A combat vehicle known as a ground combat vehicle, is a self-propelled, weaponized military vehicle used for combat operations in mechanized warfare. Combat vehicles can be tracked; the chariot is a type of carriage using animals to provide rapid motive power. Chariots were used for war as "battle taxis" and mobile archery platforms, as well as other pursuits such as hunting or racing for sport, as a chief vehicle of many ancient peoples, when speed of travel was desired rather than how much weight could be carried; the original chariot was a fast, open, two-wheeled conveyance drawn by two or more horses that were hitched side by side. The car was little more than a floor with a waist-high semicircular guard in front; the chariot, driven by a charioteer, was used for ancient warfare during the bronze and the iron ages. Armor was limited to a shield. In the modern time, combat vehicle is protected by strong armour and armed with weapons, which combines operational mobility, tactical offensive, defensive capabilities.
The automation of human tasks endeavors to reduce the required crew size with improvements in robotics. Enhancements to automation can help achieve operational effectiveness with a smaller, more economical, combat vehicle force; the automation of combat vehicles has proved to be difficult due to the time latency between the operator controlling the vehicle and the signal being received. Unlike air forces, ground forces must navigate the plan around obstacles; the rapid tactical implications of operating a weaponized vehicle in a combat environment are great. Use of titanium armor on combat vehicles is increasing; the use of titanium can lighten the vehicle's weight. Appliqué armor can be applied to vehicles and has been utilized on the U. S. Army's M8 Armored Gun System. Fire suppressionContemporary combat vehicles may incorporate a fire-suppression system to mitigate damage from fire. Systems can be employed in the engine and crew compartments and portable systems may be mounted inside and outside the vehicle as well.
Automatic fire suppression systems activate instantaneously upon the detection of fire and have been shown to improve crew survivability. Halon fire suppression systems inundate an affected fire breach with a flood of halon to extinguish leaking fuel. Halon remains necessary for crew compartment fire suppression due to space and weight constraints, toxicity concerns. Nitrogen systems take up about twice as much space as a comparable halon unit. Germany uses this system as a replacement for its halon system; some systems, such as Germany's previous extinguisher, have a second shot of suppressant to mitigate re-ignition or the effects of a second hit. Though not as instantaneous, portable crew-operable extinguishers are used inside and outside the vehicle. Portable extinguishers use a CO2 agent instead of the halon agents used in the past. CO2 can become lethal to vehicle occupants; the U. S. Army has adopted a replacement formula consisting of 50% water, 50% potassium acetate. Alternatives such as powder formulas exist.
Hygiene upkeep is difficult. Tracked combat vehicles are suited for rough terrain. Wheeled combat vehicles offer optimized speeds on smooth terrain. Silent watch is becoming an important combat vehicle application, it is a role that requires that all mission requirements be met while keeping acoustic and infrared signature levels to a minimum. For this reason, silent watch requires the vehicle to operate without use of the main engine and sometimes auxiliary engines. Many modern combat vehicles have electronic equipment that cannot be supported with auxiliary batteries alone. Auxiliary fuel cells are a potential solution for covert operations. Force trackers are still not as prevalent as in the air force but still is an essential component of combat vehicles. In the mid-'90s, U. S. weapon developers envisioned a sophisticated communication network where positions of enemy and friendly forces could be relayed to command vehicles and other friendly vehicles. Friendly vehicles could transmit enemy positions to friendly combat vehicles in combat range for efficient annihilation of the enemy.
