Motorsport or motor sport is a global term used to encompass the group of competitive sporting events which involve the use of motorised vehicles, whether for racing or non-racing competition. The terminology can be used to describe forms of competition of two-wheeled motorised vehicles under the banner of motorcycle racing, includes off-road racing such as motocross. Four- wheeled motorsport competition is globally governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile; the Union Internationale Motonautique governs powerboat racing while the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale governs air sports. In 1894, a French newspaper organised a race from Paris to Rouen and back, starting city to city racing. In 1900, the Gordon Bennett Cup was established. Closed circuit racing arose. Brooklands was the first dedicated motor racing track in the United Kingdom. Following World War I, European countries organised Grand Prix races over closed courses. In the United States, dirt track racing became popular.
After World War II, the Grand Prix circuit became more formally organised. In the United States, stock car racing and drag racing became established. Motorsports became divided by types of motor vehicles into racing events, their appropriate organisations. Motor racing is the subset of motorsport activities which involve competitors racing against each other; the Red Bull RB8, the 2012 Formula One World Championship winning car Formula racing is a set of classes of motor vehicles, with their wheels outside, not contained by, any bodywork of their vehicle. These have been globally classified as specific'Formula' series - the most common being Formula One, many others include the likes of Formula 3, Formula Ford, Formula Renault and Formula Palmer Audi. However, in North America, the IndyCar series is their pinnacle open-wheeled racing series. More new open-wheeled series have been created, originating in Europe, which omit the'Formula' moniker, such as GP2 and GP3. Former ` Formula' series include Formula Two.
Formula One is a class of single-seat and open-wheel grand prix closed course racing, governed by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, organized by the owned company Formula One Group. The formula regulations contain a strict set of rules which govern vehicle power and size. Formula E is a class of open-wheel auto racing; the series was conceived in 2012, the inaugural championship started in Beijing on 13 September 2014. The series is sanctioned by the FIA and races a spec chassis/battery combination with manufacturers allowed to develop their own electric power-trains; the series has gained significant traction in recent years. A series originated on June 1909 in Portland, Oregon at its first race. Shortly after, Indianapolis Motor Speedway opened in 1909 and held races that ranged from 50-200 miles, its premier race is the Indianapolis 500 which began on May 11th, 1911 and a tradition was born. Today, Indycar operates a full schedule with over 40 different drivers; the current schedule includes 14 tracks over the course of 17 races per season.
Josef Newgarden was crowned current champion of the Indycar Series at Sonoma Raceway on September 17th, 2017 in Sonoma, California. Enclosed wheel racing is a set of classes of vehicles, where the wheels are enclosed inside the bodywork of the vehicle, similar to a North American'stock car'. Sports car racing is a set of classes of vehicles, over a closed course track, including sports cars, specialised racing types; the premiere race is the 24 Hours of Le Mans which takes place annually in France during the month of June. Sports car racing rules and specifications differentiate in North America from established international sanctioning bodies. Stock car racing is a set of vehicles that race over a speedway track, organized by NASCAR. While once stock cars, the vehicles are now purpose built, but resemble the body design and shape of production cars. Bootleggers throughout the Carolinas are credited for the origins of NASCAR due to the resistance during the prohibition. Many of the vehicles were modified to increase top speed and handling, to provide the bootleggers with an advantage toward the vehicles local law enforcement would use in the area.
An important part to the modifications of stock cars, was to increase the performance of the vehicle while maintaining the same exterior look giving it the name Stock car racing. Many legends in NASCAR originated as bootleggers in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina like Junior Johnson. Organized oval racing began on Daytona Beach in Florida as a hobby but gained interest from all over the country; as oval racing became larger and larger, a group gathered in hopes to form a sanctioning body for the sport. NASCAR was organized in 1947. Daytona Beach and Road Course was founded where land speed records were set on the beach, including part of A1A; the highlight of the stock car calendar is the season-opening Daytona 500 nicknamed'The Great American Race', held at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. NASCAR has now held over 2,500 sanctioned events over the course of 70 seasons. Richard Petty is known as the king of NASCAR with over 200 recorded wins in the series and has competed in 1,184 races in his career.
Touring car racing is a set of vehicles, modified street cars, that race over closed purpose built race tracks and street courses. Off-Road Racing is a group
Mike Pilbeam is a British motorsport designer and engineer known for his work with BRM, Lotus and his own company, Pilbeam Racing Designs. An early design was the experimental four wheel drive Formula One BRM P67 of 1964; as of 2014, Pilbeam's company continued to produce hillclimb cars and sports prototype chassis for endurance racing. Pilbeam spent much of his early life in West London, had little interest in competition cars until he attended the 1958 British Grand Prix, whilst at Bristol University. In 1959, he constructed a small sportscar without much success; however a design and an association with club racer Tony Gould brought some success in the 1,172 cc class. In 1963, he joined BRM as a stress engineer, he assisted in the construction and design of the P67 whilst still an apprentice and the actual design is credited to Tony Rudd. The car, driven by Richard Attwood, was entered for the 1964 British Grand Prix at Brands Hatch but was withdrawn after practice, it did not make any further appearances until 1968, when it appeared in hillclimb events driven by Peter Westbury and subsequently by Peter Lawson and was a championship winning machine.
