basis; the channel airs feature films produced by the network's Nickelodeon Movies film production division. Although the film division bears the Nickelodeon brand name, the channel does not have access to most of the movies produced by its film unit.
Nickelodeon does have broadcast rights to most feature films based on or that served as the basis for original series produced by it. Nickelodeon advertises hour-long episodes of its original series as movies. Nickelodeon periodically acquires theatrically released feature films for broadcast on the channel including Universal's Barbie: A Fashion Fairytale, several Monster High films, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles Forever, with the Barbie and Monster High films aired under a brokered format in which Mattel purchases the time in order to promote the release of their films on DVD within a few days of the Nickelodeon premiere, an arrangement possible as Nickelodeon does not have to meet the Federal Communications Commission rules which disallow th
The View (talk show)
The View is an American talk show, conceived by broadcast journalist Barbara Walters. It has aired on ABC as part of the network's daytime programming block since August 11, 1997; the show features a multi-generational panel of women, who discuss the day's "Hot Topics" such as sociopolitical and entertainment news. In addition to the conversation segments, the panel conducts interviews with prominent figures, such as celebrities and politicians. Production of the show was held in ABC Television Studio 23 in New York City. In 2014, it relocated to ABC Broadcast Center in New York City. Throughout its run, The View has had a total of 22 permanent co-hosts of varying characteristics and ideologies, with the number of contracted permanent co-hosts ranging between four and eight women per season; the original panel comprised Walters, broadcast journalist Meredith Vieira, attorney Star Jones, then-newcomer Debbie Matenopoulos, comedian Joy Behar, while the current line-up consists of Behar, entertainer Whoopi Goldberg, attorney Sunny Hostin, television personalities Meghan McCain and Abby Huntsman.
Furthermore, the show makes use of male and female guest panelists, including the addition of television personality Ana Navarro as a weekly guest co-host in season 22. The View has won 30 Daytime Emmy Awards, including Outstanding Talk Show and Outstanding Talk Show Host; the show has received positive reviews from The New York Times, Entertainment Weekly, New York Post, HuffPost. Beginning in 2007, the show became subject to on-air controversies and media criticism due to frequent changes in its panel of co-hosts, subsequently causing a decline in ratings. In 2014, the show was transferred from the helm of the entertainment division to that of ABC News, which led to a viewership growth and warmer critical response. In 2017, the show became the only broadcast daytime program to see a rise in its overall audience from the previous season; the original opening credits for the show featured voice-over from broadcast journalist as well as the show's creator and executive producer Barbara Walters explaining the show's premise as well as its co-hosts' credentials: Walters described the show as "a talk show featuring four or five women'of different backgrounds, different generations, different opinions,' who would discuss the topics of the day, mixing humor with intelligent debate."
The show begins with a segment where the panel engages in a discussion pertaining to subjects ranging from politics to social issues as well as pop culture referred to as "Hot Topics." Every episode features multiple "Hot Topics" segments, which take up to most–if not all–of the day's show. The discussions are followed by an interview with a guest a celebrity promoting a project; the show periodically conducts audience giveaways. Every show is ended by one of the co-hosts the moderator, delivering the closing remarks, "Have a great day and take a little time to enjoy the view."The twelfth season of The View focused on the events related to the 2008 United States presidential election and its aftermath. The show's thirteenth season saw the introduction male guest panelists. Male personalities have since begun serving as guest co-hosts more specifically on Fridays, dubbed "Guy Day Friday." After Walters' retirement, the show was perceived to have been veering away from political discussions. Leading to the 2016 United States presidential election, the show began refocusing on politics and has reincorporated it back into "Hot Topics" discussions since.
During its first 17 seasons, The View was filmed at 320 West 66th Street in ABC Television Studio 23 in New York City. The original set for the first four seasons was a leftover set from a cancelled soap opera The City; as a co-executive producer of the show, Walters plays a part in the casting of the co-hosts. Longtime executive producer Bill Geddie was the lone recurring male persona, sometimes shown as stepping out from behind the camera to interact with the panel; the co-hosts wear IFB earpieces. The View's eighteenth season brought significant on-air and behind-the-scenes changes in what was regarded as a "reinvention" of the show. In August 2014, ABC announced that Geddie was departing the show and that he was to be replaced by Bill Wolff, who had served as vice president of primetime programming and as executive producer of The Rachel Maddow Show at MSNBC. Production of the show relocated to the ABC Broadcast Center at 77 West 66th Street on the Upper West Side of Manhattan. During the season premiere on September 15, 2014, the show unveiled its new studio featuring a coffee table-style desk with low-arm chairs, a large video wall, in-the-round audience seating, an on-camera social media station.