Logistics support could monitor front-line combat vehicle fuel and ammunition statuses and move in to resupply depleted vehicles. Combat vehicles weapons are designed for engaging other vehicles at long distances and are not optimized for destroying non-traditional targets like car bombs
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing watercraft such as boats, barges, used to convey a landing force from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault. The term excludes landing ships. Production of landing craft peaked during World War II, with a significant number of different designs produced in large quantities by the United Kingdom and United States; because of the need to run up onto a suitable beach, World War II landing craft were flat-bottomed, many designs had a flat front with a lowerable ramp, rather than a normal bow. This made them difficult to control and uncomfortable in rough seas; the control point was at the extreme rear of the vessel, as were the engines. In all cases, they were known by an abbreviation derived from the official name rather than by the full title. In the days of sail, the ship's boats were used as landing craft; these rowing boats were sufficient, if inefficient, in an era when marines were light infantry, participating in small-scale campaigns in far-flung colonies against less well-equipped indigenous opponents.
In order to support amphibious operations during the landing in Pisagua by carrying significant quantities of cargo, landing troops directly onto an unimproved shore, the Government of Chile built flat-bottomed landing craft, called Chalanas. They transported 1,200 men in the first landing and took on board 600 men in less than 2 hours for the second landing. During World War I, the mass mobilization of troops equipped with rapid-fire weapons rendered such boats obsolete. Initial landings during the Gallipoli campaign took place in unmodified rowing boats that were vulnerable to attack from the Turkish shore defenses. In February 1915, orders were placed for the design of purpose built landing craft. A design was created in four days resulting in an order for 200'X' Lighters with a spoon-shaped bow to take shelving beaches and a drop down frontal ramp; the first use took place after they had been towed to the Aegean and performed in the 6 August landing at Suvla Bay of IX Corps, commanded by Commander Edward Unwin.'X' Lighters, known to the soldiers as'Beetles', carried about 500 men, displaced 135 tons and were based on London barges being 105 feet 6 inches long, 21 feet wide, 7 ft 6 inches deep.
The engines ran on heavy oil and ran at a speed of 5 knots. The sides of the ships were bulletproof, was designed with a ramp on the bow for disembarkation. A plan was devised to land British heavy tanks from pontoons in support of the Third Battle of Ypres, but this was abandoned; the Imperial Russian Navy soon followed suit, building a series of similar landing motor barges of the so-called Bolinder-class, named after the supplier of the diesels installed in them. These, proved too small and unseaworthy for their intended Black sea theater — they were intended for the planned Marmara Sea landings. Instead, a new class was designed, based on the widespread pattern of the Black sea merchant steamers; these were very light at the bow, having all their machinery concentrated at the stern, which allowed easy beaching on any sloping coast, were equipped with a bow ramp for fast unloading. This resulted in a 1300-ton, 1500 hp Elpidifor-class, named after the Rostov-on-Don merchant Elpidifor Paramonov, whose eponymous grain carrier served as a pattern on which they were based.
With a 1.8 m loaded draft, equipped with the ballast tanks and reinforced hull for safe beaching, they were able to land 1000 troops with their train at any available beach. While the landings for which they were created never happened, the ships themselves turned out quite useful and had a long career, supporting the Caucasus Campaign and as minesweepers and utility transports. During the inter-war period, the combination of the negative experience at Gallipoli and economic stringency contributed to the delay in procuring equipment and adopting a universal doctrine for amphibious operations in the Royal Navy. Despite this outlook, the British produced the Motor Landing Craft in 1920, based on their experience with the early'Beetle' armoured transport; the craft could put a medium tank directly onto a beach. From 1924, it was used with landing boats in annual exercises in amphibious landings. A prototype motor landing craft, designed by J. Samuel White of Cowes, was built and first sailed in 1926.
It had a box-like appearance, having a square bow and stern. To prevent fouling of the propellers in a craft destined to spend time in surf and be beached, a crude waterjet propulsion system was devised by White's designers. A Hotchkiss petrol engine drove a centrifugal pump which produced a jet of water, pushing the craft ahead or astern, steering it, according to how the jet was directed. Speed was 5-6 knots and its beaching capacity was good. By 1930, three MLC were operated by the Royal Navy; the United States revived and experimented in their approach to amphibious warfare between 1913 and mid-1930s, when the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps became interested in setting up advanced bases in opposing countries during wartime. In 1939, during the annual Fleet Landing Exercises, the FMF became interested in the military potential of Andrew Higgins's design of a powered, shallow-draught boat; these LCPL, dubbed the'Higgins Boats', were reviewed and passed by the U. S. Naval Bureau of Construction and Repair.
