Doha is the capital and most populous city of the State of Qatar. Doha has a population of 1,850,000 in the city proper with the population close to 2.4 million. The city is located on the coast of the Persian Gulf in the east of the country, it is Qatar's fastest growing city, with over 80% of the nation's population living in Doha or its surrounding suburbs, it is the economic centre of the country. Doha was founded in the 1820s as an offshoot of Al Bidda, it was declared as the country's capital in 1971, when Qatar gained independence from being a British Protectorate. As the commercial capital of Qatar and one of the emergent financial centres in the Middle East, Doha is considered a world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Doha accommodates an area devoted to research and education; the city was host to the first ministerial-level meeting of the Doha Development Round of World Trade Organization negotiations. It was selected as host city of a number of sporting events, including the 2006 Asian Games, the 2011 Pan Arab Games and most of the games at the 2011 AFC Asian Cup.
In December 2011, the World Petroleum Council held the 20th World Petroleum Conference in Doha. Additionally, the city hosted the 2012 UNFCCC Climate Negotiations and is set to host a large number of the venues for the 2022 FIFA World Cup; the city will host the 140th Inter-Parliamentary Union Assembly in April 2019. In May 2015, Doha was recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, La Paz, Havana and Kuala Lumpur. According to the Ministry of Municipality and Environment, the name "Doha" originated from the Arabic term dohat, meaning "roundness" — a reference to the rounded bays surrounding the area's coastline; the city of Doha was formed seceding from another local settlement known as Al Bidda. The earliest documented mention of Al Bidda was made in 1681, by the Carmelite Convent, in an account which chronicles several settlements in Qatar. In the record, the ruler and a fort in the confines of Al Bidda are alluded to. Carsten Niebuhr, a German explorer who visited the Arabian Peninsula, created one of the first maps to depict the settlement in 1765 in which he labelled it as'Guttur'.
David Seaton, a British political resident in Muscat, wrote the first English record of Al Bidda in 1801. He describes the geography and defensive structures in the area, he stated that the town had been settled by the Sudan tribe, whom he considered to be pirates. Seaton attempted to bombard the town with his warship, but returned to Muscat upon finding that the waters were too shallow to position his warship within striking distance. In 1820, British surveyor R. H. Colebrook, who visited Al Bidda, remarked on the recent depopulation of the town, he wrote: Guttur – Or Ul Budee, once a considerable town, is protected by two square Ghurries near the sea shore. This could contain two hundred men. There are remaining at Ul Budee about 250 men, but the original inhabitants, who may be expected to return from Bahrein, will augment them to 900 or 1,000 men, if the Doasir tribe, who frequent the place as divers, again settle in it, from 600 to 800 men; the same year, an agreement known as the General Maritime Treaty was signed between the East India Company and the sheikhs of several Persian Gulf settlements.
It sought to end piracy and the slave trade. Bahrain became a party to the treaty, it was assumed that Qatar, perceived as a dependency of Bahrain by the British, was a party to it. Qatar, was not asked to fly the prescribed Trucial flag; as punishment for alleged piracy committed by the inhabitants of Al Bidda and breach of treaty, an East India Company vessel bombarded the town in 1821. They razed the town, forcing between 300 and 400 natives to flee and temporarily take shelter on the islands between the Qatar and the Trucial Coast. Doha was founded in the vicinity of Al Bidda sometime during the 1820s. In January 1823, political resident John MacLeod visited Al Bidda to meet with the ruler and initial founder of Doha, Buhur bin Jubrun, the chief of the Al-Buainain tribe. MacLeod noted. Following the founding of Doha, written records conflated Al Bidda and Doha due to the close proximity of the two settlements; that year, Lt. Guy and Lt. Brucks mapped and wrote a description of the two settlements.