Subsequent tweaks included a glass desk and high stools at center stage, as well as color adjustments in backgrounds and graphics. On October 30, 2014, ABC announced that responsibilities for production oversight on The View would shift from ABC's daytime entertainment division to Lincoln Square Productions, an ABC News subsidiary, where the show will be grouped under the division's non-fiction programming umbrella; the move allowed the show to leverage ABC News' resources toward news-related segments. In August 2015, it was reported that former Late Show with David Letterman producer Brian Teta would be joining the show as co-executive producer. In the month, executive producer Wolff was announced to be departing the show. During season 19, the show introduced an aftershow entitled After the View, available through live streaming. In Feb
Mainstream Top 40
The Mainstream Top 40 is a 40-song music chart published weekly by Billboard Magazine which ranks the most popular songs being played on a panel of Top 40 radio stations in the United States. The rankings are based on radio airplay detections as measured by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems, a subsidiary of the U. S.' Leading marketing research company. Consumer researchers, Nielsen Audio, refers to the format as contemporary hit radio; the chart debuted in Billboard Magazine in its issued date October 3, 1992, with the introduction of two Top 40 airplay charts and Rhythm-Crossover. Both Top 40 charts measured "actual monitored airplay" from data compiled by Broadcast Data Systems; the Top 40/Mainstream chart was compiled from airplay on radio stations playing a wide variety of music, while the Top 40/Rhythm-Crossover chart was made up from airplay on stations playing more dance and R&B music. Both charts were "born of then-new BDS electronic monitoring technology" as a more objective and precise way of measuring airplay on radio stations.
This data was used as the airplay component for Hot 100 tabulations. Top 40/Mainstream was published in the print edition of Billboard from its debut in October 1992 through May 1995, when both Top 40 charts were moved to Airplay Monitor, a secondary chart publication by Billboard, they returned to the print edition in the August 2003, issue. Songs on the chart are ranked by the total number of spins detected per week. Songs which gain plays or remain flat from the previous week will receive a bullet. A song will receive a bullet if its percentage loss in plays does not exceed the percentage of monitored station downtime for the format. If two songs are tied in total plays, the song with the larger increase in plays is placed first. There are forty positions on this chart and it is based on radio airplay. A number of Top 40 Mainstream radio stations are electronically monitored 24 hours a day, seven days a week by Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. Songs are ranked by a calculation of the total number of spins per week with its "audience impression", based upon exact times of airplay and each station's Arbitron listener data.
Songs receiving the greatest growth will receive a "bullet", although there are tracks that will get bullets if the loss in detections doesn't exceed the percentage of downtime from a monitored station. "Airpower" awards are issued to songs that appear on the top 20 of both the airplay and audience chart for the first time, while the "greatest gainer" award is given to song with the largest increase in detections. A song with six or more spins in its first week is awarded an "airplay add". If a song is tied for the most spins in the same week, the one with the biggest increase that previous week will rank higher, but if both songs show the same amount of spins regardless of detection the song, being played at more stations is ranked higher. Since the introduction of the chart until 2005, songs below No. 20 were moved to recurrent after 26 weeks on the chart. In the chart week of December 3, 2005, songs below No. 20 were moved to recurrent after 20 weeks on the chart. Since the issue dated December 4, 2010, songs older than 20 weeks on the chart are moved to recurrent after they drop below No. 15.
Whereas the Top 40 Mainstream and Pop 100 Airplay charts both measured the airplay of songs played on Mainstream stations playing pop-oriented music, the Pop 100 Airplay measured airplay based on statistical impressions, while the Top 40 Mainstream chart used the number of total detections. On October 19, 2017, the Mainstream Top 40 co-hosts, Gary Trust and Trevor Anderson, gave hints as to what the number 1 all-time Mainstream Top 40 song was going to be on the charts; that day, the top 100 all-time songs and the top 50-all time artists were released, with the number 1 all-time song being revealed as "Another Night" by Real McCoy. Shown below are the top 10 artists from each chart. Source: Source: Source: The year indicates. Katy Perry Mariah Carey Maroon 5 P!nk, Rihanna Ace of Base, Taylor Swift Bruno Mars Justin Timberlake Christina Aguilera Boyz II Men, Beyoncé Source: Rihanna Nicki Minaj Britney Spears Chris Brown Pitbull Mariah Carey Lil Wayne Source: Mariah Carey: December 9, 1995"One Sweet Day" "Fantasy"OutKast: January 31 - February 7, 2004"Hey Ya!"
