1963 Monaco Grand Prix
The 1963 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on May 26, 1963. It was race 1 of 10 in both the 1963 World Championship of Drivers and the 1963 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers; the 100-lap race was won by British driver Graham Hill driving a BRM P57. ^1 - Chris Amon did not start after handing his car over to Maurice Trintignant ^2 - Bernard Collomb did not qualify as the grid was limited to 16 places but Jack Brabham was automatically qualified Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Coventry Climax was a British forklift truck, fire pump and other speciality engine manufacturer. The company was started in 1903 as Lee Stroyer, but two years following the departure of Stroyer, it was relocated to Paynes Lane and renamed as Coventry-Simplex by H. Pelham Lee, a former Daimler employee, who saw a need for competition in the nascent piston engine market. An early user was GWK, who produced over 1,000 light cars with Coventry-Simplex two-cylinder engines between 1911 and 1915. Just before World War I a Coventry-Simplex engine was used by Lionel Martin to power the first Aston Martin car. Ernest Shackleton selected Coventry-Simplex to power the tractors that were to be used in his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition of 1914. Hundreds of Coventry-Simplex engines were manufactured during World War I to be used in generating sets for searchlights. In 1917 the company was moved to East Street, Coventry. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s they supplied engines to many companies manufacturing light cars such as Abbey, AJS, Ashton-Evans, Bayliss-Thomas, Crossley, Crouch, GWK, Morgan, Triumph and Standard.
In the 1920s the company moved to Friars Road, Coventry and in the late 1930s they acquired the former Riley premises on Widdrington Road, Coventry. In the early 1930s the company supplied engines for buses. With the closure of Swift in 1931, the company was left with a stock of engines that were converted to drive electric generators, giving the company an entry into a new field; the economic problems of the 1930s hit the business hard and Leonard Pelham Lee, who had taken over from his father, diversified into the production of water-pumping equipment and the "Godiva" was born. Going into the war, Coventry Climax used their marine diesel experience to further develop and build the Armstrong Whitworth supercharged H30 multifuel engine for military use; this has been fitted as an auxiliary engine in the British Chieftain and Challenger battle tanks and Rapier anti-aircraft missile systems. In the late 1940s, the company shifted away from automobile engines and into other markets, including marine diesels, fire pumps, forklift trucks.
In 1946, the ET199 was announced, which the company claimed was the first British-produced forklift truck. The ET199 was designed to carry a 4,000 lb load with a 24-inch load centre, with a 9 ft lift height. In 1950, Harry Mundy and Walter Hassan joined Coventry Climax, a new lightweight all-aluminium overhead camshaft engine was developed in response to the government's ambitious requisition outline asking for a portable fire pump, capable of pumping double the amount of water specified in the previous outline, with half the weight; this was designated the FW, for "Feather Weight". The engine was displayed at the Motor Show in London and attracted attention from the motor racing fraternity for its high "horsepower per pound of weight". With strong persuasions at the show including those by Cyril Kieft and a young Colin Chapman, Lee concluded that success in competition could lead to more customers for the company and so the team designed the FWA, a Feather Weight engine for Automobiles; the first Coventry Climax racing engine appeared at the 1954 24 Hours of Le Mans in the front of one of two Kieft 1100 sports racers, but both cars failed to finish the race due to problems unrelated to the engines.
The FWA became popular in sportscar racing and was followed by the Mark II and by the FWB which had a capacity of nearly 1.5-litres. The new Formula Two regulations suited the 1.5-litre engine and it became the engine to have in F2 racing. The following year, the first Climax engines began to appear in Formula One in the back of Cooper chassis; these were FWBs but the FPF engine followed. Stirling Moss scored the company's first Formula One victory, in Argentina in 1958, using a 2-litre version of the engine. In general terms, the engines were not powerful enough to compete with the 2.5-litre machinery and it was not until the 2.5-litre version of the FPF arrived in 1959 that Jack Brabham was able to win the world championship in a Cooper-Climax. At the same time, the company produced the FWE engine for Lotus Elite and this enjoyed considerable success in sports car racing, with a series of class wins at the Le Mans events in the early 1960s. In 1961, there was a new 1.5-litre formula and the FPF engine was given a new lease on life, although the company began work on a V8 engine, designated the FWMV, this began winning races in 1962 with Jim Clark.