Despite being mapped as two separate entities, they were referred to under the collective name of Al Bidda in the written description. In 1828, Mohammed bin Khamis, a prominent member of the Al-Buainain tribe and successor of Buhur bin Jubrun as chief of Al Bidda, was embroiled in controversy, he had murdered a native of Bahrain. In response, the Al-Buainain tribe revolted, provoking the Al Khalifa to destroy the tribe's fort and evict them to Fuwayrit and Ar Ru'ays; this incident allowed the Al Khalifa additional jurisdiction over the town. With no effective ruler, Al Bidda and Doha became a sanctuary for pirates and outlaws. In November 1839, an outlaw from Abu Dhabi named Ghuleta took refuge in Al Bidda, evoking a harsh response from the British. A. H. Nott, a British naval commander, demanded that Salemin bin Nasir Al-Suwaidi, chief of the Sudan tribe in Al Bidda, take Ghuleta into custody and warned
Saudi Arabia the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is a country in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula. With a land area of 2,150,000 km2, Saudi Arabia is geographically the largest sovereign state in the Middle East, the second-largest in the Arab world, the fifth-largest in Asia, the 12th-largest in the world. Saudi Arabia is bordered by Jordan and Iraq to the north, Kuwait to the northeast, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates to the east, Oman to the southeast and Yemen to the south, it is the only nation with both a Red Sea coast and a Persian Gulf coast, most of its terrain consists of arid desert and mountains. As of October 2018, the Saudi economy was the largest in the Middle East and the 18th largest in the world. Saudi Arabia enjoys one of the world's youngest populations; the territory that now constitutes Saudi Arabia was the site of several ancient cultures and civilizations. The prehistory of Saudi Arabia shows some of the earliest traces of human activity in the world.
The world's second-largest religion, emerged in modern-day Saudi Arabia. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad united the population of Arabia and created a single Islamic religious polity. Following his death in 632, his followers expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory in a matter of decades. Arab dynasties originating from modern-day Saudi Arabia founded the Rashidun, Umayyad and Fatimid caliphates as well as numerous other dynasties in Asia and Europe; the area of modern-day Saudi Arabia consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz and parts of Eastern Arabia and Southern Arabia. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud, he united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. Saudi Arabia has since been a totalitarian absolute monarchy a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines.
The ultraconservative Wahhabi religious movement within Sunni Islam has been called "the predominant feature of Saudi culture", with its global spread financed by the oil and gas trade. Saudi Arabia is sometimes called "the Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Al-Masjid al-Haram and Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, the two holiest places in Islam; the state's official language is Arabic. Petroleum was discovered on 3 March 1938 and followed up by several other finds in the Eastern Province. Saudi Arabia has since become the world's second largest oil producer and the world's largest largest oil exporter, controlling the world's second largest oil reserves and the sixth largest gas reserves; the kingdom is categorized as a World Bank high-income economy with a high Human Development Index and is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies. The state has attracted criticism for a multitude of reasons including but not limited to: its archaic treatment of women, its excessive and extrajudicial use of capital punishment, state-sponsored discrimination against religious minorities and atheists, its role in the Yemeni Civil War, sponsorship of Islamic terrorists, its strict interpretation of Sharia Law.
An autocratic monarchy, the kingdom has the world's third-highest military expenditure and, according to SIPRI, was the world's second largest arms importer from 2010 to 2014. Saudi Arabia is considered a middle power. In addition to the GCC, it is an active member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and OPEC. Following the unification of the Hejaz and Nejd kingdoms, the new state was named al-Mamlakah al-ʻArabīyah as-Suʻūdīyah by royal decree on 23 September 1932 by its founder, Abdulaziz Al Saud. Although this is translated as "the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia" in English, it means "the Saudi Arab kingdom", or "the Arab Saudi Kingdom"; the word "Saudi" is derived from the element as-Suʻūdīyah in the Arabic name of the country, a type of adjective known as a nisba, formed from the dynastic name of the Saudi royal family, the Al Saud. Its inclusion expresses the view. Al Saud is an Arabic name formed by adding the word Al, meaning "family of" or "House of", to the personal name of an ancestor.