After the abandonment of the P67 project, Pilbeam worked on the BRM H16 engine, helping to develop it to the point where Jim Clark was able to win the 1966 United States Grand Prix with a Lotus 43-BRM. Pilbeam moved to Ford at Essex in 1966, where he worked in the advanced chassis department, he moved to Lotus in 1969, where he worked on the four-wheel-drive Lotus 63, alongside Maurice Philippe, on the Lotus 49B and 72 models. Pilbeam left Lotus in 1972, moving to Surtees where he worked on the Surtees TS9, but in 1973 returned to BRM. Chief designer Tony Southgate had left BRM towards the end of the 1972 season and Pilbeam accepted a job as manager of the design office; this gave him the chance to design the BRM P201 for 1974, still competing as late as the 1977 Formula One season. Pilbeam left BRM in late 1974, after Louis Stanley took control of the company, in 1975 established Pilbeam Racing Designs working from home, his first design was a Formula Atlantic chassis for Tom Wheatcroft, adapted to Formula Two, where it was driven by Brian Henton.
Subsequently, Pilbeam began constructing hillclimb cars. Pilbeam cars won the British Hill Climb Championship 17 times between 1977 and 1997. Pilbeam was involved in the design of the Penske PC3, as well as engineering the RAM Racing Brabham BT44s in 1976, he designed the LEC CRP1 F1 car for David Purley, which competed in the 1977 Formula One season. In this machine, during practice for the 1977 British Grand Prix at Silverstone, Purley was involved in one of the heaviest impacts where a driver has survived. Pilbeam has a reputation for the structural integrity of his designs and it has been considered that this was crucial to the driver's survival. Other freelance work continued, but the F2 MP42 ground effect car commissioned by Mike Earle in 1979 was not successful, although hillclimb success kept the company in good order. A Pilbeam-modified Brabham BT38-Cosworth won the British Hillclimb Championship in 1977 and in 1979, Pilbeam designed the MP40, a hillclimb car to European Formula Two specification.
This machine won British Hillclimb titles in 1979 and from 1981 to 1984, powered by a Brian Hart engine. Pilbeam moved into his own premises, in a former part of BRM's operation at Bourne, Lincolnshire in 1981 and produced uncompetitive designs for Formula Ford 2000 and Formula Three in 1982 and 1983, although the hillclimb designs continued to be successful. In 1997 new premises at Bourne were opened by Bette Hill, Pilbeam continued to work within the industry on both road and racing car projects on a freelance basis. Pilbeam's own designs continued to be produced in small numbers to order and when his freelance work allowed. Pilbeam Racing Designs was involved in the development of the BRM P301 sportscar in the mid-1990s before subsequently producing their own chassis to compete in the Le Mans 24 hour race and in the World Endurance Championship in the LMP2 class, between 2001 and 2007 and in 2014, produced the MP100 intended as a customer car for LMP2 and the Le Mans race itself
1973 Formula One season
The 1973 Formula One season was the 27th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1973 World Championship of Drivers and the 1973 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, which were contested concurrently over a fifteen-race series that commenced on 28 January and ended on 7 October. There were two new races for the 1973 season – the Brazilian Grand Prix at Interlagos in São Paulo and the Swedish Grand Prix at Anderstorp; the season included two non-championship races which were open to both Formula One and Formula 5000 cars. The World Championship of Drivers was won by Jackie Stewart, driving for Elf Team Tyrrell, the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers by John Player Team Lotus. In the World Championship, Lotus teammates Emerson Fittipaldi and Ronnie Peterson raced each other while Stewart was supported at Tyrrell by François Cevert. Stewart took the Drivers' title at the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, but at the final race of the season, the United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen, Cevert crashed during Saturday practice in the notorious'Esses' and was killed instantly.
