The Gros Ventre known as the Aaniiih, A'aninin and Atsina, are a Algonquian-speaking Native American tribe located in north central Montana. Today the Gros Ventre people are enrolled in the Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana, a federally recognized tribe with 3,682 enrolled members, that includes Assiniboine people or Nakoda people, the Gros Ventre's historical enemies; the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation is in the northernmost part of Montana, just south of the small town of Harlem, Montana. The tribal self-name ʔɔʔɔɔ̋ɔ́niinénnɔh means "White Clay People"; the French used the term Gros Ventre, mistakenly interpreted from their sign language. They were once known as the Gros Ventres of the Prairies, while the Hidatsa people were once called the Gros Ventres of the Missouri; the Piegan Blackfoot, enemies of the Gros Ventre throughout most of history, called the Aaniiih, "Piik-siik-sii-naa", which translates as "snakes". According to the Piegan Institute, the contemporary Piegan name for the Gros Ventre is "Assinee", meaning "big bellies", similar to the falsely translated label applied by the French.
Atsina, a Pieagan word, translates to either "gut people" or "like a Cree". Further clarification of the name is required. After the division of peoples, their relations the Arapaho, who considered them inferior, called them Hitúnĕna, meaning "beggars". Other interpretations of the term have been "hunger", "waterfall", "big bellies"; the Gros Ventres are believed to have lived in the western Great Lakes region 3000 years ago, where they lived an agrarian lifestyle, cultivating maize. With the ancestors of the Arapaho, they formed a single, large Algonquian-speaking people who lived along the Red River valley in northern present-day Minnesota and in Manitoba, Canada, they were associated with the ancestors of the Cheyenne. They spoke the now nearly extinct Gros Ventre language, a similar Plains Algonquian language like their kin the Arapaho and grouped therefore as an Arapahoan language. There is evidence that, together with bands of Northern Arapaho, a southern tribal group, the Staetan, spoke the Besawunena dialect, which had speakers among the Northern Arapaho as as the late 1920s.
In the early 18th century, the large tribe split into two, forming the Arapaho. These, with the Cheyenne, were among the last to migrate into Montana, due to pressure from the Ojibwe. After they migrated to Montana, the Arapaho moved southwards to the Colorado area; the Cheyenne who migrated with the Gros Ventre and Arapaho migrated onwards. The Gros Ventres were reported living in two north-south tribal groups - the so-called Fall Indians of 260 tipis traded with the North West Company on the Upper Saskatchewan River and roamed between the Missouri and Bow River, the so-called Staetan tribe of 40 tipis living in close contact with bands and roamed the headwaters of the Loup branch of the North Platte River; the Gros Ventres acquired horses in the mid-18th century. The earliest known contact of Gros Ventres with whites was around 1754, between the north and south forks of the Saskatchewan River. Exposure to smallpox reduced their numbers about this time. Around 1793, in response to attacks by well-armed Cree and Assiniboines, large groups of Gros Ventres burned two Hudson's Bay Company trading posts that were providing guns to the Cree and Assiniboine tribes in what is now Saskatchewan.
In 1832, the Gros Ventres made contact with Prince Maximilian. Along with the naturalist painter Karl Bodmer, the Europeans painted portraits and recorded their meeting with the Gros Ventres, near the Missouri River in Montana; the Gros Ventres joined the Blackfoot Confederacy. After allying with the Blackfoot, the Gros Ventres moved to north-central Montana and southern Canada. In 1855, Isaac Stevens, Governor of the Washington Territory, concluded a treaty to provide peace between the United States and the Blackfoot and Nez Perce tribes; the Gros Ventres signed the treaty as part of the Blackfoot Confederacy, whose territory near the Three Fork area became a common hunting ground for the Flathead, Nez Perce and Crow Indians. A common hunting ground north of the Missouri River on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation included the Assiniboine and Sioux. In 1861, the Gros Ventres left the Blackfoot Confederacy. Allying with the Crow, the Gros Ventres fought the Blackfoot but in 1867, they were defeated.