There were a total of 22 Grand Prix victories before 1966 with crossplane, two- and four-valve versions of the FWMV. When the new, 3-litre, formula was introduced, Coventry Climax decided not to build engines for the new formula and withdrew from racing after the unsuccessful FWMW project, with the exception of the new 2-Litre version of the FWMV. In the early 1960s, Coventry Climax was approached by Rootes to mass-produce FWMAs for use in a compact family car project called Apex with an all-aluminium alloy over head cam engine combined with a full-syncromesh aluminium transaxle; this combination was considered radical at the time the syncromesh on all forward gears, declared'impossible' by Alec Issigonis of BMC Mini fame. The adoption to mass-production was successful, the project came out to the market as the 875cc Hillman Imp totaling over 400,000 units made by 1976 including the 998cc version. At Earls Court in 1962 Coventry Climax' chairman Leonard Pelham Lee announced the withdrawal from building Formula 1 e
Repco is an Australian automotive engineering/retailer company. Its name is an abbreviation of Replacement Parts Company and it is best known for spare parts and motor accessories; the company gained fame for developing the engines that powered the Brabham Formula One cars in which Jack Brabham and Denny Hulme won the 1966 and 1967 World Championship of Drivers titles respectively. Brabham-Repco was awarded the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers in the same two years. Repco runs a series of stores across Australia and New Zealand specialising in the sale of parts and aftermarket accessories; the company was founded by Robert Geoffrey Russell in 1922 and first traded under the name Automotive Grinding Company, from premises in Collingwood, Victoria. It has over 2,000 employees in 400 stores. Repco was a publicly traded company being first listed on the Australian Stock Exchange in 1937, before being acquired by Pacific Dunlop in 1988, it was again listed in 2003. From 1 July 2013, the entire Exego group were all acquired by GPC Asia Pacific.
As at the end of 2013 Repco Australia has 295 Stores, Repco New Zealand has 81 Repco Stores and an additional 10 Appco Stores. In 1964 the Australian/New Zealand Tasman Series was created with a 2500cc capacity limit applied to engines. Jack Brabham approached Repco to develop a suitable engine, together they decided to base the SOHC design on Oldsmobile Jetfire 215 ci block with six cylinder-head studs per cylinder. Combined with a short stroke flat-plane crankshaft, Repco designed cylinder heads and two-stage chain/gear cam drive, a 2.5L engine was built in 1965 with its cylinder head cast by Commonwealth Aircraft. In 1963 the international motor racing body, the FIA, announced that the maximum engine capacity for the Formula One category would be doubled to three litres to start from the 1966 season. Despite calls for a "return to power" having been made, few teams were prepared as the main engine supplier in the UK, Coventry Climax, decided to get out of race engine building. Jack Brabham exploited his existing relationship with Australian automotive components manufacturer Repco.
He proposed they design and build a 3L version of the 2.5L engine by using a longer stroke flat-plane crankshaft. The Repco board agreed to his proposal in light of the expected rival 2.75 L Coventry Climax'FPF' DOHC engine being of four-cylinder configuration deemed to be near-obsolete, the plan to build the Cosworth DFV was not known yet. A small team under Repco Chief Engineer and General Manager of Repco Brabham, Frank Hallam, developed the F1 engine, fitted with two valves per cylinder SOHC heads from the 2.5L version. The first advantage of this Repco 620 V8 was its compact size and lightness, which allowed it to be bolted into an existing 1.5-litre Formula One chassis. With no more than 310 bhp, the Repco was by far the least powerful of the new 3-litre engines, but unlike the others it was frugal and compact. Unlike the others, it was reliable and due to low weight and power, the strain on chassis, suspension and tyres was low; this engine being based on British/American Rover V8 /Buick 215 block is a common misconception.
