PinkNews is a UK-based online newspaper marketed to the lesbian, gay and transgender community. It was founded by Benjamin Cohen in 2005 and covers politics, entertainment, the current UK editor as of March 2015 is Nick Duffy. It closely follows political progress on LGBT rights around the world, the news is split into different sections, with most recent and trending stories showing on the home page by default. People can filter news by the sections they have most interest in, including transgender, world, arts and it was suspended without explanation in early 2007 but the website continues to exist and is updated with news daily. Pinknews. co. uk is ranked the most visited LGBT website globally by SimilarWeb, PinkNews pays special attention to the topic of religion and homosexuality, and is often critical of the Vatican for its perceived hostility to the LGBT community. However, it one of the few LGBT publications to have interviewed a sitting Archbishop of Canterbury in 2014. The editorial stance of PinkNews is not to campaign in a partisan manner and their site states that they will not endorse political parties in elections, but will endorse politicians regardless of party based on their stance on gay rights issues.
To date PinkNews has published articles by 3 British Prime Ministers, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown, PinkNews has interviewed other political figures in the United Kingdom, including Boris Johnson and Nick Clegg. In 2006, PinkNews was threatened with legal action by News International, Cole began legal action against both newspapers for libel and false privacy but not against PinkNews, who had never made claims that either were gay. PinkNews claimed they were trying to expose the tactics of the NotW rather than out anyone, coles solicitors set up an online survey to investigate the impact, questioning respondents as to where they heard the story and if they discussed it in any forums. RWD Magazine allegedly had their forums shut down because of this and we are happy to make clear that Mr Cole and Masterstepz were not involved in any such activities. We apologise to them for any distress caused and we will be paying them each a sum in the way of damages, News International confirmed afterwards they would not be seeking damages from PinkNews.
PinkNews reported heavily on the refusal of Stonewall, an LGBT rights group, and Ben Summerskill and he changed his argument at a conference to There are lots of lesbians who actually dont want marriage. Stonewall was criticized by a founder, Michael Cashman, MEP. PinkNews published a poem written by Stephen Fry in honour of his birthday on 24 January. PinkNews regularly reported on the progress of the Out4Marriage campaign, which was started in May 2012 and launched by Mike Buonaiuto and PinkNews founder, Benjamin Cohen. The campaign used YouTube videos of people supporting equal marriage, including celebrities and Members of Parliament, the Out4Marriage YouTube campaign reached 14 million views in just 3 weeks from launch. List of LGBT periodicals The Pink Paper
Age of consent
The distinguishing aspect of the age of consent laws is that the person below the minimum age is regarded as the victim, and their sex partner as the offender. The term age of consent rarely appears in legal statutes, generally, a law will instead establish the age below which it is illegal to engage in sexual activity with that person. It has sometimes used with other meanings, such as the age at which a person becomes competent to consent to marriage. It should not be confused with the age of majority, age of responsibility, the voting age, the drinking age. Age of consent laws vary widely from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, though most jurisdictions set the age of consent in the range 14 to 18. Charges resulting from a breach of laws may range from a misdemeanor such as corruption of a minor. These factors all make age of consent an often confusing subject, in traditional societies, the age of consent for a sexual union was a matter for the family to decide, or a tribal custom. In most cases, this coincided with signs of puberty, menstruation for a woman, the ancient Greek poet Hesiod in Works and Days suggests that a man should marry around the age of thirty, and that he should take a wife who is five years past puberty.
Reliable data for ages at marriage is scarce, in England, for example, the only reliable data in the early modern period comes from property records made after death. Modern historians have shown reluctance to accept evidence of young ages of marriage. There were authorities that said that consent could take place earlier, marriage would be valid as long as neither of the two parties annulled the marital agreement before reaching puberty, or if they had already consummated the marriage. Judges sometimes honored marriages based on mutual consent at ages younger than 7, in contrast to established canon, the phrase within age was interpreted by jurist Sir Edward Coke as meaning the age of marriage, which at the time was 12 years of age. The American colonies followed the English tradition, and the law was more of a guide, for example, Mary Hathaway was only 9 when she was married to William Williams. In the 16th century, a number of Italian and German states set the minimum age for sexual intercourse for girls.
