click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

LGBT adoption

LGBT adoption is the adoption of children by lesbian, bisexual, transgender people. This may be in the form of a joint adoption by a same-sex couple, adoption by one partner of a same-sex couple of the other's biological child, or adoption by a single LGBT+ person. Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in twenty-seven countries as well as several subnational jurisdictions and dependent territories. Furthermore, some form of step-child adoption is legal for same-sex couples in five countries. Given that constitutions and statutes do not address the adoption rights of LGBT persons, judicial decisions determine whether they can serve as parents either individually or as couples; the existing body of research on outcomes for children with LGBT parents includes limited studies that consider the specific case of adoption. Moreover, where studies do mention adoption they fail to distinguish between outcomes for unrelated children versus those in their original family or step-families, causing research on the more general case of LGBT parenting to be used to counter the claims of LGBT-adoption opponents.

One study has addressed the question directly, evaluating the outcomes of adoptees less than 3-years old, placed in one of 56 lesbian and gay households since infancy. Despite the small sample, the fact that the children have yet to become aware of their adoption status or the dynamics of gender development, the study found no significant associations between parental sexual orientation and child adjustment. Scientific research indicates that the children of same-sex couples fare just as well or better than the children of opposite-sex couples. Adoption of children by LGBT people is an issue of active debate. In the United States, for example, legislation to prevent adoption by LGBT people has been introduced in many jurisdictions. Prior to 1973, state courts barred gay and lesbian individuals from holding a parenting role through adoption. Major professional organizations have made statements in defense of adoption by same-sex couples; the American Psychological Association has supported adoption by same-sex couples, citing social prejudice as harming the psychological health of lesbians and gays while noting there is no evidence that their parenting causes harm.

The American Medical Association has issued a similar position supporting second parent adoption by same-sex partner, stating that lack of formal recognition can cause health-care disparities for children of same-sex parents. The following arguments are made in support of adoption by LGBT parents: The right of a child to have a family, guardians or people who can take care of their wellbeing Human rights – child's and parent's right to have a family life There are no differences between children raised by same-sex or straight couples. For that reason, sexual orientation of the parents has no relevance when it comes to raising a child Evidence confirming that, despite the claims of those opposed to LGBT+ parenting, same-sex couples can provide good conditions to raise a child For the children, adoption is a better alternative to orphanage Less formalities for step-parents in everyday life, as well as the situation of a death of a biological parent of a child A 2006 poll by the Pew Research Center found a close divide on gay adoption among the United States public, while a 2007 poll by CNN and Opinion Research Corp. said 57% of respondents felt gays should have the right to adopt and 40% said they should not.

In 2018, a YouGov poll found that over half of Americans said they believe heterosexual and homosexual couples can be good parents. Majorities said they were in support of gay and lesbian couples having the right to adopt and raise children. In the United Kingdom in 2007, 64% of people said they thought gay couples should be allowed to adopt and 32% said they should not. 55% of respondents thought that male couples should be able to adopt and 59% of people thought that lesbian couples should be able to adopt. In Brazil, a 2010 poll asked, "Do you support or oppose allowing gay couples to adopt children?" The poll found that 51 % opposed adoption by 39 % supported it. An opinion poll conducted in late 2006 at the request of the European Commission indicated that Polish public opinion was opposed to both same-sex marriage and to adoption by gay couples; the Eurobarometer 66 poll found that 74% of Poles were opposed to same-sex marriage and 89% opposed adoption by same-sex couples. As of September 2019, there are national debates on LGBT parenthood in the following countries: Chile Czech Republic Hungary Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in the following countries: Andorra Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Canada Colombia Costa Rica Court ruling states marriage and joint adoption will be legal after May 2020.

Denmark Greenland Faroe Islands Finland France Germany Iceland Ireland Luxembourg Malta Netherlands New Zealand Norway Portugal South Africa Spain Sweden United Kingdom England and Wales Scotland Northern Ireland United States Uruguay Joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in the following subnational jurisdictions or dependent territories: UK Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories: Bermuda Cayman Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Pitcairn Islands Falkland Islands (20

Battle of Zboriv (1649)