In the case of the Al Saud, this is the father of the dynasty's 18th-century founder, Muhammad bin Saud. There is evidence that human habitation in the Arabian Peninsula dates back to about 125,000 years ago, it is now believed that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75,000 years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting the Horn of Africa and Arabia. The Arabian peninsula is regarded as a central figure in our understanding of hominin evolution and dispersals. Arabia underwent an extreme environmental fluctuation in the Quaternary that led to profound evolutionary and demographic changes. Arabia has a rich Lower Paleolithic record, the quantity of Oldwan-like sites in the region indicate a significant role that Arabia had played in the early hominin colonization of Eurasia. In the Neolithic period, prominent cultures such as al-Magar whose epicenter lay in mod
Henning Larsen Architects
Henning Larsen Architects is an international architectural firm based in Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded in 1959 by noted Danish architect and namesake Henning Larsen, it has around 300 employees. In 2011, the company worked on projects in more than 20 countries. In 2008, it opened an office in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and in 2011, an office in Munich, Germany were inaugurated; the company have offices in Oslo, Norway, in the Faroe Islands, in Hong Kong, China. It is known for its educational projects. Among them Harpa Concert Hall and Conference Centre in Reykjavík, selected as one of the ten best concert halls in the world by the British magazine Gramophone and won the Mies van der Rohe Award 2013, the European Union Prize for Contemporary Architecture, it designed the Copenhagen Opera. After having worked both for Arne Jacobsen and Jørn Utzon, Henning Larsen founded Henning Larsens Tegnestue in 1959. With firm roots in Scandinavian design tradition, the office grew to one of the largest in Denmark.
The first major project outside Scandinavia was the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Riyadh, establishing the firm's international reputation. In the 1980s, Larsen initiated the architectural journal SKALA and an architectural gallery of the same name; as a professor in the Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Larsen had invited international architects, who were interviewed in SKALA, to give lectures in the academy. This came to have a great influence on the new generation of Danish architects who acquired a much greater international vision than previously; the journal existed for 10 years. Today, Henning Larsen Architects is owned by a group of partners; the partner group consists of Mette Kynne Frandsen, Louis Becker, Werner Frosch, Viggo Haremst, Signe Kongebro, Jacob Kurek, Kasper Kyndesen, Nina La Cour Sell, Ingela Larsson, Sarah Müllertz Gudiksen, Lars Steffensen, Jakob Strømann-Andersen, Michael Sørensen, Peer Teglgaard Jeppesen, Søren Øllgaard, Osbjørn Jacobsen, Claude Bøjer Godefroy, Elva Tang, Aljohara Al-Saud.
Henning Larsen Architects has its own Department of Research and Sustainability run by Signe Kongebro and Jakob Strømann-Andersen. The department takes part in climate and sustainability discussions and develops different design tools based on the newest knowledge within the field, it has employed several PhD-students from the Technical University of Denmark, who work with different projects related to sustainable design. The aim of the collaboration is to implement sustainability in the building design and building components at the beginning of each project. Danish Embassy, Saudi Arabia Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Saudi Arabia Central Library, Denmark Dragvoll University Centre, Trondheim Norway Copenhagen Business School, Denmark Nation Centre, Kenya Danish Design Centre, Denmark Møller Centre for Continuing Education, Churchill College, Cambridge, UK Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek French Wing, Denmark Nordea Headquarters, Denmark Malmö City Library extension, Malmö, Sweden Radium Hospital extension, Norway Ferring International Centre, Ørestad, Denmark IT University of Copenhagen, Ørestad, Denmark Copenhagen Opera House, Denmark Uppsala Concert & Congress Hall, Sweden Roland Levinsky Building, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom Jåttå Vocational School, Norway The Wave in Vejle, Denmark Neroport, Ørestad, Denmark Scandinavian Golf Club, Denmark Umeå School of Architecture, Umeå, Sweden Town Hall, Denmark Spiegel House, Germany Harpa - Reykjavík Concert Hall and Conference Centre, Reykjavík, Iceland Low-energy office building, Denmark Umeå Arts Campus, Umeå, Sweden Skodsborg Spa & Fitness, Denmark Art Pavilion, Videbæk, Denmark Campus Roskilde, Denmark Klostermark School, Denmark Moesgård Museum, Århus, Denmark Moesgård Museum extension, Århus, Denmark King Abdullah Financial District, Saudi Arabia Calabar International Conference Center, Nigeria Crystal Towers, King Abdullah Financial District, Saudi Arabia Siemens Headquarters, Germany Egedal Town Hall, Denmark ) Ystad Arena, Sweden (competition win.