In 1868, the United States government established a trading post called Fort Browning near the mouth of Peoples Creek on the Milk River. This trading post was built for the Gros Ventres and Assiniboines, but because it was on a favorite hunting ground of the Sioux, it was abandoned in 1871; the government built Fort Belknap, established on the south side of the Milk River, about one mile southwest of the present town site of Harlem, Montana. Fort Belknap was a substation post, with half of the structure being a trading post. A block house stood to the left of the stockade gate. At the right was a warehouse and an issue building, where the tribe received their rations and annuity goods. In 1876, the fort was discontinued and the Gros Ventre and Assiniboine people receiving annuities at the post were instructed to go to the agency at Fort Peck and Wolf Point; the Assiniboines did not object to going to Wolf Point and went about moving. If they did, they would come into contact with th
Missoula County, Montana
Missoula County is a county in the State of Montana. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 109,426, making it Montana's second-most populous county, its county seat and largest city is Missoula. The county was founded in 1860. Missoula County comprises MT Metropolitan Statistical Area. Missoula County, Washington Territory was incorporated in 1860, when this area was still part of Washington Territory. Missoula County encompassed present-day Missoula and Deer Lodge Counties, as well as a large area of land north and south of present-day Missoula County. Hell Gate Town, the county seat, was at the confluence of the Clark Bitterroot Rivers; the area encompassing today's Missoula County became part of the United States as a result of Oregon Treaty of June 14, 1846. It was part of the Oregon Territory's Clark County, which replaced the District of Vancouver September 3, 1844; the territory was divided on March 2, 1853 with Clark County becoming part of the new Washington Territory.
Clark County was divided the next year to create Skamania County, which a month was divided to create Walla Walla County, further divided in 1858 to create Spokane County. On December 14, 1860, Missoula County was carved out of Spokane County with the first county seat at Hell Gate; the county made up the region between modern-day Idaho and the Continental Divide north of the 46th parallel. When Idaho Territory was created in 1863 it adopted Missoula County as the territory's 3rd county on January 16, 1864 with more or less the same boundaries and Wordensville established as the county seat; this first county consisted of all or part of current Ravalli, Granite, Deer Lodge, Silver Bow, Mineral, Sanders, Lincoln and Glacier Counties. Missoula County became a part of Montana Territory when the territory was organized out of the existing Idaho Territory by Act of Congress and signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 26, 1864. At this time Deer Lodge County was cut out of Missoula; the creation of Flathead and Ravalli Counties in 1893, Powell in 1901, Sanders in 1905, Mineral in 1914 and Lake County in 1923 gave Missoula its present borders.
According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,618 square miles, of which 2,593 square miles is land and 25 square miles is water. It is the 24th largest county in Montana. Five large valleys and two major rivers wind through this mountainous region. Located in the Northern Rockies, Missoula County has a typical Rocky Mountain ecology. Local wildlife includes white-tailed deer, black bears and bald eagles. During the winter months, rapid snow melt on Mount Jumbo due to its steep slope leaves grass available for grazing elk and mule deer; the rivers around Missoula provide nesting habitats for bank swallows, northern rough-winged swallows and belted kingfishers. Killdeer and spotted sandpipers can be seen foraging insects along the gravel bars. Other species include song sparrows, several species of warblers, the pileated woodpecker; the rivers provide cold, clean water for native fish such as westslope cutthroat trout and bull trout. The meandering streams attract beaver and wood ducks.
Native riparian plant life includes sandbar willows and cottonwoods, Montana's state tree, the ponderosa pine. Other native plants include wetland species such as cattails and beaked-sedge as well as shrubs and berry plants like Douglas hawthorn and western snowberries. Missoula is home to several noxious weeds which multiple programs have tried to eliminate. Notable ones include dalmatian toadflax, spotted knapweed, leafy spurge, St. John's wort, sulfur cinquefoil; the Norway maples that line many of Missoula's older streets have been declared an invasive species. Missoula County has a semi-arid climate, with cold and moderately snowy winters and dry summers, spring and autumn are short and crisp in between. Winter conditions are far milder than much of the rest of the state due to its western position within the state; however the mildness is induced by the dampness, as unlike much of the rest of the state, precipitation is not at a strong minimum during winter. Winter snowfall averages 43 inches, with most years seeing little of it from April to October.