Stewart and Tyrrell withdrew from the race. At the end of the season Stewart made public his decision to retire, a decision, made before the US Grand Prix. By the end of the 1973 season the best car on the track was the new McLaren M23, a wedge-shaped car following the same concept as the Lotus 72 but with more conventional suspension and up-to-date aerodynamics; the 1973 season marked the debut of future world champion James Hunt at the Monaco Grand Prix driving a privateer March 731 entered by Hesketh Racing. The 1973 season saw the intervention of a Safety Car in Formula One for the first time, in the form of a Porsche 914 at the Canadian Grand Prix. However, this safety concept would not be introduced until twenty years in 1993; as well as Cevert, Briton Roger Williamson was killed during the season, in a crash at the Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort. Another change to the rules introduced this season was the cars doing a full warm-up lap before the race. Prior to this, tracks included a dummy grid a short distance behind a grid proper, the cars would move from one to the other to begin the race.
It was this season that the numbering system for teams was formalised. In the second race of the season in Brazil, team-mates were paired - Lotus drivers 1 and 2. For 1974, the numbers were assigned based on finishing positions in the 1973 constructor's championship, after which teams did not change numbers unless they won the drivers' championship, or if a team dropped out; the following teams and drivers contested the 1973 World Championship. The following races counted towards both the 1973 World Championship of Drivers and the 1973 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers; the Belgian Grand Prix carried the title of European Grand Prix for 1973. After being absent from the Championship in 1972 due to extensive safety upgrades to the Zandvoort circuit including new asphalt, new barriers and a new race control tower, the Dutch Grand Prix returned to the Championship calendar for 1973. Points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the first six finishers in each race. For classification, only the seven best results from the first eight races and the six best results from the last seven races were retained.
Drivers scoring an equal number of points were awarded equal championship classifications, regardless of the relative number of wins, second places, etc. scored by each driver. The FIA did not award a championship classification to those drivers who did not score points in the championship. Points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the first six finishers in each race. Points were only awarded for the position filled by the best placed car from each manufacturer. For classification, only the seven best results from the first eight races and the six best results from the last seven races were retained. Ensign, which did not score points during the championship, was not given a classification in the official FIA results; the 1973 Formula One season included two non-championship races which were open to both Formula One and Formula 5000 cars
1973 Monaco Grand Prix
The 1973 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Monaco on 3 June 1973. It was race 6 of 15 in both the 1973 World Championship of Drivers and the 1973 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers; the race was held on a revised circuit, with a longer tunnel, a new section of track around the new swimming pool on the harbour front, the Gasworks hairpin replaced by the Rascasse and Antony Noghès corners, the latter named after the founder of the race. The pits were moved back to the start-finish straight, on a wider pit lane; the 78-lap race was won from pole position by Scotland's Jackie Stewart. In the process, Stewart equalled the record of 25 Grand Prix victories set by his friend Jim Clark. Brazil's Emerson Fittipaldi finished second in a Lotus-Ford, with Swedish teammate Ronnie Peterson third; this was the first race for future World Champion James Hunt, driving a March-Ford entered by Hesketh Racing. Hunt was classified ninth. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
1973 British Grand Prix
The 1973 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Silverstone on 14 July 1973. It was race 9 of 15 in both the 1973 World Championship of Drivers and the 1973 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers; the race is known for the first lap pile-up which caused eleven cars to retire. The accident happened when Jody Scheckter, running fourth in his McLaren, spun across the track at Woodcote Corner at the end of the first lap, causing many other cars to collide and crash; the incident eliminated nine cars, including all three works Surtees cars, while Brabham driver Andrea de Adamich suffered a broken ankle that ended his F1 career. The race was stopped at the end of the second lap, before being restarted over the original 67-lap distance with 18 of the original 29 cars. On the first start, a swift start by Jackie Stewart brought him from fourth to first in less than half a lap. At Becketts Corner, Stewart took the lead. However, the massive pile-up at the end of the first lap caused the race to be restarted and Stewart had to start from fourth again.
This time it was Niki Lauda who had an excellent start and moved up behind Peterson into second, with Stewart third. Stewart passed Lauda on lap 2, charged after Peterson. On lap 6, Stewart again tried to pass Peterson for the lead. Although he was able to continue, Stewart ended up finishing 10th, one lap down. Another notable drive came from James Hunt in his Hesketh Racing March, who ran fourth for most of the race and was part of a four-way battle for the lead between himself, Denny Hulme and Peter Revson. American driver Revson took his first Grand Prix victory by 2.8 seconds from Peterson. The pile-up was to be a factor in this being the last World Championship F1 race held on the original Silverstone layout: a chicane would be added at Woodcote shortly before the next British Grand Prix at Silverstone two years later. MotoGP, which would come to Silverstone from the Isle of Man in 1977, would use the original layout until 1986. Only race with 4 New Zealand drivers. Note: Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings.