U/c, completion 2015] Frederiksbjerg School, Denmark Villas in the Sky, King Abdullah Financial District, Saudi Arabia Institute of Diplomatic Studies, Saudi Arabia Nordea Headquarters, Denmark Cultural cluster, Klaksvík, Faroe Islands Center for Solar Energy and Hydrogen Research, Germany Herlev Hospital extension, Denmark Campus Aas, Norway European Spallation Source, Sweden Vinge, Denmark. Kiruna Town Hall, Sweden Forum Medicum, Sweden Carl H. Lindner College of Business, Cincinnati, UZ French International School, Hong Kong, China 1987 International Design Award, London 1989 Aga Khan Award for the Ministry of
Sir David Alan Chipperfield is an English architect. He established David Chipperfield Architects in 1985, his major works include the Rowing Museum in Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Rowan Moore, the architecture critic of the Guardian of London, described his work as serious, not flamboyant or radical, but comfortable with the history and culture of its setting. "He deals in dignity, in gravitas, in memory and in art." David Chipperfield Architects is a global architectural practice with offices in London, Berlin and Shanghai. Chipperfield was born in London in 1953, graduated in 1976 from Kingston School of Art in London, he studied architecture at the Architectural Association in London, receiving his diploma in architecture in 1977. He worked in the offices of several notable architects, including Douglas Stephen, Norman Foster and Richard Rogers, before founding his own firm, David Chipperfield Architects, in 1985; as a young architect Chipperfield championed the historically-attuned, place-specific work of continental architects such as Moneo and Siza through the 9H Gallery situated in the front room of his London office.
He first established his reputation designing shops in London, Paris and New York. Among Chipperfield's early projects in England were a shop for Issey Miyake on London's Sloane Street in 1983, a house for the fashion photographer Nick Knight in Richmond, Surrey, his shops in Japan led to commissions to design a private museum in the Chiba prefecture, a design store for the automobile company Toyota in Kyoto, the headquarters of the Matsumoto Company in Okayama. His firm opened an office in Tokyo in 1989, his first completed projects in London were the gallery of botany and the entrance hall for the Museum of Natural History, restaurant Wagamama, both in London. His first major project in Britain was the Rowing Museum in Henley-on-Thames, he began to build in Germany, designing an office building in Düsseldorf. Other projects in the 1990s included the Circus Restaurant in the Joseph Menswear Shop; the latter shop featured a curtain of glass six meters high around the two lower floors, an austere modernist interior with dark gray sandstone floors and white walls.
In 1997 he began one of his most important projects, the reconstruction and restoration of the Neues Museum in Berlin, destroyed during World War II. After 2000, he won commissions for several other major museum projects in Germany, designed several major museum projects in Germany, including the Museum of Modern Literature in Marbach, the Galerie Am Kupfergraben 10 in Berlin. In the same period he designed and built, at rapid speed, a new headquarters for the America's Cup in Valencia, an enormous judicial complex in Barcelona, which consolidated the offices contained in seventeen different buildings into nine new immense concrete blocks, he constructed his first project in the United States, an extension of the Museum of ethnology and natural history in Anchorage, Alaska. Until 2011 most of his major projects were on the continent of Europe, but lin 2011 he opened two notable museum projects in Britain, the Turner Contemporary in Margate, The Hepworth Wakefield in Wakefield. In 2013 he opened the Jumex Museum in Mexico City, the extension of the Saint Louis Art Museum in the United States.
His most remote project was the Museum of Naga, on a site in the desert 170 kilometers northeast of Khartoum in Sudan, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. He designed a structure to preserve the remains of two ancient temples and an artesian well, dating to 300 B. C.-300 A. D; the building, built of the local stone, blends into reddish mountains around it. In 2015, Chipperfield won a competition to redesign the modern and contemporary art wing of the Metropolitan Museum in New York City, he began his first ground-up building in New York City, the Bryant, a thirty-three story hotel and condominium project next to Bryant Park in Manhattan. In 2017 he and his associates were engaged in a multitude of major projects around the world. S, Embassy in London; the building is a blend of modernist and traditional materials. It was inspired by the form of traditional boat sheds, as well as the traditional barns of Oxfordshire; the building occupies a space of 2300 square meters, is lifted above the ground on concrete pillars to avoid flooding.