The Oldsmobile version of this engine, although sharing the same basic architecture, had cylinder heads and angled valve covers designed by Oldsmobile engineers to look like a traditional Olds V8 and was produced on a separate assembly line. Oldsmobile's intention to produce a higher powered, turbo-charged Jetfire version led to significant differences from the Buick 215 in cylinder head design: Buick used a 5-bolt pattern around each cylinder where Oldsmobile used a 6-bolt pattern; the sixth bolt was added to the intake manifold side of the head, one extra bolt for each cylinder, meant to alleviate a head-warping problem on high-compression versions. This meant that Buick heads would fit on Oldsmobile blocks, but not vice versa. Changing the compression ratio on an Oldsmobile 215 required changing the heads, but on a Buick 215, only the pistons, less expensive and simpler. GM's use of parts diagrams drawn for Oldsmobile in Buick parts catalog showing a six-stud cylinder block sowed further confusion.
Rover versions of the aluminum block and subsequent Buick iron small blocks went to a 4-bolt-per-cylinder pattern. In 1966, the Repco engine was good enough to score three poles for Jack Brabham. In his one-off BT19, it helped him get four consecutive wins and both titles in the nine-races long season, a unique accomplishment for a driver and constructor; this was his third title. The 2,995.58 cc V8 Repco had a bore and stroke of 3.50 x 2.375". It gave about 285 bhp. A test bed figure of 315 bhp at 7,800 rpm with 230 lb⋅ft torque at 6,500 rpm was obtained. In race trim, about 299 bhp was available. In 1967, the bore and stroke remained unaltered. In that year, 330 bhp bhp at 8,500 rpm was quoted. A test-bed figure of 327 bhp at 8,300 rpm was recorded. For 1968, a 32-valve version with 400 bhp at 9,500 rpm was planned. Only about 380 bhp at 9,000 rpm was achieved. In 1967 the competition had made progress. Repco produced a new version of the 700 series, this time with a Repco designed block. Brabham scored two poles early in the year, but the new Ford Cosworth DFV V8 appeared in the Lotus 49, setting a new pace with its 410 hp at 9,000 rpm, with Jim Clark and Graham
1962 German Grand Prix
The 1962 German Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at the Nürburgring on 5 August 1962. It was race 6 of 9 in both the 1962 World Championship of Drivers and the 1962 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers; the 15-lap race was won by BRM driver Graham Hill after he started from second position. John Surtees finished second for the Lola team and Porsche driver Dan Gurney came in third; the race was notable for having six different constructors taking the first six positions. After a heavy midday downpour, the race was delayed by over an hour as streams of water and mud covered parts of the track, it never dried and the race was ran in wet conditions. Graham Hill drove masterfully in the wet conditions, followed by John Surtees, proving himself a great driver, he reached third position in the championship with this race, but was not to score any more points in 1962. Gurney's Porsche had less than impressive handling but he finished third after having passed Phil Hill, whose Ferrari was doing much better than at Aintree.
Hill, had to pit with oil on his visor and retired with a broken rear suspension soon thereafter. Back after a disastrous strike had kept them out of the last two races Ferrari had shown up in force with four 156s built to different specifications. Hill had the newest version, with a six-speed transmission mounted fore of the engine. Giancarlo Baghetti drove a car with the usual transmission and finished tenth, whereas Ricardo Rodriguez drove last year's model with the 65 degree Tipo 188 engine - and got the best result of the team, with a sixth. Lorenzo Bandini used a development car, with a regular nosecone, smaller radiator, modified front and rear suspension, he crashed on while in eleventh position. Jim Clark absentmindedly forgot to turn on the fuel pump at the start, losing thirteen seconds and being in 26th place after the start. A rapid climb began, he passed no less than seventeen cars on the opening lap, he was closing in to the leaders with three to four seconds per lap, but after a few near crashes near the middle of the race he chose to ease off the pace a bit.