Summers see sunny conditions, with highs peaking at 84 °F in July. However, temperature differences between day and night are large during this time and from April to October, due to the relative aridity; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 95,802 people, 38,439 households, 23,140 families in Missoula County. The population density was 37 people per square mile. There were 41,319 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was: 94.02% White 0.27% Black or African American 2.29% Native American 1.02% Asian 0.08% Pacific Islander 0.45% from other races 1.86% from two or more races.1.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.7% were of German, 13.0% Irish, 10.4% English, 8.5% Norwegian and 5.6% American ancestry. There were 38,439 households out of which 29.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.40% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.80% were non-families.
28.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.96. The county population contained 22.90% under the age of 18, 15.40% from 18 to 24, 29.2
Marc Racicot is an American attorney, lobbyist and member of the Republican Party who served as the 21st Governor of Montana from 1993 until 2001. After leaving office, Racicot worked as a lobbyist for the law firm Giuliani, his notable clients included Enron, Burlington Northern Santa Fe, the Recording Industry Association of America. He served as chairman of the Republican National Committee from 2002 until 2003, when he was appointed as the chairman of the Bush re-election campaign. In 2000 as well as 2004 he was rumored to be Bush's choice for United States Attorney General. During the 2000 election some saw him as a possible running mate for Bush; the Washington Post described him as "one of Bush's closest friends and advisers". Racicot was born in Montana, his ancestors came to the Montana Territory in the 1860s. Marc's grandfather arrived in Libby in 1917 to work as a logging camp cook in northwestern Montana for J. Neils Lumber Company. Marc Racicot was born to Pat Racicot on July 24, 1948, in Thompson Falls.
He was raised in Miles Libby. His parents owned a foster home, his father was a teacher, high school basketball coach, track coach. He graduated from Libby High School. Racicot received a bachelor's degree in English from Carroll College in 1970, he was a starting basketball player in high school as well as Carroll College. He earned a law degree in 1973 from the University of Montana in Montana; as an Army ROTC graduate, Racicot was assigned as a prosecutor in the Army JAG Corps from 1973 to 1976. He was stationed in West Germany where he served as chief prosecutor for the largest U. S. military jurisdiction in Europe. While there, he taught business and criminal law for the University of Maryland. After three years, he was discharged from the Army as a captain and returned to Montana in 1976, he became the deputy county attorney for Missoula County from 1976 to 1977. After that, he became a special prosecutor for Montana statewide in 1977, served in that position until 1988. During this time, he had a conviction rate of 95%.
He lost only two cases in twelve years. He convicted Don and Dan Nichols, who both abducted Kari Swenson, an Olympic athlete, murdered a would-be rescuer. In May 1985, Dan Nichols was sentenced to 20 years for assault. In September 1985, Don Nichols was sentenced to 85 years for kidnapping and aggravated assault. In 1980 he was unsuccessful, he ran for district judge in Lewis & Clark County in 1982 and Broadwater County in 1984, but lost both elections. In 1988, he ran for Attorney General of Montana, he defeated Democratic nominee Mike McGrath, the Lewis and Clark County Attorney, 52%-48%. He served in this position until 1993. In 1992, incumbent Governor Stan Stephens declined to run due to health problems. Racicot decided to run and won the Republican primary by defeating Andy Bennett 69%-31%, he won every county in the state. He competed with Democratic State Representative Dorothy Bradley of Bozeman. Both candidates differed on how to spend such a tax. Racicot defeated her 51%-49%, a difference of 10,980 votes.
In 1996, Racicot ran for re-election. He defeated Rob Natelson in the Republican primary, 76%-24%, he was challenged in the general election by long-time state State Senator Chet Blaylock. Polls showed. A few weeks before the election however, Blaylock unexpectedly died of a heart attack on the way to a debate. Reluctantly, his little known running mate, Judy Jacobson continued the drive but had little time to launch her own campaign; because the election was so near, the voting ballots could only be changed to show Jacobson running for both governor and lieutenant governor. In one of the largest margins in state history, Racicot defeated Jacobson, 79%–21%, winning every county in the state. After working with the Montana State Legislature to eliminate the $200 million deficit in 1993, the Racicot Administration produced a $22.4 million budget surplus the year after. They used the surplus to cut taxes; as governor, Racicot approved legislation. This legislation was sought by the major utility supplier in the state.