Towards the end of the 18th century, other European countries began to enact similar laws, the first French Constitution of 1791 established the minimum age at 11 years. Portugal, Spain and the Swiss cantons initially set the age at 10–12 years. In Christian societies, sex outside marriage was forbidden, older children were often punished themselves for being complicit in sexual interaction with an adult. Until the late 18th century, there was understanding of childhood as a concept
A civil union, referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage. These unions have been established in a number of countries since the late 1990s, in Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, they have since been replaced, and in a number of other countries supplemented, by same-sex marriage. Civil unions are often seen by campaigners as a first step towards legalizing marriage for same-sex couples, while civil unions are predominantly established for both opposite-sex and same-sex couples, in a number of countries they are available to same-sex couples only. In Brazil, civil unions were first created for opposite-sex couples in 2002, same-sex marriages performed abroad are commonly recognised as civil unions in jurisdictions that only have the latter. The terms used to designate civil unions are not standardized, the exact level of rights, benefits and responsibilities varies, depending on the laws of a particular country. Some jurisdictions allow same-sex couples to adopt, while others forbid them to do so, Civil unions are not seen as a replacement for marriage by many in the LGBT community.
Marriage in the United States is a union, but a civil union, as it has come to be called, is not marriage. It is a proposed hypothetical legal mechanism, since it doesnt exist in most places, to some of the protections. Theres no good reason to do that, the California Supreme Court, in the In Re Marriage Cases decision, noted nine differences in state law. Civil unions are commonly criticised as being separate but equal, critics say they segregate same-sex couples by forcing them to use a separate institution. A New Jersey commission which reviewed the civil union law reported that the law invites and encourages unequal treatment of same-sex couples. Some have suggested that creating civil unions which are open to opposite-sex couples would avoid the accusations of apartheid and these have still been criticised as being separate but equal by former New Zealand MP and feminist Marilyn Waring as same-sex couples remain excluded from the right to marry. Many supporters of same-sex marriage state that the word marriage matters, former US Solicitor General and attorney in the Perry v.
Many contend that the fact that civil unions are not understood can cause difficulty for same-sex couples in emergency situations. Countries and cities which introduced civil unions for same-sex and/or opposite-sex couples, the City of Villa Carlos Paz allowed it from 2007. And since 2009 the city of Río Cuarto allows Civil Unions too, all levels of Australian Governments under nearly all Australian statutes do recognise same-sex couples as de facto couples as unregistered co-habitation or de facto status since 2009. From 1 July 2009 Centrelink recognised same-sex couples equally regarding social security – under the common-law marriage, Cohabitation grants 112 benefits as family entities in Brazil since 2002. It is known as união estável when both parts are legally authorized to marry, and as concubinato when at least one part is legally prohibited from doing so
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Logo TV is an American digital cable and satellite television channel that is owned by Viacom Media Networks. The channel is aimed primarily at LGBT viewers but, since 2012, has shifted its focus towards general cultural, as of February 2015, approximately 51,337,000 American households receive Logo. The channel launched June 30,2005 as the first advertiser-supported commercial television channel in the United States geared towards the LGBT community and it was founded by former MTV executive Matt Farber. Its first president, Brian Graden, was named by Out Magazine as the 15th most powerful gay person in America in 2007, Logo replaced VH1 MegaHits when it was launched. The channels website says, We chose the name Logo TV because a logo is an identity and nothings more important than having your own, unique identity, and making it work for you. Your logo is your symbol, its what you put forward with pride, its who you are, Logo struck carriage deals prior to its launch date with DirecTV, Charter Communications, Adelphia Communications Corporation, Time Warner Cable, and RCN Corporation.
The broadcaster reached a deal with Comcast after the launch date, Logo has partnered with CBS News to provide news briefs and has developed a relationship with LPI Media, publisher of The Advocate and Out Traveler magazines. MTV Networks and Time Warner Cable announced an agreement December 11,2006, Logo became available on Dish Network in May 2009 as part of an add-on package. Day-to-day operations were handled by Lisa Sherman, who was vice president. According to its website, Were kind of big on fierce stuff, fiercely original programming to us means that in a perfect world everyone would be this interesting. Some content originated from other Viacom properties including Comedy Central, MTV, in April 2011, Logo acquired the rights to air the British comedy series Absolutely Fabulous and co-produced the shows three revival specials during 2011 and 2012 with the BBC and BBC America. Logo announced February 21,2012, that it would shift its programming strategy and this has prompted outrage from the channels LGBT viewership, who responded by comparing the channels new programming focus to that of the NBCUniversal-owned Bravo.
