James McNaughton Hester
James McNaughton Hester was an internationally recognized educator. Hester was born in Pennsylvania, he spent his boyhood at various stations to which his father, a United States Navy Chaplain, was assigned, including Hawaii and Samoa. In 1942, he was graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in California, he attended Princeton University, where he won honors in the humanities, election to Phi Beta Kappa, was awarded an A. B. degree in 1945. After joining the United States Marine Corps' officer candidate programme, he was trained to be a Japanese language officer, he subsequently served in Japan in a civilian capacity as the civil information and education officer on the Fukuoka Military Government Team. In 1947, Hester entered Pembroke College, Oxford, as a Rhodes Scholar, earning a bachelor's degree in Philosophy and Economics. Upon his return to the United States in 1950, he became assistant to the American Secretary to the Rhodes Trustees. Recalled to active duty with the Marines in 1951, Hester served seventeen months as a battalion adjutant and instructor at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia.
After leaving the services, he spent several months at the National Archives in Washington, D. C. doing research for his doctoral thesis. He received the D. Phil. Degree from Oxford University in 1955. After three years of business experience in management consultation and consumer research, Hester returned to academic life. In 1957, he became provost of the Brooklyn Center of Long Island University in New York City and subsequently Vice President of Long Island University. In 1960, he became Dean of both undergraduate and graduate schools of arts and science at New York University, he became 11th President of New York University in 1962, at the age of 37. The University awarded him an honorary degree in 1977. Hester was appointed first Rector of the United Nations University in November 1974 by United Nations Secretary General Kurt Waldheim after a worldwide search, he commenced full-time duty as Rector at the University's headquarters in Tokyo in September 1975. Hester served as chairman of the President's Task Force on Priorities in Higher Education in the United States.
He was president and a member of the executive committee of the Association of Colleges and Universities of the State of New York, was president and member of the board of trustees of its Commission on Independent Colleges. Hester served on the board of the American Council on Education, on the New York State Regents Advisory Council on Higher Education and Regional Co-ordinating Council for Post Secondary Education in New York City, he was the United States member on the Administrative Board of the International Association of Universities and a member of the executive committee of the Association of American Universities. Upon leaving the rectorship, Hester served a term as President of The New York Botanical Garden, until his death remained President of the Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation in New York, an operating foundation charged by its founder to support research on the causes and control of violence and dominance; this programme is carried out through grants in a wide variety of fields and by conferences and publications.
After retiring from full-time involvement in the academic world, Hester continued a second career as regarded artist, whose oil paintings and portraits were commissioned by a wide array of individuals and institutions. Hester was married in 1953 to the former Janet Rodes, they had three children, Janet and Martha. He died 31 December 2014 in New Jersey. Hester held honorary degrees from many leading universities and colleges, was a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honour. In 1981, H. M. Emperor Showa of Japan conferred upon Hester the Order of First Class. Krebs and Robert McG. Thomas. "Notes on People: Hester Honored," New York Times,January 15, 1981
An honorary degree is an academic degree for which a university has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation, the passing of comprehensive examinations. It is known by the Latin phrases honoris causa or ad honorem; the degree is a doctorate or, less a master's degree, may be awarded to someone who has no prior connection with the academic institution or no previous postsecondary education. An example of identifying a recipient of this award is as follows: Doctorate in Business Administration; the degree is conferred as a way of honouring a distinguished visitor's contributions to a specific field or to society in general. It is sometimes recommended that such degrees be listed in one's curriculum vitae as an award, not in the education section. With regard to the use of this honorific, the policies of institutions of higher education ask that recipients "refrain from adopting the misleading title" and that a recipient of an honorary doctorate should restrict the use of the title "Dr" before their name to any engagement with the institution of higher education in question and not within the broader community.