The Battle of Zboriv, during the Khmelnytsky Uprising, was fought near the vicinity of Zborów on the Strypa River, near the Siege of Zbarazh. The battle was fought between the combined Cossack-Crimean force and the Crown army of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. King John II Casimir Vasa and the main Polish army left Warsaw on 23 June and had made it to Toporiv in the final days of July when Mikolaj Skrzetuski informed the king of the desperate situation at Zbarazh; the king made it to within a half-mile of Zboriv on 13 August. Earlier, on August 9, 1649 Bohdan Khmelnytsky redeployed his main forces from Zbarazh to Staryi Zbarazh to the west where the terrain hid them from the Poles, while he used deception to prevent the besieged from noticing; the Horde, followed by the Cossack Host advanced toward the royal camp during the night of 15 August. The Crown forces were surprised during the foggy day while crossing the river Strypa; the Horde split into two parts and attacked from the front and the back, but the king rallied his army to repel the attack and the Tatars retreated by nightfall.

The night brought a council of war on the Polish side and two letters from the king, one for the Khan and one for Khmelnytsky. The letter to the khan "reminded the khan of the favor that he had enjoyed from the Poles in his youth, while sojourning as a captive...invited the khan to a renewal of their old friendship...receiving money for past and future years." The letter to Khmelnytsky commanded him to "abandon all hostile actions and retreat ten miles from our army, send us your envoys - what you desire from us and from the Commonwealth."The next day brought more attacks from the Cossacks and the Tatars on two fronts but a letter from the khan and Khmelnytsky arrived. The khan was prepared to negotiate provided there was "satisfaction of the Cossacks, payment of the suspended tribute...a substantial consideration...above the tribute, as well as permission for the Horde to take captives on its way back." The letter from Khmelnytsky stated, he would "take this occasion earnestly to deliver myself with my humble services beneath the feet of the majesty of Your Royal Highness."

On 18 August, the Treaty of Zboriv was agreed upon by Khmelnytsky and the Lord commissioners Jerzy Ossolinski, Lord Crown chancellor, Kazimierz Lew Sapieha, Lord chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Krzysztof Koniecpolski, Lord Palatine of Belz, Stanislaw Witowski, Lord of Sandomierz, Adam Kysil, Lord Palatine of Kyiv. "It was drafted not in the form of a treaty...but as a unilateral royal manifesto...at the request and intervention of the Crimean khan." Battle of Zboriv. Encyclopedia of Ukraine

Heavy metal guitar

Heavy metal guitar is the use of highly-amplified electric guitar in heavy metal. Heavy metal guitar playing is rooted in the guitar playing styles developed in 1960s-era blues rock and psychedelic rock, it uses a massive sound, characterized by amplified distortion, extended guitar solos and overall loudness; the electric guitar and the sonic power that it projects through amplification has been the key element in heavy metal. The heavy metal guitar sound comes from a combined use of heavy distortion. Heavy metal bands have two electric guitarists, with one guitarist playing rhythm guitar and one guitarist playing lead guitar; the rhythm guitar player is part of the rhythm section of the band, along with the bass guitarist and the drummer. The lead guitarist plays instrumental melody lines and melodic fill passages. In power trios, which consist of a guitarist and drummer, with one or more members singing lead vocals, the single guitarist will switch between rhythm guitar and lead guitar roles as needed.

The rhythm guitar player is part of the rhythm section of the band, along with the bass guitarist and drummer. The rhythm guitarist plays power chords and riffs using an electric guitar, plugged into a guitar amplifier, with either the amplifier and/or a distortion effect pedal creating a thick, distorted sound; the rhythm guitar player plays chords and riffs that create, along with the bass and drums, the rhythmic sound of a metal song. The rhythm guitar plays the chord progression of a song, along with the bass player. In 1966, the British company Marshall Amplification began producing the Marshall 1963, a guitar amplifier capable of producing the distorted "crunch" that rock musicians were starting to seek. With rhythm guitar parts, the "heavy crunch sound in heavy metal... palm muting" the strings with the picking hand and using distortion. Palm muting creates a tighter, more precise sound and it emphasizes the low end; some rhythm guitarists sing lead vocals or backup vocals as they play guitar.

The lead guitarist plays instrumental melody lines and melodic fill passages. Guitar solos are "...an essential element of the heavy metal code... that underscores the significance of the guitar" to the genre. Most heavy metal songs "... featur at least one guitar solo", "... a primary means through which the heavy metal performer expresses virtuosity". One exception is nu metal bands. Shred guitar or "shredding" is a virtuoso lead guitar solo playing style for the electric guitar, used in a number of metal genres. Shredding uses a range of fast playing techniques, such as "sweep-picked arpeggios and harmonic minor scales, finger-tapping, fast scale and arpeggio runs and special effects such as tremolo bar "dive bombs". Metal guitarists playing in a "shred" style use the electric guitar with a guitar amplifier and a range of electronic effects such as distortion, which create a more sustained guitar tone and facilitate guitar feedback effects. In 1978, a "heretofore unknown guitarist named Eddie Van Halen" from Los Angeles released "'Eruption', a blistering aural assault of solo electric guitar" which featured rapid "tapping", which "had been heard in a rock context before".