Soon, the Higgins boats were developed to a final design with a ramp - the LCVP, were pr
Legionella pneumophila is a thin, pleomorphic, non-spore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella. L. pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium in this group and is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease known as legionellosis. In nature, L. pneumophila infects freshwater and soil amoebae of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria. The mechanism of infection is similar in amoeba and human cells. L. pneumophila is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacillus with a single, polar flagellum characterized as being a coccobacillus. It is unable to hydrolyse gelatin or produce urease, it is nonfermentative. L. pneumophila does it autofluoresce. It is oxidase- and catalase-positive, produces beta-lactamase. L. pneumophila colony morphology is gray-white with a cut-glass appearance. It grows on yeast extract in "opal-like" colonies. While L. pneumophila is categorized as a Gram-negative organism, it stains poorly due to its unique lipopolysaccharide content in the outer leaflet of the outer cell membrane.
The bases for the somatic antigen specificity of this organism are located on the side chains of its cell wall. The chemical composition of these side chains both with respect to components and arrangement of the different sugars, determines the nature of the somatic or O-antigen determinants, which are important means of serologically classifying many Gram-negative bacteria. At least 35 different serovars of L. pneumophila have been described, as well as several other species being subdivided into a number of serovars. Sera have been used both for slide agglutination studies and for direct detection of bacteria in tissues using fluorescent-labelled antibody. Specific antibody in patients can be determined by the indirect fluorescent antibody test. ELISA and microagglutination tests have been applied. Legionella stains poorly with Gram stain, stains positive with silver, is cultured on charcoal yeast extract with iron and cysteine. L. pneumophila is a facultative intracellular parasite that can invade and replicate inside amoebae in the environment species of the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, which can thus serve as a reservoir for L. pneumophila.
These hosts provide protection from environmental stresses, such as chlorination. In the United States, about 2 infections with L. pneumophila appear per 100,000 residents per year. The infections peak in the summer. Within endemic regions, about 4% to 5% of pneumonia cases are caused by L. pneumophila.. In humans, L. pneumophila replicates inside macrophages. The internalization of the bacteria can be enhanced by the presence of antibody and complement, but is not required. Internalization of the bacteria appears to occur through phagocytosis. However, L. pneumophila is capable of infecting nonphagocytic cells through an unknown mechanism. A rare form of phagocytosis known as coiling phagocytosis has been described for L. pneumophila, but this is not dependent on the Dot/Icm secretion system and has been observed for other pathogens. Once internalized, the bacteria surround themselves in a membrane-bound vacuole that does not fuse with lysosomes that would otherwise degrade the bacteria. In this protected compartment, the bacteria multiply.
The bacteria use a type IVB secretion system known as Dot/Icm to inject effector proteins into the host. These effectors are involved in increasing the bacteria's ability to survive inside the host cell. L. pneumophila encodes for over 330 "effector" proteins, which are secreted by the Dot/Icm translocation system to interfere with host cell processes to aid bacterial survival. It has been predicted that the genus Legionella encodes more than 10,000 and up to ~18,000 effectors that have a high probability to be secreted into their host cells. One key way in which L. pneumophila uses its effector proteins is to interfere with fusion of the Legionella-containing vacuole with the host's endosomes, thus protect against lysis. Knock-out studies of Dot/Icm translocated effectors indicate that they are vital for the intracellular survival of the bacterium, but many individual effector proteins are thought to function redundantly, in that single-effector knock-outs impede intracellular survival; this high number of translocated effector proteins and their redundancy is a result of the bacterium having evolved in many different protozoan hosts.