Rev. Theodore Hesburgh held the record for most honorary degrees, having been awarded 150 during his lifetime; the practice dates back to the Middle Ages, when for various reasons a university might be persuaded, or otherwise see fit, to grant exemption from some or all of the usual statutory requirements for the awarding of a degree. The earliest honorary degree on record was awarded to Lionel Woodville in the late 1470s by the University of Oxford, he became Bishop of Salisbury. In the latter part of the 16th century, the granting of honorary degrees became quite common on the occasion of royal visits to Oxford or Cambridge. On the visit of James I to Oxford in 1605, for example, forty-three members of his retinue received the degree of Master of Arts, the Register of Convocation explicitly states that these were full degrees, carrying the usual privileges. Honorary degrees are awarded at regular graduation ceremonies, at which the recipients are invited to make a speech of acceptance before the assembled faculty and graduates – an event which forms the highlight of the ceremony.
Universities nominate several persons each year for honorary degrees. Those who are nominated are not told until a formal approval and invitation are made; the term honorary degree is a slight misnomer: honoris causa degrees are not considered of the same standing as substantive degrees earned by the standard academic processes of courses and original research, except where the recipient has demonstrated an appropriate level of academic scholarship that would ordinarily qualify him or her for the award of a substantive degree. Recipients of honorary degrees wear the same academic dress as recipients of substantive degrees, although there are a few exceptions: honorary graduands at the University of Cambridge wear the appropriate full-dress gown but not the hood, those at the University of St Andrews wear a black cassock instead of the usual full-dress gown. An ad eundem or jure officii degree is sometimes considered honorary, although they are only conferred on an individual who has achieved a comparable qualification at another university or by attaining an office requiring the appropriate level of scholarship.
Under certain circumstances, a degree may be conferred on an individual for both the nature of the office they hold and the completion of a dissertation. The "dissertation et jure dignitatis" is considered to be a full academic degree. See below. Although higher doctorates such as DSc, DLitt, etc. are awarded honoris causa, in many countries it is possible formally to earn such a degree. This involves the submission of a portfolio of peer-refereed research undertaken over a number of years, which has made a substantial contribution to the academic field in question; the university will appoint a panel of examiners who will consider the case and prepare a report recommending whether or not the degree be awarded. The applicant must have some strong formal connection with the university in question, for example full-time academic staff, or graduates of several years' standing; some universities, seeking to differentiate between substantive and honorary doctorates, have a degree, used for these purposes, with the other higher doctorates reserved for formally examined academic scholarship.
The Archbishop of Canterbury has the authority to award degrees. These "Lambeth degrees" are sometimes, thought to be honorary. Between the two extremes of honoring celebrities and formally assessing a portfolio of research, some universities use honorary degrees to recognize achievements of intellectual rigor; some institutes of higher education do not confer honorary degrees as a matter of policy — see below. Some learned societies award honorary fellowships in the same way as
In 1820 Rev. Isaac Ferris was appointed by the Board of Domestic Missions to labor in the Classis of Montgomery, he was active at Market Street Dutch Reform Church in New York City. He served as the 3rd President of New York University from 1853 to 1870. During his tenure he brought financial stability to the university
University of Paris
The University of Paris, metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a university in Paris, active 1150–1793, 1806–1970. Emerging around 1150 as a corporation associated with the cathedral school of Notre Dame de Paris, it was considered the second oldest university in Europe. Chartered in 1200 by King Philip II of France and recognised in 1215 by Pope Innocent III, it was often nicknamed after its theological College of Sorbonne, in turn founded by Robert de Sorbon and chartered by French King Saint Louis around 1257. Internationally reputed for its academic performance in the humanities since the Middle Ages – notably in theology and philosophy – it introduced several academic standards and traditions that have endured since and spread internationally, such as doctoral degrees and student nations. Vast numbers of popes, royalty and intellectuals were educated at the University of Paris. A few of the colleges of the time are still visible close to Pantheon and Luxembourg Gardens: Collège des Bernardins, Hotel de Cluny, College Sainte Barbe, College d'Harcourt, Cordeliers.