The exterior and parts of the interior are covered in planks of non-treated oak, matching the local rural architecture. The roofs and sunscreens are of stainless steel,The entrance has glass w
Schmidt Hammer Lassen
Schmidt Hammer Lassen Architects is an international architectural firm founded by a group of Danish architects in 1986 in Aarhus, Denmark. It has three offices in Aarhus and Shanghai; the practice has a track record as designers of high-profile cultural buildings. Projects include the Amazon Court office building in Prague, the City of Westminster College in London, the University of Aberdeen Sir Duncan Rice Library in Scotland and a number of construction projects and masterplans in China, with a total of one and a half million square metres under development. Schmidt Hammer Lassen Architects was established in 1986 by Morten Schmidt, Bjarne Hammer and John F. Lassen; the current group of partners includes Morten Schmidt, Bjarne Hammer, John F. Lassen, Kim Holst Jensen, Kristian Lars Ahlmark, Chris Hardie and Rong Lu. Day-to-day management of the practice is the responsibility of CEO Bente Damgaard; the practice had its major breakthrough with the Katuaq Culture Centre in Nuuk, completed in 1997.
The project in Nuuk was followed by first prize in the international competition for the extension of the Danish Royal Library on the harborfront in Copenhagen. Completed in 1999, the library extension known as the Black Diamond, has become one of the practice’s most known buildings. Another major project is the ARoS Art Museum in Aarhus, completed in 2004. In May 2011 the art work Your rainbow panorama, by Olafur Eliasson, was unveiled on the roof top of the museum. In 2010 Schmidt Hammer Lassen Architects won the competition to design the first permanent premises for the International Criminal Court in The Hague, the Netherlands; the ICC is the first permanent, treaty-based, international criminal court established to help end impunity for the perpetrators of the most serious crimes of concern to the international community. It has grown to the present-day size of 122 member countries; the building is designed to convey hope and faith in justice. In 2011 Schmidt Hammer Lassen established an office in Shanghai, to serve their increasing client base in Asia.
Current projects in progress include two new sustainable campus projects for China Mobile, a new office and culture development next to the Chinese Pavilion on the site of the 2010 Shanghai Expo, a new 1800 seat musical Theatre that forms part of a new cultural development called Dream Center and a private Art Museum on the banks of the Huang Pu River. In nearby Ningbo the office is overseeing the Headquarters for Ningbo Daily Newspaper Corporation, a 125,000m2 cultural home for the Ningbo Trade Union, the new Central Library for Ningbo East New Town, all due for completion in 2017; the common denominator underlying the practice’s work is a democratic approach to an architecture focused around people, material and light. Schmidt Hammer Lassen Architects' work include furniture and product designs, both as an integral part of large-scale architectural projects, such as the Black Diamond and ARoS, as independent designs. Begun with the intention of raising the overall quality of architectural projects, Schmidt Hammer Lassen design is an independent department working on architecture-related designs and independent products with international manufacturers.
The current product range includes light fixtures for Philips Lighting and Focus, indoor furniture Piiroinen and DJOB Montana, outdoor street furniture for Veksoe. Designs include the Focus Lighting, Idea Water Fixtures and the Swan Neck; the design department creates unique pieces such as the sculptural receptions desk at Danfoss. The firm creates interior designs, such as the Bodil Binner Jewellery shop; the Black Diamond in Copenhagen Marianne Ibler Global Danish Architecture #2 – Housing. Copenhagen, Denmark: Archipress schmidt hammer lassen The Royal Library – Architectural Images. Copenhagen, Denmark: Gyldendal Forster et al. 10x10_2. London, UK: Phaidon schmidt hammer lassen architects Outline – architecture by schmidt hammer lassen, Birkhäuser Verlag Official website Schmidt Hammer Lassen buildings in arkitekturbilleder.dk
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t
The Dorchester is a Brunei-owned five-star luxury hotel on Park Lane and Deanery Street in London, to the east of Hyde Park. It is one of the world's most expensive hotels; the Dorchester opened on 18 April 1931, it still retains its 1930s furnishings and ambiance despite being modernised. Throughout its history, the hotel has been associated with the rich and famous. During the 1930s, it became known as a haunt of numerous writers and artists such as poet Cecil Day-Lewis, novelist Somerset Maugham, the painter Sir Alfred Munnings, it has held prestigious literary gatherings, such as the "Foyles Literary Luncheons", an event the hotel still hosts today. During the Second World War, the strength of its construction gave the hotel the reputation of being one of London's safest buildings, a host of political and military luminaries chose it as their London residence. Queen Elizabeth II attended the Dorchester when she was a princess on the day prior to the announcement of her engagement to Philip Mountbatten on 10 July 1947.