For Legionella to survive within macrophages and protozoa, it must create a specialized compartment known as the Legionella-containing vacuole. Through the action of the Dot/Icm secretion system, the bacteria are able to prevent degradation by the normal endosomal trafficking pathway and instead replicate. Shortly after internalization, the bacteria recruit endoplasmic reticulum-derived vesicles and mitochondria to the LCV while preventing the recruitment of endosomal markers such as Rab5 and Rab7. Formation and maintenance of the vacuoles are crucial for pathogenesis. Once inside the host cell, Legionella needs nutrients to reproduce. Inside the vacuole, nutrient availability is low. To improve the availability of amino acids, the parasite promotes the host mechanisms of proteasomal degradation; this generates an excess of free amino acids in the cytoplasm of L. pneumophila-infected cells that can be used for intravacuolar proliferation of the parasite
Low Carbon Vehicle Event
The Low Carbon Vehicle Event, is United Kingdom's premier low carbon vehicle event. It is held annually since 2008 at Millbrook Proving Ground at the beginning of September; the show consists of seminars sessions and Ride & Drive activities. LCV is a business-to-business free-to-attend event organised by Cenex and whose main aim is promoting the UK supply chain of the low carbon vehicle industry; the Low Carbon Vehicle Event has been organised annually from 2008 by Cenex and supporting partners include: The Department for Business and Industrial Strategy, The Centre for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles, The Office for Low Emission Vehicles, The Department for International Trade, The Advanced Propulsion Centre, The Automotive Council UK, Innovate UK, The Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership, The Society of Motor Manufacturers, Transport Systems Catapult. Cenex prides itself on ensuring the decision makers of the UK industry attend the event with all major stakeholders, key manufacturers, supply chain representatives and government officials from the UK present.
The event attracts a range of customers and senior managers including those at board level and middle management. LCV2016 set a new record attendance with 3,137 visitors, 226 exhibitors and 1180 organisations represented; this year’s event takes place on Wednesday 6th and Thursday 7thSeptember 2017 at Millbrook and is set to be the biggest and best year yet. Cenex-LCV is the place to meet UK decision makers and industry experts.
Lincolnville is a town in Waldo County, United States. The population was 2,164 at the 2010 census. Lincolnville is the mainland terminal for state ferry service to Islesboro. 10,000 years ago, a glacier covered the area to a depth of several thousand feet, carving irregular landforms that survive today. The earliest artifact of European origin was fragments of a 1650-1660 clay pipe a trade good with the native population. First settled in 1774, the town was incorporated in 1802 from Ducktrap plantations, it was named for a Revolutionary War General and friend of Henry Knox. The first school in Lincolnville was a three-sided log cabin with a perpendicular ledge for a fourth wall behind Nathan Knight's home. Over the years, the population continued to grow until it was incorporated in 1802. A bicentennial celebration was celebrated by the town in 2002. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 43.65 square miles, of which, 37.34 square miles is land and 6.31 square miles is water.
Located along the western side of Penobscot Bay, Lincolnville is drained by the Ducktrap River. Principle bodies of water include: Megunticook Lake, Norton Pond, Coleman Pond, Moody Pond and Levenseller Pond; the town is served by U. S. Route 1, Maine State Routes 173, 52 and 235, it is bordered by Belmont on the north, Northport on the northeast, Penobscot Bay on the east, Camden on the south, Hope on the west and Searsmont on the northwest. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,164 people, 959 households, 635 families residing in the town; the population density was 58.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,465 housing units at an average density of 39.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.9% White, 0.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 959 households of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.1% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.8% were non-families.
26.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.70. The median age in the town was 47.5 years. 19.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 50.8% male and 49.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,042 people, 846 households, 605 families residing in the town; the population density was 54.6 people per square mile. There were 1,272 housing units at an average density of 34.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.78% White, 0.05% African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.39% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.83% of the population. There were 846 households out of which 31.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.7% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families.