In 1793, during the French Revolution, the university was closed and by Item-27 of the Revolutionary Convention, the college endowments and buildings were sold. A new University of France replaced it in 1806 with four independent faculties: the Faculty of Humanities, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Theology. In 1970, following the May 1968 events, the university was divided into 13 autonomous universities. Although all the thirteen universities that resulted of the original University of Paris split can be considered its inheritors, just three universities of the post-1968 universities embodied direct faculties successors while inheriting the name "Sorbonne", as well as its physical location in the Latin Quarter: the Pantheon-Sorbonne University. From 2010, University of Paris successors started to reorganise themselves into different groups of universities and institutions that were upgraded to "pôles de recherche et d'enseignement supérieur".
As a result, various university groups exist in the Paris area, among them Sorbonne Paris Cité, Sorbonne Universities, the University of Paris-Saclay, Paris Lumiéres, Paris-Seine, so on. In January 2018, two of the inheritors of the old University of Paris, Paris-Sorbonne University and Pierre and Marie Curie University, merged into a single university called Sorbonne University. In 2019, two other inheritors of the University of Paris, namely Paris Diderot University and Paris Descartes University, are expected to merge. In 1150, the future University of Paris was a student-teacher corporation operating as an annex of the Notre-Dame cathedral school; the earliest historical reference to it is found in Matthew of Paris' reference to the studies of his own teacher and his acceptance into "the fellowship of the elect Masters" there in about 1170, it is known that Pope Innocent III completed his studies there in 1182 at the age of 21. The corporation was formally recognised as an "Universitas" in an edict by King Philippe-Auguste in 1200: in it, among other accommodations granted to future students, he allowed the corporation to operate under ecclesiastic law which would be governed by the elders of the Notre-Dame Cathedral school, assured all those completing courses there that they would be granted a diploma.
The university had four faculties: Arts, Medicine and Theology. The Faculty of Arts was the lowest in rank, but the largest, as students had to graduate there in order to be admitted to one of the higher faculties; the students were divided into four nationes according to language or regional origin: France, Normandy and England. The last came to be known as the Alemannian nation. Recruitment to each nation was wider than the names might imply: the English-German nation included students from Scandinavia and Eastern Europe; the faculty and nation system of the University of Paris became the model for all medieval universities. Under the governance of the Church, students wore robes and shaved the tops of their heads in tonsure, to signify they were under the protection of the church. Students followed the rules and laws of the Church and were not subject to the king's laws or courts; this presented problems for the city of Paris, as students ran wild, its official had to appeal to Church courts for justice.
Students were very young, entering the school at 13 or 14 years of age and staying for six to 12 years. Three schools were famous in Paris: the palatine or palace school, the school of Notre-Dame, that of Sainte-Geneviève Abbey; the decline of royalty brought about the decline of the first. The other two did not have much visibility in the early centuries; the glory of the palatine school doubtless eclipsed theirs, until it gave way to them. These two centres were much frequented and many of their masters were esteemed for their learning; the first renowned professor at the school of Ste-Geneviève was Hubold, who lived in the tenth century. Not content with the courses at Liège, he continued his studies at Paris, entered or allied himself with the chapter of Ste-Geneviève, attracted many pupils via his teaching. Distinguished professors from the school of Notre-Dame in the eleventh century incl
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Phi Gamma Delta
Phi Gamma Delta known as Fiji, is a social fraternity with more than 158 active chapters and 13 colonies across the United States and Canada. It was founded at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, in 1848. Along with Phi Kappa Psi, Phi Gamma Delta forms a half of the Jefferson Duo. Since its founding in 1848, the fraternity has initiated more than 180,000 brothers; the nickname FIJI is used by the fraternity due to Phi Gamma Delta bylaws that limit the use of the Greek letters. The organization was founded on April 1848, at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Six college students gathered in a dormitory room to establish a secret society; the society they formed was called "The Delta Association". The founders, referred to by members as the "Immortal Six", were John Templeton McCarty, Samuel Beatty Wilson, James Elliott Jr. Ellis Bailey Gregg, Daniel Webster Crofts, Naaman Fletcher; the first regular meeting of Phi Gamma Delta and the adoption of the Fraternity's Constitution took place on May 1, 1848.