Following passage, the Montana Power Company divested itself of its utility operations and became a telecommunications company. The company filed for bankruptcy a few years later; the final result of this sweeping deregulation of Montana's utilities was a drastic rise in rates for most of the power customers in Montana. Workers with pensions from Montana Power were left without income. On December 5, 2001, President George W. Bush announced that he would appoint Racicot, a strong Bush ally, to become the Chairman of the Republican National Committee, he was one of Bush's earliest supporters and was a effective spokesman for the Bush campaign in the recount debacle. In addition, Racicot was Bush's first choice for U. S. Attorney General, but he took himself off the list for personal reasons. In order to be confirmed, he severed ties to lobbying organizations. On January 18, 2002 the 165-member RNC unanimously ratified Racicot. Racicot was successful as the Republican party performed well in the 2002 midterm elections.
Republicans took control the U. S. Senate, making Bill Frist the Senate Majority Leader. In the wake of the McCain-Feingold finance reform, the RNC raised a record-$250 million in soft money. In January 2003, he decided to resign to become Chairman of Bush's 2004 re-election campaign. Bush appointed Ed Gillespie as the next Chairman of the RNC. Racicot was
Brian David Schweitzer is an American politician who served as the 23rd Governor of Montana from January 5, 2005, to January 7, 2013. Schweitzer served for a time as chair of the Western Governors Association as well as the Democratic Governors Association, he served as President of the Council of State Governments. Schweitzer was born in Havre, the fourth of six children of Kathleen Helen and Adam Schweitzer, his paternal grandparents were ethnic Germans from Kuchurhan in the Odessa Oblast. He is a first cousin, once removed, of entertainer Lawrence Welk. Following his high school years at Holy Cross Abbey, Canon City, Colorado in 1973, Schweitzer earned his bachelor of science degree in international agronomy from Colorado State University in 1978 and a master of science in soil science from Montana State University, Bozeman in 1980. Upon finishing school, Schweitzer worked as an irrigation developer on projects in Africa, Asia and South America, he spent several years working in Libya and Saudi Arabia, speaks Arabic.
He returned to Montana in 1986 to launch a irrigation business in Whitefish. Bill Clinton appointed Schweitzer to the United States Department of Agriculture as a member of the Montana USDA Farm Service Agency Committee, where he worked for seven years. While working for the USDA, he was appointed to the Montana Rural Development Board and the National Drought Task Force. In 2000, Schweitzer ran for the U. S. Senate to challenge Republican incumbent Conrad Burns. Burns faced a difficult re-election campaign. In February 1999, he announced that he would break his 1988 promise to only hold office for two terms, claiming "Circumstances have changed, I have rethought my position." That same month, while giving a speech about U. S. dependence on foreign oil to the Montana Equipment Dealers Association, Burns referred to Arabs as "ragheads". Burns soon apologized, saying he "became too involved" during the speech. Burns faced trouble regarding deaths from asbestos in Montana. While he supported a bill to limit compensation in such cases, he withdrew his support for the bill, under public criticism, added $11.5 million for the town to an appropriations bill.
While Burns attempted to link Schweitzer with presidential candidate Al Gore, Schweitzer "effectively portrayed himself as nonpolitical". Schweitzer challenged Burns on the issue of prescription drugs, organizing busloads of senior citizens to take trips to Canada and Mexico for cheaper medicine. Burns charged that Schweitzer favored "Canadian-style government controls" and claimed that senior citizens went to doctors to have "somebody to visit with. There's nothing wrong with them."Schweitzer lost narrowly to Burns, with a 51% to 47% margin, despite being outspent two-to-one, Democratic presidential candidate Al Gore receiving just 33% of the vote in Montana the same day. When incumbent Governor Judy Martz announced she would not run for re-election in 2004, Schweitzer announced his candidacy, his running mate was a Republican state senator. He won the general election by defeating Montana Secretary of State Bob Brown 50%-47%. Schweitzer won re-election to a second term by a landslide, 66%-33%, over Republican State Senator Roy Brown.