Clark finished ahead of Bruce McLaren in a V8 Cooper. The other V8-engined Cooper was driven in practice by Tony Maggs, but a German TV-company's camera fell off de Beaufort's Porsche in practice, causing Graham Hill and Maggs to crash and total their cars. Maggs finished ninth; the Grand Prix Drivers' Association's policy was to not carry cameras due to the safety risks, but de Beaufort was not a member. Three new cars appeared - the new BRM V8-engined Gilby, driven by Keith Greene, retired after about half the race with gearbox problems; the Belgian Maserati-engined ENB finished last. This was its only appearance, a hard worked Lucien Bianchi was only allowed to start thanks to the fact that several faster racers had not finished the minimum-required five laps. Gurney's fastest qualifying lap was 8:47.2. Most Jack Brabham's new BT3 appeared after a marathon effort by his mechanics, he spun the main bearings on the first day practice, qualified with an engine built using parts from Trevor Taylor's car.
He started the race from the rear of the field, with the Climax engine from his Lotus 24. He climbed to ninth place by the end of the first lap, but his throttle broke and he had to retire after nine laps. Nonetheless, Brabham was happy with the car the handling. Notes: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings. Only the best five results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points. "Formula One World". Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. Retrieved 2008-01-16
1962 Formula One season
The 1962 Formula One season was the 16th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1962 World Championship of Drivers and the 1962 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers which were contested concurrently over a nine race series that commenced on 20 May and ended on 29 December; the season included a number of non-championship races for Formula One cars. Ferrari were eclipsed in 1962 as a result of internal upheavals because the British teams had made great progress. BRM came good with Graham Hill taking the championship after a season long battle with the revolutionary monocoque Lotus 25 driven by Jim Clark. Dan Gurney gave Porsche their only Grand Prix win at Rouen, Cooper won their last race until 1966. Lola made their first of their sporadic forays into Grand Prix racing, Jack Brabham emerged as a constructor, scoring his first points in his own car. Stirling Moss considered to be the greatest driver to never win the championship and one of the greatest drivers in motorsport, was due to drive for Scuderia Ferrari this season however he crashed in an off-season race at Goodwood and never raced in Formula One again.
Ricardo Rodríguez, age 20 years 123 days, became the youngest driver to score championship points with his fourth place in Belgium, a record which stood for 38 years before Jenson Button, age 20 years 67 days, broke it at the 2000 Brazilian Grand Prix. Two drivers were to die during this season. Mexican Ricardo Rodríguez during the non-championship Mexican Grand Prix at the Mixhuca circuit, noted Rhodesian motorcycle rider Gary Hocking during the non-championship Natal Grand Prix at the Westmead Circuit in South Africa. Ferrari started the year well, with Phil Hill in second place after having been on the podium in the first three races. However, personality differences, loss of most of the engineering team in the 1961 "walk-out", a prolonged industrial strike, led to Enzo Ferrari withdrawing his team from the last two races; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1962 FIA World Championship. Points towards the 1962 World Championship of Drivers were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the first six finishers in each race, with the best five race results retained by each driver.
Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position Points towards the 1962 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis for the first six places in each race, however only the best placed car from each manufacturer was eligible to score points and only the best five results could be retained by each manufacturer. Only the best 5 results counted towards the championship. Numbers without parentheses are championship points. Bold results counted to championship totals; the following Formula One races which did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers or the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers were held in 1962. 1962 F1 Results & image galleries at www.f1-facts.com 1962 FIA Regulations at www.sovren.org
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was a federal semi-Dominion that consisted of three southern African territories—the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia and the British protectorates of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland—between 1953 and 1963. The Federation was established on 1 August 1953; the Federation was established with a Governor-General as the Queen's representative at the centre. An interesting and novel feature was the African Affairs Board, set up to safeguard the interests of Africans and endowed with statutory powers for that purpose in regard to discriminatory legislation; the constitutional status of the three territories – a self-governing Colony and two Protectorates – was not affected, though certain enactments applied to the Federation as a whole as if it were part of Her Majesty's dominions and a Colony. The economic advantages to the Federation were never called into question, the causes of the Federation's failure were purely political: the strong and growing opposition of the African inhabitants.