May 1 was chosen to be "Founder's Day" at the 43rd Convention held in 1891 and has traditionally been celebrated as the founding date of the Fraternity. Contrary to popular belief, the Immortal six were not Freemasons when they entered Jefferson College. Phi Gamma Delta has chosen not to use the term alumni for members. One of the mottoes used by the organization is, "Not For College Days Alone". Phi Gamma Delta's mission statement lists five core values for its members: friendship, service and excellence. In addition, members are encouraged to live by three priorities by these respective order: scholarship and self; this ordering is because members attend university with the foremost goal of receiving an education, that Phi Gamma Delta is a fraternity that promotes scholastic achievement amongst its members. Phi Gamma Delta limits the written display of its Greek letters. In accordance with the fraternity's international bylaws, Fiji chapters and members only inscribe their letters in the following seven locations: On a uniform diamond-shaped member badge On memorials to deceased brothers On the Fraternity's official flag On the Fraternity's official seal On a chapter house marker On a brother's official college ring On a brother's certificate of membershipThe fraternity instructs its members to consider the letters sacred and to never display them on an object that can be destroyed.
Whereas other fraternities display their letters on clothing or other items, this tradition prevents Fijis from doing so. In place of the actual Greek letters, "Fiji," "Phi Gam," or the English spelling "Phi Gamma Delta" is used in their place; the Fiji nickname started at New York University as a suggested name for the Fraternity magazine. It was adopted by the national fraternity at the 1894 convention in the belief that the term would be distinctive and appeal to the imagination. Prior to its formal appropriation by the organization at large, nicknames for members of the fraternity varied greatly; as of now though, "Fiji" and "Phi Gam" are considered by the fraternity to be the only appropriate nicknames for Phi Gamma Delta members on the international scale, though local nicknames related to a chapter's Greek name or other colloquialisms do exist. The fraternity is composed of chapters of two types. Most chapters serve undergraduate students and are established at a single college or university.
There are chapters to serve members of the fraternity who have graduated from college and are established to serve a city or larger region. The chapters are governed by the fraternity's international headquarters in Kentucky; each year the Phi Gamma Delta organization gives out a number of awards, both to chapters, to individual members. The Frank Norris Pig Dinner is an annual graduate dinner held by all Phi Gamma Delta chapters; the dinner is named for author Frank Norris, a member of the Fiji chapter at the University of California, Berkeley where the first Pig Dinner was held in 1893. Pig Dinner is sanctioned by the International Fraternity and it serves to welcome graduate brothers back to their undergraduate chapters, it is the longest continually running, chapter-based, annual Graduate event in the world of fraternities and sororities. The International Fraternity stores a list of annual Pig Dinners. Affectionately built upon the "Fiji" nickname, many chapters hold an annual "Fiji Islander" party.
These are large festivities with tropical themes using banana and palm trees as decoration, although they can vary from chapter to chapter. Some are large parties where alcohol and tropical foliage are present, others may be alcohol free, some Fiji Islander events are charity projects rather than parties; the tradition made headlines in May 2014 when a University of California, Irvine student of Fijiian descent complained to the university that the fundraiser as well as the fraternity nickname was an offensive example of cultural appropriation. On January 21, 2017 Phi Gamma Delta fraternity members in Lincoln, Nebraska were claimed to have screamed pro-rape slurs at participants of the 2017 Women's March. Chants of "no means yes, yes means anal" were aimed at thousands of women and men walking past the fraternity house on the University of Nebraska campus. Fraternity members were accused on social media of waving Donald Trump signs and screaming, "grab them by the pussy,"
Manhattan College is a private, Roman Catholic, liberal arts college in the Bronx in New York City. After being established in 1853 by the Brothers of the Christian Schools as an academy for day students, Manhattan College was incorporated as an institution of higher education through a charter granted by the New York State Board of Regents. In 1922, the College moved from Manhattan to the Riverdale section of the Bronx 6.4 miles north of its original location on 131st Street in the Manhattanville section of Manhattan. Manhattan College offers undergraduate programs in the arts, education, health and science. Graduate programs are offered for education and engineering. Manhattan College was founded as the Academy of the Holy Infancy in 1853 by five French De La Salle Christian Brothers in a small building on Canal Street; when the need to expand forced them from Lower Manhattan, the college moved to 131st Street and Broadway, in the Manhattanville section of Harlem. The school's name was changed to Manhattan College when it received its state charter in 1863, moved to its present location in the Riverdale section of the Bronx in 1922 as it outgrew its facilities in Manhattanville.