The hotel has since become popular with film actors and rock stars, Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton stayed at the hotel throughout the 1960s and 1970s. The hotel became a Grade II Listed Building in January 1981, was subsequently purchased by the Sultan of Brunei in 1985, it belongs to the Dorchester Collection, which in turn is owned by the Brunei Investment Agency, an arm of the Ministry of Finance of Brunei. In the 1950s, the stage set designer Oliver Messel made a number of changes to the interior of the hotel. Between 1988 and 1990, the hotel was renovated at a cost of US$100 million by Bob Lush of the Richmond Design Group. Today The Dorchester has five restaurants: The Grill, Alain Ducasse, The Spatisserie, The Promenade, China Tang. Alain Ducasse's restaurant is one of the UK's four 3-Michelin-starred restaurants. Afternoon tea, a tradition which has taken place at the hotel since its opening in 1931, is served every day of the week at five in the afternoon in The Promenade and the Spatisserie.
Harry Craddock, a well-known barman in the 1930s, invented the "Dorchester of London" cocktail here at the Dorchester Bar. A well-lit plane tree stands at the edge of the hotel in the front garden, was named one of the Great Trees of London by the London Tree Forum and Countryside Commission in 1997; the site was part of the Manor of Hyde, given to William the Conqueror by Geoffrey de Mandeville. Joseph Damer acquired it in the 18th century and a large building was constructed in 1751, it was named Dorchester House in 1792. In the early 19th century it became the Hertford House after it was purchased by Francis Seymour-Conway, the 3rd Marquess of Hertford, alterations were made to it, inspired by the Villa Farnese of Rome. Following the death of Hertford, it was converted into a mansion by Captain Robert Stayner Holford; the background to the development of the Dorchester Hotel is complicated. Sir Malcolm McAlpine, a partner in the building company, Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons, Sir Frances Towle, the managing director of Gordon Hotels Ltd. shared a vision of creating the'perfect hotel': ultramodern and ultra-efficient, with all the conveniences modern technology could supply.
The two companies purchased Hertford House in 1929 and demolished it. The British Broadcasting Corporation had shown an interest in purchasing it and had done so prior to the McAlpine acquisition, but instead they turned their attention to Foley House; the purchase and destruction of Hertford House was part of significant redevelopment which took place on Park Lane during this period. Sir Owen Williams was commissioned to design the new hotel, using reinforced concrete to allow the creation of large internal spaces without support pillars, but he abandoned the project in February 1930 and was replaced with William Curtis Green. James Maude Richards, hired by Williams, served as an architectural assistant within the all-engineer staff. Percy Morley Horder, consulting architect to Gordon's Hotels, had not been consulted during the design process and, after seeing the plan, resigned from the project, remarking to The Observer that the design was ill-suited for the location, assuming the concrete was to be left unpainted and that the insulation would be minimal.
Some 40,000 tonnes of earth were excavated to make room for the hotel's extensive basement, one-third of the size of the hotel above the surface. The upper eight floors were erected in just 10 weeks, supported on a massive 3 feet thick reinforced concrete deck that forms the roof of the first floor. With the development of the Dorchester, concerns were raised that Park Lane would soon become New York City's Fifth Avenue; the new Dorchester Hotel was feted with a grand opening on 18 April 1931 by Lady Violet Astor. The Dorchester gained reputation as a luxury hotel. During the 1930s it became known as a haunt of numerous writers and artists such as poet Cecil Day-Lewis, novelist Somerset Maugham, the painter Sir Alfred Munnings. There were prestigious literary gatherings, including "Foyles Literary Luncheons", an event the hotel still hosts. Shortly after the opening, Sir Percival David, a leading admirer of Chinese porcelain, moved his growing collection from the Mayfair Hotel to the Dorchester, where he kept it in his suites for many years.
Danny Kaye began appearing in cabaret at the hotel in the 1930s earning £50 a week. Many blues and jazz artists appeared at the hotel, including Alberta Hunter and the Jack Jackson Orchestra. In 1934, Hunter and her orchestra record