Only the best 7 results from the first 8 races and the best 6 results from the last 7 races counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
1977 Formula One season
The 1977 Formula One season was the 31st season of the FIA's Formula One motor racing. It featured the 28th World Championship of Drivers and the 20th International Cup for Formula 1 Constructors, which commenced on 9 January 1977, ended on 23 October after seventeen races; the season included a single non-championship race for Formula One cars, the 1977 Race of Champions. Niki Lauda won his second championship, despite Mario Andretti winning more races. Jody Scheckter's Wolf won first time out, Shadow took their only victory, Gunnar Nilsson achieved the only win of a career ended by cancer. Renault entered Grand Prix racing with a turbocharged car, not successful; the German ATS team took over the Penske cars and the South African Grand Prix was the last race a BRM qualified to start. Lauda departed Ferrari before the season ended, so did not complete the season, having sealed the title thanks to his consistent form. Ferrari won its third consecutive Constructors' title with new driver Carlos Reutemann having a solid season.
The season was marred by one of the most horrific accidents in Formula One history. During the South African GP on 5 March, TV cameras captured how Tom Pryce was unable to avoid 19-year-old race marshall Frederik Jansen van Vuuren; the latter was killed by the terrifying collision, his body was hurled into the air, his fire extinguisher killed and nearly decapitated Pryce, whose car proceeded to the end of the straight where it collided with Jacques Laffite's Ligier. There was further tragedy as Carlos Pace lost his life in an aviation accident only a couple of weeks after Pryce's accident; the following drivers and constructors contested the World Championship of Drivers and the International Cup for Formula 1 Constructors: The 1977 season started in Argentina, returning after a year's absence. It was reigning world champion James Hunt who started off his title defence with pole position in his McLaren. Countryman John Watson shared the front row with him in the Brabham, Patrick Depailler in the six-wheeled Tyrrell was third on the grid.
The weather was, as was often the case in Buenos Aires, oppressively hot, which contributed to the attrition of this race – the track temperature was 51 °C. Watson took the lead at the start with Hunt second. Watson led for the first 10 laps until Hunt moved ahead and pulled away, with Mario Andretti's Lotus third, but soon the other McLaren of Jochen Mass took the place. Mass had to retire soon after with an engine failure which caused him to spin, a suspension failure took teammate and race leader Hunt out three laps later. Watson took the lead again, but he had suspension failures and let teammate Carlos Pace through. Watson retired, Pace struggled towards the end due to heat in his cockpit and was passed by Jody Scheckter's Wolf and Andretti, but the latter retired with a wheel bearing failure. Scheckter took the first win of 1977, with Pace second, home hero Carlos Reutemann completing the podium for Ferrari; the second round took place at the longest circuit of the year – the demanding and difficult 5-mile Interlagos circuit in São Paulo, Brazil.
Hunt took pole again with Reutemann Andretti third on the grid. Home hero Pace took the lead at the start, with Hunt dropping behind Reutemann as well but soon Hunt was back behind Pace and attacking. There was contact, Hunt took the lead whereas Pace had to pit for repairs. Hunt led Reutemann until he was passed by Reutemann. Hunt pitted for new tyres, rejoined fourth and soon passed Niki Lauda in the Ferrari and Watson to reclaim second. Reutemann marched on to victory, Hunt was second and Lauda third after Watson crashed out; the race in South Africa was over a month but Hunt still continued his streak of poles, with Pace alongside and Lauda next. Hunt led off with Lauda and Scheckter following him after Pace struggled; the order stayed put until the seventh lap when Lauda took the lead and was never headed again, with Scheckter taking second from Hunt 11 laps later. On lap 21, two marshals ran across the track; the second marshal, Fredrik Jansen van Vuuren, carrying a fire extinguisher was hit by the car of Tom Pryce at about 270 km/h and was killed by the collision.
His fire extinguisher struck Pryce's face and nearly decapitating him. The race continued however, Lauda won, his first since his own horror crash last year, with home hero Scheckter second, Depailler's six-wheeler took third from Hunt in the closing laps; the death of Pryce had shaken the field up, before the next round at Long Beach, California in the western United States, there was more bad news, as Carlos Pace, who had finished second in the opening round in Argentina, was killed in a plane crash. The field, in a somber mood, went to this new street circuit near Los Angeles, Lauda took pole ahead of home hero Andretti, with Scheckter third. At the start, it was Scheckter who got the best start, he passed both Andretti and Lauda, with Reutemann going up an escape road and spinning as he tried to follow Scheckter through; the top three of Scheckter and Lauda pulled away from the rest of the pack, ran together but the order did not change. However, a tyre began to deflate for Scheckter, both Andretti and Lauda passed him with two laps left, with Andretti thus taking a popular home victory ahead of Lauda and a disappointed Scheckter.
The next round was in Spain, at the Jarama circuit near Madrid, where Andretti continued his recent form with pole and Jacques Laffite's Ligier springing a surprise, beating Lauda to second, however Lauda was unable to take part in the race due to a broken ri