This is the cause of some confusion as the college is located outside of Manhattan but still within the city limits of New York City. Exclusive to men, Manhattan College established a cooperative program with the College of Mount Saint Vincent after the pair became coeducational in 1973 and 1974, respectively; this partnership lasted until 2008. Since Manhattan College and the College of Mount Saint Vincent have been separate. For 118 years, a boys' secondary school, Manhattan College High School, known to students and rivals as Manhattan Prep was located on campus. Founded in 1854, the school educated its young men in a Catholic college preparatory curriculum geared toward eventual university matriculation, it was, indeed, a "prep" school in the classic sense: coats and ties were mandatory for class attendance. The curriculum included 3 years of Latin. Throughout its existence, Manhattan Prep was a partner of its host institution with a significant percentage of its graduates continuing on to study at Manhattan College.
The High School was located in De La Salle Hall. Students shared the college chapel, cafeteria and athletic facilities, its sports teams bore the nickname, "the Jaspers" just as the Manhattan College teams; the "Prep" supported varsity teams in swimming, crew and kayak, cross country and indoor/outdoor track, of course and baseball as members of the Catholic High School Athletic Association. There were junior varsity and intramural sports; the school newspaper, published monthly, was called The Prepster. After admitting a small class of 1971, Manhattan Prep closed its doors in 1972 due to rising costs and a decline in Lasallian Brothers' vocations; the members of the class of 1972 either accelerated to graduate in 3 years with the class of 1971 or left for other area Catholic high schools. Despite the closure of the high school, the Brothers continue to maintain a presence on the college campus as members of the faculty and support staff. In 2014, as part of the College's Homecoming celebration, a plaque acknowledging the Prep's contribution to the College's growth and spirit was erected on the wall of de la Salle Hall on the Quadrangle.
The plaque was dedicated by Brother C. George Berrian FSC, one of the Prep's last principals, in a ceremony attended by about 50 Prep alumni. Manhattan College occupies a compact campus; the college is divided into a north and south campus, in the residential Riverdale section of the Bronx. The North campus overlooks Van Cortlandt Park, has as its focal point "the Quad", which sits at the center of the campus's four main buildings. Memorial Hall is the main entry onto campus and houses the office of the president as well as most of the other administrative offices on campus. Miguel Hall and De La Salle Hall are the main academic halls. Miguel hosts the arts department and classes, while De La Salle is used by the business school; the fourth side of the Quad is bordered by the chapel building, which houses Smith Auditorium on the first floor and the Chapel of De La Salle and His Brothers on the second floor, which features a painting of De La Salle and Brothers behind the altar, a large performing area where musical events and concerts take place on the altar, a grand piano, a pipe organ in the balcony.
Thomas Hall, one of the college's student life building, houses the offices of the Dean of Students, the student government, the musical ensembles, others. The college's two dining halls, Locke's Loft and Cafe 1853 are located in Thomas Hall; the brand new Kelly Commons, named after notable alumnus Raymond Kelly, is another student life building, completed in 2014. It holds a Starbucks, a Marketplace, a state-of-the-art gym for student and faculty use, the Multicultural Center, halls for lectures and events, the student bookstore and the office for the student-run newspaper, The Quadrangle; the O'Malley Library is a six-story structure, joined with the previous library, the Cardinal Hayes Pavilion. Built on a hill, the new library was built directly next to and above the old one combining the two and creating more floors, while enhancing technology and adding gro