The rulers of the new black African states were united in wanting to end colonialism in Africa. With most of the world moving away from colonialism during the late 1950s and early 1960s, the United Kingdom was subjected to pressure to de-colonize from both the United Nations and the Organization of African Unity; these groups supported the aspirations of the black African nationalists and accepted their claims to speak on behalf of the people. The federation ended on 31 December 1963. In 1964, shortly after the dissolution, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland became independent under the names Zambia and Malawi, respectively. In 1965, Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared independence from the United Kingdom as the state of Rhodesia. In 1929, the Hilton Young Commission concluded that "in the present state of communications the main interests of Nyasaland and Northern Rhodesia and political, lie not in association with the Eastern African Territories, but rather one another and with the self-governing Colony of Southern Rhodesia".
In 1938, the Bledisloe Commission concluded that the territories would become interdependent in all their activities, but stopped short of recommending federation. Instead, it advised the creation of an inter-territorial council to coordinate government services and survey the development needs of the region; the Second World War delayed the creation of this institution until 1945, when the Central African Council was established to promote coordination of policy and action between the territories. The Governor of Southern Rhodesia presided over the Council and was joined by the leaders of the other two territories; the Council only had consultative, not binding, powers. In November 1950, Jim Griffiths, the Secretary of State for the Colonies, informed the House of Commons that the government has decided that there should be another examination of the possibility of a closer union between the Central African territories, that a conference of the respective governments and the Central African Council was being arranged for March 1951.
The conference concluded that there was a need for closer association, pointing to the economic interdependence of the three territories. It was argued that individually the territories were vulnerable and would benefit from becoming a single unit with a more broadly based economy, it was said that unification of certain public services would promote greater efficiency. It was decided to recommend a federation under which the central government would have certain specific powers, with the residual powers being left with the territorial governments. Another conference was held in September 1951 at Victoria Falls attended by Griffiths and Patrick Gordon Walker. Another two conferences would be held in London in 1952 and 1953 where the federal structure was prepared in detail. While many points of contention were worked out in the conferences that followed, several proved to be acute, some insurmountable; the negotiations and conferences were arduous. Southern Rhodesia and the Northern Territories had different traditions for the'Native Question' and the roles they were designed to play in civil society.
An agreement would not have been reached without Sir Andrew Cohen, CO Assistant Undersecretary for African Affairs. He became one of the central architects and driving forces behind the creation of the Federation seemingly singlehandedly untangling deadlocks and outright walkouts on the part of the respective parties. Cohen, Jewish and traumatised by the Holocaust, was an anti-racialist and an advocate of African rights, but he compromised his ideals to avoid what he saw as an greater risk than the continuation of the paternalistic white ascendancy system of Southern Rhodesia – its becoming an less flexible, radical white supremacy, like the National Party government in South Africa. Lord Blake, the Oxford-based historian, wrote: "In that sense, Apartheid can be regarded as the father of Federation."The House of Commons approved the conferences' proposals on 24 March 1953, in April passed motions in favor of federating the territories of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. A referendum was held in Southern Rhodesia on 9 April.
Following the insistence and reassurances of the Southern Rhodesian Prime Minister, Sir Godfrey Huggins, a little more than 25,000 white Southern Rhodesians voted in the referendum for a federal government, versus nearly 15,000 against. A majority of Afrikaners and black Africans in all three territories were resolutely against it; the Federation came into being when the Parliament of the United Kingdom en