"The Way You Move" Pharrell Williams: July 27 - August 3, 2013"Blurred Lines" "Get Lucky" Iggy Azalea: June 28 - July 12, 2014"Fancy" "Problem" Halsey: February 23 - March 9, 2019"Without Me" "Eastside" Source: Mariah Carey — "Fantasy" → "One Sweet Day" OutKast — "Hey Ya!" → "The Way You Move" Iggy Azalea — "Fancy" → "Problem" † Halsey — "Without Me" → "Eastside" † Iggy Azalea is the only act in Mainstream Top 40 history to replace herself at number one with her first two chart entries. Source: Lady Gaga is the only artist to have her first six singles reach No. 1. Britney Spears holds the record for the longest span between No. 1s at 12 years, seven months and four days between her first No.1 and her latest. JoJo at age 13, became the youngest solo artist to have a numbe
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
MTV is an American pay television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks and headquartered in New York City. The channel was launched on August 1, 1981, aired music videos as guided by television personalities known as "video jockeys". At first, MTV's main target demographic was young adults, but today it is teenagers high school and college students. Since its inception, MTV has toned down its music video programming and its programming now consists of original reality and drama programming and some off-network syndicated programs and films, with limited music video programming in off-peak time periods. MTV had struggled with the secular decline of music-related subscription-based media, its ratings had been said to be failing systematically, as younger viewers shift towards other media platforms, with yearly ratings drops as high as 29%. In April 2016, then-appointed MTV president Sean Atkins announced plans to restore music programming to the channel. Under current MTV president Chris McCarthy, reality programming has once again become prominent.
MTV has spawned numerous sister channels in the U. S. and affiliated channels internationally, some of which have gone independent, with 90.6 million American households in the United States receiving the channel as of January 2016. Several earlier concepts for music video-based television programming had been around since the early 1960s; the Beatles had used music videos to promote their records starting in the mid-1960s. The creative use of music videos within their 1964 film A Hard Day's Night the performance of the song "Can't Buy Me Love", led MTV on June 26, 1999, to honor the film's director Richard Lester with an award for "basically inventing the music video". In his book The Mason Williams FCC Rapport, author Mason Williams states that he pitched an idea to CBS for a television program that featured "video-radio", where disc jockeys would play avant-garde art pieces set to music. CBS rejected the idea, but Williams premiered his own musical composition "Classical Gas" on the Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour, where he was head writer.
In 1970, Philadelphia-based disc jockey Bob Whitney created The Now Explosion, a television series filmed in Atlanta and broadcast in syndication to other local television stations throughout the United States. The series featured promotional clips from various popular artists, but was canceled by its distributor in 1971. Several music programs originating outside of the US, including Australia's Countdown and the United Kingdom's Top of the Pops, which had aired music videos in lieu of performances from artists who were not available to perform live, began to feature them by the mid-1970s. In 1974, Gary Van Haas, vice president of Televak Corporation, introduced a concept to distribute a music video channel to record stores across the United States, promoted the channel, named Music Video TV, to distributors and retailers in a May 1974 issue of Billboard; the channel, which featured video disc jockeys, signed a deal with US Cable in 1978 to expand its audience from retail to cable television.
The service was no longer active by the time MTV launched in 1981. In 1977, Warner Cable a division of Warner Communications and the precursor of Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment launched the first two-way interactive cable television system named QUBE in Columbus, Ohio; the QUBE system offered many specialized channels. One of these specialized channels was Sight on Sound, a music channel that featured concert footage and music-oriented television programs. With the interactive QUBE service, viewers could vote for their favorite artists; the original programming format of MTV was created by media executive Robert W. Pittman, who became president and chief executive officer of MTV Networks. Pittman had test-driven the music format by producing and hosting a 15-minute show, Album Tracks, on New York City television station WNBC-TV in the late 1970s. Pittman's boss Warner-Amex executive vice president John Lack had shepherded PopClips, a television series created by former Monkee-turned solo artist Michael Nesmith, whose attention had turned to the music video format in the late 1970s.