22.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.82. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 4.9% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $42,273, the median income for a family was $48,500. Males had a median income of $32,006 versus $28,077 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,621. About 7.0% of families and 9.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.8% of those under age 18 and 9.5% of those age 65 or over. Lincolnville is part of School Union 69, which operates the Lincolnville Central School, for grades K-8 and is part of the Five Town Consolidated School District, which operates Camden Hills Regional High School.
Dianne Helprin is the Superintendent of School Union 69 and Maria Libby is the Superintendent of the Five Town CSD. John Burstein, actor and performer of Slim Goodbody Tim Boetsch, mixed martial artist Jon Fishman, Phish Elizabeth Hand, author Alex Katz, artist Eli Pariser, political activist Levi Rackliffe, California state treasurer Susan Rice former National Security Advisor and United States Ambassador to the United Nations Bidu Sayão, opera soprano Neil Welliver, artist Town of Lincolnville, Maine Lincolnville Historical Society Lincolnville Business Group NOCASOBE North of Camden, South of Belfast Maine Genealogy: Lincolnville, Waldo County, Maine Maine.gov -- Lincolnville, Maine
Light commercial vehicle
A light commercial vehicle is the official term used within the European Union, New Zealand, in both Canada and Ireland, for a commercial carrier vehicle with a gross vehicle weight of no more than 3.5 metric tons. Qualifying light commercial vehicles include pickup trucks and three-wheelers – all commercially based goods or passenger carrier vehicles; the LCV concept was created as a compact truck and is optimised to be tough built, have low operating costs and powerful yet fuel efficient engines, to be utilised in intra-city operations. All of the above light commercial vehicles are sold through dealer networks. A car dealer will have a franchise for the sale of a manufacturer's cars and the LCVs will be sold as an addition; the exceptions to these are Mercedes-Benz, who have a dedicated commercial vehicle network for heavy and light commercial vehicles, Volkswagen whose franchised dealers have standalone van centres and Isuzu Truck. Isuzu Truck market commercial vehicles up to 18 tonnes GVW and Iveco market their heavy truck range with their Daily van to complement this.
Many franchised dealers retail used LCVs, with the poorer quality examples sent to specialist auctions for sale. There is a large network of independent used commercial vehicle retailers who retail thousands of used commercial vehicles every month. LCV dealers are using the Internet to help sell their vehicles in addition to the traditional print media. Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle Light Haulage Truck classification
Long combination vehicle
Long combination vehicles are combinations of multiple trailers on tractor trucks as compared to standard 5 axle semi trailer-trucks with one trailer. Turnpike double – two 40 ft trailers or longer up to 53 footers Rocky Mountain doubles – one 40 ft trailer or longer and another shorter trailer a 28-foot Triple trailer – three 28.5 ft pups B-Train – 33 foot max twin trailer that shares a wheel set between the front and back trailer. STAA doubles pups – two 28.5 ft trailers LCVs are useful because they carry extra freight in terms of square and cubic feet capacity as well as weight capacity. They're more efficient based on Ton-mileage. In the United States some states allow certain combinations on certain routes. In the western United States LCVs are allowed on many Interstate highways; the only LCVs allowed nationwide are STAA doubles. Future combinations are under consideration to be allowed on the US National Network; these new standards were scheduled to be released in November 2014. 1 Calculated values reflect FHWA policy of rounding down when distances fall between 6-inch increments.
2 Calculated values reflect FHWA policy of rounding down when weights fall between 500-pound increments. 3 Tandem axle by definition. 4 Distances between 8 feet to 8 feet 11 inches may not be rounded down. 5 __ Maximum legal weight limit based on number of axles. Increased axle lengths beyond these do not increase maximum legal weight. 6 __ Exception to the formula: when the four axles under consideration are two tandem axles spaced at least 36 feet apart, a gross weight of 68,000 pounds is allowed. __ Upper blank areas represent unrealistic configurations. Combination Vehicles for Commercial Drivers License