Chris Yancik argues that it is this "record, above any other, that spawned the genre of Shred". Some lead guitarists sing lead vocals or backup vocals. Shred guitar players use electric solid-body guitars such as Ibanez, Fender, Kiesel/Carvin, Charvel, Schecter and ESP; some shred guitarists use elaborately-shaped models by B. C. Rich or Dean, as well as modern versions of classic-radical designs like Gibson's Flying V and Explorer models. Tremolo bars, which are hinged bridges that can be bent down or up in pitch, are an important part of shred playing, as they permit the "dive bombing" effect and many sounds which are not possible with a fixed-bridge instrument. Guitars with double-cutaways give performers easier access to the higher frets. Many guitar makers are now making a "scalloped cutaway", popularized by Irron R. Collins IV; this removes material on the backside of the "horn" allowing extended room for the fretting hand to get extended reach onto the higher notes of the fretboard. Some shred guitarists, such as Scorpions' Ulrich Roth, have used custom-made tremolo bars and developed modified instruments, such as Roth's "Sky Guitar, that would expand his instrumental range, enabling him to reach notes reserved in the string world for cellos and violins."Some shred guitar players use seven or eight string guitars to allow a greater range of notes, such as Steve Vai.

Most shred guitar players use a range of effects such as distortion and audio compression units, both of which increase sustain and facilitate the performance of shred techniques such as tapping, hammer-ons, pull-offs. These and other effects units, such as delay effects are used to create a unique tone. Shred-style guitarists use high-gain vacuum tube amplifiers such as Marshall, Peavey, Mesa Boogie, ENGL, Hughes & Kettner and Randall. To facilitate the use of audio feedback effects with the guitar, shred guitarists use high gain settings, distortion pedals and high on-stage volume. Electric guitarists in metal use large, powerful guitar amplifiers with multiple large speaker cabinets; some metal guitarists use 18 or more speaker cabinets, with each cabinet containing four 10" speakers. Following the lead set by Jimi Hendrix and The Who, early heavy metal acts s

Lugano Trophy (World Race Walking Cup)

Lugano Trophy, set up in 1961 at the occasion of the first edition of the IAAF World Race Walking Cup, so in the Lugano 1961 edition, represented the team rankings that combined the 20 km race walk and 50 km race walk events. It was held until 1997 and since 1993 two different team rankings were drawn for 20 km and for 50 km, so for three editions, three titles were assigned for team race; until 1985, the first 4 classifieds of each nation were ranked for team ranking since 1987. In any case, the medals were awarded to the participants, although they did not finish the race. IAAF World Race Walking Cup Memorial Mario Albisetti IAAF World Race Walking Team Championships

Sandbagger sloop

A sandbagger sloop is a type of sailboat made popular in the 19th century as a work vessel which could be used as a pleasure craft. They are a descendant of shoal-draft sloops used in oyster fishing in the shallow waters of New York Bay The term "sandbagger" refers to the use of sandbags to shift the boat's center of gravity in order to obtain the most power from the sails. In practice, the sandbags were filled with gravel in order to keep them from retaining excessive amounts of water; the vessels could be anywhere from 20' to 30' feet in length, but with a sail area disproportionate to their size. They were crewed by between 15 men. An excellent example of a sandbagger is the sloop Annie, maintained by the Mystic Seaport maritime museum. Ash Breeze, 2006, Vol. 27 No. 4, pdf-file 4,0 MB C. H. Chapman: Racing Sandbaggers. Outing Volume XXVIII, May 2. 1896, pdf-file 1,1 MB Mystic Seaport's page on the Annie Friends of BULL and BEAR Sandbaggers

History of cell membrane theory

Cell theory has its origins in seventeenth century microscopy observations, but it was nearly two hundred years before a complete cell membrane theory was developed to explain what separates cells from the outside world. By the 19th century it was accepted that some form of semi-permeable barrier must exist around a cell. Studies of the action of anesthetic molecules led to the theory that this barrier might be made of some sort of fat, but the structure was still unknown. A series of pioneering experiments in 1925 indicated that this barrier membrane consisted of two molecular layers of lipids—a lipid bilayer. New tools over the next few decades confirmed this theory, but controversy remained regarding the role of proteins in the cell membrane; the fluid mosaic model was composed in which proteins “float” in a fluid lipid bilayer "sea". Although simplistic and incomplete, this model is still referenced today. Since the invention of the microscope in the seventeenth century it has been known that plant and animal tissue is composed of cells: the cell was discovered by Robert Hooke.