Both while campaigning and as Governor, Schweitzer became known for a folksy public persona. The Governor's dog, a Border Collie named Jag accompanied him on work days at the Capitol, as well as some other official occasions. Schweitzer was known for his unsparing use of the veto, a power exercised 95 times during his tenure, he vetoed 74 bills in the 2011 legislature. For instance, in April 2011, Schweitzer made news with his unconventional use of a branding iron to publicly veto several bills passed by the Republican-controlled legislature, he denounced them as "frivolous and just bad ideas" that were "in direct contradiction to the expressed will of the people of Montana."He has endorsed an expansion of wind and biofuel technologies as well as a plan to turn coal into diesel fuel. Schweitzer has pointed out that Montana has had the highest ending fund balances in the state's history under his administration, with an average ending fund balance of $414 million; the average balance of the eighteen years prior was $54 million.
Schweitzer held one of the highest approval ratings among governors in the nation, with polls showing a rating of above 60 percent. Due to term limits in Montana, he was barred from running for a third term in 2012; as Governor, Schweitzer was an active member of the Democratic Governors Association. Prior to becoming chair, he served as the organization's vice chair, finance chair, recruitment chair; as governor, he signed into law voluntary full-time kindergarten. Senate Bill 2, which passed during a special session of the legislature, created full-time kindergarten. Governor Schweitzer signed the bill May 17, 2007. Governor Schweitzer was instrumental in implementing, for the first time since the Constitutional Convention of 1972 called on the State to "recognize the distinct and unique cultural heritage of the American Indians", Indian Education for All funding. Indian Education for All was funded in House Bill 2 and signed into law by Governor Schweitzer on May 6, 2005; as one of his first endeavors, Schweitzer proposed and passed the "Best and Brightest" scholarship program.
This scholarship has given the opportunity to more than 2700 students to study at any of Montana's 2-or 4-year public colleges and universities, including community and tribal colleges. A report released in 2012 b
The Montana Senate is the upper house of the Montana State Legislature, the state legislative branch of the US state of Montana. The body is composed of 50 senators. 66th Legislature – 2019–2021 The leaders of the Montana Senate include: Montana limits its State Senators to two four-year terms in any 16-year period. Montana Legislature Montana House of Representatives Montana State Legislature Leadership of the 60th Montana Legislature State Senate of Montana from Project Vote Smart Montana Senate at Ballotpedia
The Missoulian is a daily newspaper printed in Missoula, Montana. The newspaper has been owned by Lee Enterprises since 1959; the Missoulian is the largest published newspaper in western Montana. The Missoulian is distributed throughout the city of Missoula and throughout most of Western Montana; the Missoulian was established as the Missoula & Cedar Creek Pioneer on September 15, 1870, by the Magee Brothers and I. H. Morrison under the Montana Publishing Company. Though conservative politically, the paper was never intended to advance any particular "clique or party". Less than a year after removing "Cedar Creek" from the name, the paper's name was trimmed to The Pioneer in November 1871 with W. J. McCormick, a prominent Montana politician and father of future Congressman Washington J. McCormick, as publisher, it served as a Democratic paper, devoted to reporting on the development of western Montana. A month Frank Woody, who would become Missoula's first mayor, was named ad interim, he would lengthen the name to the Montana Pioneer.
On February 8, 1873, Woody and his partner T. M. Chisholm purchased the paper and changed its name to The Missoulian. W. R. Turk replaced Chisholm and Woody would sell out a year but the paper's name has more-or-less stayed the same until today. Turk died of tuberculosis in 1875 and the paper was published by Chauncey Barbour until August 15, 1879 when Duane J. Armstrong became editor and publisher; the newspaper would offer only a weekend edition until 1891 when new owner A. B. Hammond converted it to a daily newspaper with Harrison Spaulding from the Missoula County Times as editor and publisher. Hammond's purchase of The Missoulian brought the newspaper into the republican fold and on the battle lines of the William A. Clark and Marcus Daly Cooper King feud. Hammond was a lumber baron and business partner of Daly in the Montana Improvement Company who saw the Democratic president, Grover Cleveland's public land policies a detriment to his business. Hammond had become wealthy over-logging unsurveyed public timberland and supplying lumber to the railroad and Daly's Anaconda Company's smelter.