The inspiration for PopClips came from a similar program on New Zealand's TVNZ network named Radio with Pictures, which premiered in 1976. The concept itself had been in the works since 1966, when major record companies began supplying the New Zealand Broadcasting Corporation with promotional music clips to play on the air at no charge. Few artists made the long trip to New Zealand to appear live. On Saturday, August 1, 1981, at 12:01 AM Eastern Time, MTV was launched with the words "Ladies and gentlemen and roll," spoken by John Lack and played over footage of the first Space Shuttle launch countdown of Columbia and of the launch of Apollo 11; those words were followed by the original MTV theme song, a crunching rock tune composed by Jonathan Elias and John Petersen, playing over the American flag changed to show MTV's logo changing into various textures and designs. MTV producers Alan Goodman and Fred Seibert used this public domain footage as a concept. A shortened version of the shuttle launch ID ran at the top of every hour in various forms, from MTV's first day until it was pulled in early 1986 in the wake of the Challenger disaster.
A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment. According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. By the beginning of 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made US$1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year. Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Management that restricts copying the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players, they are always compressed using a lossy codec, which reduces file size and bandwidth requirements. These music resources have been created as a response to expanding technology and needs of customers that wanted easy, quick access to music, their business models respond to the "download revolution" by making legal services attractive for users.
Legal music downloads have faced a number of challenges from artists, record labels and the Recording Industry Association of America. In July 2007, the Universal Music Group decided not to renew their long-term contracts with iTunes; this decision was based upon the issue of pricing of songs, as Universal wanted to be able to charge more or less depending on the artist, a shift away from iTunes' standard—at the time—99 cents per song pricing. Many industry leaders feel that this is only the first of many show-downs between Apple Inc. and the various record labels. According to research by the website TorrentFreak, 38% of Swedish artists support file share downloading and claim that it helps artists in early career stages; the Swedish rock group Lamont has profited from file sharing. The Recording Industry Association of America oversees about 85% of published music production and manufacturing in the United States, they work to protect musicians while supporting the First Amendment rights. Their stated goal is to support artists' creativity and help them not be cheated out of money by illegal downloading.
The Recording Industry Association of America launched its first lawsuits on 8 September 2003, against individuals who illegally downloaded music files from the Kazaa FastTrack network. Two years after it began, the campaign survived at least one major legal challenge; the RIAA said it filed 750 suits in February 2006 against individuals downloading music files without paying for them in hopes of putting an end to Internet music piracy. The RIAA hopes their campaign will force people to respect the copyrights of music labels and minimize the number of illegal downloads; the Official Charts Company began to incorporate downloads in the UK Singles Chart on 17 April 2005, at which time Radio 1 stopped broadcasting the separate download chart, although the chart is still compiled. This was on condition that the song must have a physical media release at the same time. Music downloads have been measured by the Official Charts Company since 2004 and included in the main UK Singles Chart from 2005.
The most downloaded song in the UK is "Happy" by Pharrell Williams with over 1.8 million downloads. In November 2005, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States was held by Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl", which sold over one million downloads, making it the first song to achieve platinum download status; as of July 2012, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States on the iTunes Store is held by The Black Eyed Peas's "I Gotta Feeling", which has sold over 8 million downloads. Soon after his death in 2009, Michael Jackson became the first artist to sell over one million songs downloaded via the Internet in one week. However, Adele marks the most downloads sold by a single song in a week, with "Hello" selling 1.12 million copies in November 2015. Eminem's seventh studio album, became the first album to sell one million digital copies. Beyoncé's self-titled fifth studio album became the fastest-selling album within 24 hours in iTunes history after its release in December 2013.
Within 24 hours of availability, the album sold 430,000 digital copies. Adele's third studio album 25 became the fastest-selling album in a week iTunes history after it was released on 20 November 2015, it sold 1.64 million digital copies in its first week. In 2006, the Recording Industry Association of Japan began issuing certifications for digitally released music in Japan, compiling data from the early 2000s onwards; the best-selling song is Fukushima-based vocal group Greeeen's song "Kiseki", certified for being downloaded four million times between 2008 and 2015, followed by R&B singer Thelma Aoyama's "Soba ni Iru ne" featuring rapper SoulJa, certified for three million downloads between 2008 and 2014. Greeeen's song "Ai Uta" ranks as the third highest certified song, with 2.5 million downloads tracked between 2007 and 2009. Two more songs have sold more than two million paid downloads: Ayaka's "Mikazuki" and Kobukuro's "Tsubomi"; the most successful ringtone in Japan is Moldovan-Romanian band O-Zone's "Dragostea din tei", known locally as "Koi no Maiahi", certified as having four million units sold.
In Japan, only two albums have received digital certifications by the RIAJ. The first was Songs for Japan, a charity compilation album raising profits for the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, certified gold for 100,000 downloa