The plant cell wall was visible with these early microscopes but no similar barrier was visible on animal cells, though it stood to reason that one must exist. By the mid 19th century, this question was being investigated and Moritz Traube noted that this outer layer must be semipermeable to allow transport of ions. Traube had no direct evidence for the composition of this film and incorrectly asserted that it was formed by an interfacial reaction of the cell protoplasm with the extracellular fluid; the lipid nature of the cell membrane was first intuited by Quincke, who noted that a cell forms a spherical shape in water and, when broken in half, forms two smaller spheres. The only other known material to exhibit this behavior was oil, he noted that a thin film of oil behaves as a semipermeable membrane as predicted. Based on these observations, Quincke asserted that the cell membrane comprised a fluid layer of fat less than 100 nm thick; this theory was further extended by evidence from the study of anesthetics.

Hans Horst Meyer and Ernest Overton independently noticed that the chemicals which act as general anesthetics are those soluble in both water and oil. They interpreted this as meaning that to pass the cell membrane a molecule must be at least sparingly soluble in oil, their “lipoid theory of narcosis.” Based on this evidence and further experiments, they concluded that the cell membrane might be made of lecithin and cholesterol. One of the early criticisms of this theory was that it included no mechanism for energy-dependent selective transport; this “flaw” remained unanswered for nearly half a century until the discovery that specialized molecules called integral membrane proteins can act as ion transportation pumps. Thus, by the early twentieth century the chemical, but not the structural nature of the cell membrane was known. Two experiments in 1924 laid the groundwork to fill in this gap. By measuring the capacitance of erythrocyte solutions Fricke determined that the cell membrane was 3.3 nm thick.

Although the results of this experiment were accurate, Fricke misinterpreted the data to mean that the cell membrane is a single molecular layer. Because the polar lipid headgroups are hydrated, they do not show up in a capacitance measurement meaning that this experiment measured the thickness of the hydrocarbon core, not the whole bilayer. Gorter and Grendel approached the problem from a different perspective, performing a solvent extraction of erythrocyte lipids and spreading the resulting material as a monolayer on a Langmuir-Blodgett trough; when they compared the area of the monolayer to the surface area of the cells, they found a ratio of two to one. Analyses of this experiment showed several problems including an incorrect monolayer pressure, incomplete lipid extraction and a miscalculation of cell surface area. In spite of these issues the fundamental conclusion- that the cell membrane is a lipid bilayer- was correct. A decade Davson and Danielli proposed a modification to this concept.

In their model, the lipid bilayer was coated on either side with a layer of globular proteins. According to their view, this protein coat had no particular structure and was formed by adsorption from solution, their theory was incorrect in that it ascribed the barrier properties of the membrane to electrostatic repulsion from the protein layer rather than the energetic cost of crossing the hydrophobic core. A more direct investigation of the membrane was made possible through the use of electron microscopy in the late 1950s. After staining with heavy metal labels, Sjöstrand et al. noted two thin dark bands separated by a light region, which they incorrectly interpreted as a single molecular layer of protein. A more accurate interpretation was made by J. David Robertson, who determined that the dark electron-dense bands were the headgroups and associated proteins of two apposed lipid monolayers. In this body of work, Robertson put forward the concept of the “unit membrane.” This was the first time the bilayer structure had been universally assigned to all cell membranes as well as organelle membranes.

The idea of a semipermeable membrane, a barrier, permeable to solvent but impermeable to solute molecules was developed at about the same time. The term osmosis originated in 1827 and its importance to physiological phenomena realized, but it was not until 1877 when the botanist Wilhelm Pfeffer proposed the membrane theory of cell physiology. In this view, the cell was seen to be enclosed by a thin surface, the plasma membrane, cell water and solutes such as a potassium ion existed in a physical state like that of a dilute solution. In 1889, Hambur