Hammond and his associates in Missoula convinced Daly to thwart Clark's 1888 bid for the Montana Territory's At-large congressional district and support Republican Thomas H. Carter instead. Despite Clark crying foul, Carter would go on to win. Daly's election maneuvering created a major rift between the Copper Kings, the next year he would become chairman of the Montana Democratic Party, he asked for Hammond's support and Hammond responded by delivering a Republican sweep of the Missoula delegation. This infuriated Daly, who declared war on Hammond and threatened to "make grass grow in the streets of Missoula." Several years as Montana's press was divided on whether to keep the state's capital in Clark's choice of Helena or move it Daly's company town of Anaconda, Hammond, worried that further empowered Daly would weaken Missoula loaned The Missoulian to Clark's team who derided Anaconda. "What has Anaconda done for Missoula, anyway? If Christ came to Anaconda he would be compelled to eat, sleep and pray with Marcus Daly."
Though the majority of Missoula County voted for Anaconda as capital, enough voted for Helena for it to win the statewide contest. In 1900, Hammond began selling stock in the Missoulian to political rival Joseph M. Dixon who would become a US Congressman, US Senator, the state of Montana's seventh governor. In December 1906 Wilhelm's Magazine The Coast described the newspaper as "one of the best papers in the state of Montana and has the credit of being a strong paper in all matters pertaining to public and state affairs, it is large, well edited and a credit to Missoula."Dixon gained control over the paper in 1907 and brought in Arthur Stone, a former Anaconda Standard reporter and managing editor as well as former Democratic state legislator, as editor. His experience would help further expand its reach; the Republican Daily Missoulian was soon rivaled by the Democrat-leaning Missoula Herald published by the Hassler Brothers and its successor the Missoula Sentinel, purchased in 1912 by Richard Kilroy for the purpose of politically wounding Dixon as he ran for re-election in the first year Senators were popularly elected.
Dixon would lose the election in a Democratic sweep and would lose the paper for financial reasons five years later. Montana's press in 1912 was entirely under the influence and control of the Anaconda Copper Mining Company known as "Amalgamated Copper Company" or, in a nod to its incredible clout in Montana politics and journalism "The Company"; the Missoulian was not a "Company paper". After his election defeat Dixon turned the Missoulian against Amalgamated with scathing editorials and "objectionable" news. With Dixon refusing to sell the paper, the Company chose bribery by offering Dixon the Missoula Sentinel that Dixon felt was splitting the city's advertising dollars. Dixon accepted, but only on the condition. Pressure on advertisers for new anti-Dixon competition and Amalgamated itself pulling its advertising dollars as well as having the Milwaukee Road cancel complimentary papers that it had given to passengers, forced Dixon to sell. In two newspapermen from the Chicago
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Of the fifty states, it is the 34th largest by area, the seventh most populous, the tenth most densely populated; the state's capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, whose name in turn originated from the Seneca word ohiːyo', meaning "good river", "great river" or "large creek". Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, Ohio was the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, the first under the Northwest Ordinance. Ohio is known as the "Buckeye State" after its Ohio buckeye trees, Ohioans are known as "Buckeyes". Ohio rose from the wilderness of Ohio Country west of Appalachia in colonial times through the Northwest Indian Wars as part of the Northwest Territory in the early frontier, to become the first non-colonial free state admitted to the union, to an industrial powerhouse in the 20th century before transmogrifying to a more information and service based economy in the 21st.
The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the Governor. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives. Ohio is known for its status as both a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected. Ohio is an industrial state, ranking 8th out of 50 states in GDP, is the second largest producer of automobiles behind Michigan. Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic expansion; because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline. Ohio's southern border is defined by the Ohio River, much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohio's neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Lake Erie to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, West Virginia on the southeast.
Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Bounded on the east by the Pennsylvania line, on the south by the Ohio River, to the mouth of the Great Miami River, on the west by the line drawn due north from the mouth of the Great Miami aforesaid, on the north by an east and west line drawn through the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan, running east after intersecting the due north line aforesaid, from the mouth of the Great Miami until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line, thence with the same through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid. Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U. S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia, the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark.
The border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp; this glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills and forests; the rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state.
In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region." This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there Significant rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River, Muskingum River, Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via Lake Erie and the St. Lawrence River, the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the Ohio River and the Mississippi; the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton; as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States.
Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for ca