As of 2017, Finding Prince Charming and the upcoming docuseries Fire Island are Logos only remaining original programs, Logo publishes a collection of websites, all of which it describes as being a part of LOGOonline, the umbrella name for these sites. In mid-2009, Logo moved its flagship site to the LOGOtv. com domain name, theBackLot. com - A site featuring news and commentary on bisexual and gay men in media and entertainment. Downelink. com — A social networking site primarily targeted to LGBT people, newNowNext. com — A blog on pop culture news and trends. 365gay. com — A site featuring news relevant to the LGBT community, happiestGayCouple. com — A site for fans of the series Rick & Steve. VisibleVote08. com — A site offering Logos coverage of the 2008 U. S, in September 2006, Logo launched a video on demand service featuring select programming content, it is available on cable providers Comcast, Cox Communications, Time Warner Cable and on Verizon FiOS. Logo programming has been available on the Roost service since the time of its official launch, Logo offered several audio and video podcasts through the podcast section of the iTunes Store
Stanley, Falkland Islands
Stanley is the capital of the Falkland Islands. It is located on the island of East Falkland, on a slope in one of the wettest parts of the islands. At the 2012 census, the town had a population of 2,121, Stanley is represented by five members of the Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands, currently Jan Cheek, Barry Elsby, Michael Poole, Gavin Short and Mike Summers. Stanley is the shopping centre on the islands and the hub of East Falklands road network. The Falkland Islands Company owns several shops and a hotel, Stanley has four pubs, eleven hotels and guesthouses, three restaurants, a fish and chip shop and the main tourist office. There are three churches, including the Anglican Christ Church Cathedral, the southernmost Anglican cathedral in the world, a bomb disposal unit in the town is a legacy of the Falklands War. The town hall serves as a post office, philatelic bureau, law court, the police station contains the islands only prison, with a capacity of thirteen in the cells. The community centre includes a pool, a sports centre, library.
A grass football pitch is located by the community centre and hosts regular games, Stanley Racecourse, located on the west side of Stanley, holds a two-day horse racing meeting every year on 26 and 27 December. The Christmas races have been here for over one hundred years. Stanley Golf Course has an 18-hole course and a club house and it is located to the west of Stanley. King Edward VII Memorial Hospital is the main hospital, with doctors practice and surgery, radiology department, dental surgery. Several bus and taxi companies operate out of Stanley, Stanley is home to the Falkland Islands Radio Station, the Stanley office of the British Antarctic Survey, and the office of the weekly Penguin News newspaper. A nursery and garden centre is here, in whose greenhouses some of the islands vegetables are grown. The original capital of the islands was at Port Louis to the north of the present site of Stanley, captains Francis Crozier and James Clark Ross were recruited by Governor Richard Moody in his quest to find a new capital for The Falklands.
Both Crozier and Ross were among the Royal Navys most distinguished seafarers and they spent 5 months in the islands with their ships Terror and Erebus. Governor Moody however, decided to move the capital to Port Jackson, Stanley Harbour was considered to have a deeper anchorage for visiting ships. Work on the settlement began in 1843 and it became the capital in July 1845 and it was named after Lord Stanley, Secretary of State for War and the Colonies at the time
Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands
The Legislative Assembly of the Falkland Islands is the unicameral legislature of the British Overseas Territory of the Falkland Islands. The Legislative Assembly consists of eight elected members, two ex officio members, and the Speaker, although they take part in proceedings, the ex officio members do not have the right to vote in the Legislative Assembly. The Commander British Forces and the Attorney General have the right to part in the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly. Meetings of the Legislative Assembly are normally held in the Court and Assembly Chamber in Stanley Town Hall, the constitution states there must be at least one meeting of the Legislative Assembly every year, although the Assembly normally meets every two to three months. Meetings of the Legislative Assembly are broadcast live on the radio station. The Members of the Legislative Assembly have office facilities at Gilbert House, the constitution give the Legislative Assembly legislative powers for the peace and good government of the Falkland Islands.
Any MLA may introduce a Bill or propose any motion for debate, most motions in the Assembly, including Bills, are passed by a simple majority of the elected members with the presiding officer having the casting vote. The presiding officer of the Assembly is the Speaker who is elected by the MLAs, unlike the Speaker of the British House of Commons, the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly does not need to be a member of the Assembly. The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are elected for the life of the Legislative Assembly though can be removed via a motion of no confidence voted for by six or more MLAs, during the Speaker election, the Attorney General acts as presiding officer. The Assembly is governed by a number of standing orders which lay out the regulations for proceedings during Assembly meetings, also, MLAs are granted parliamentary privilege in the proceedings of the Legislative Assembly. There is a Clerk of the Legislative Assembly who has a role to that of the Clerk of the House of Commons.
There must be an election on the Falklands at least once every four years. As in most Westminster systems, the campaign officially begins with the dissolution of the legislature. In the Falklands the Governor dissolves the Legislative Assembly by proclamation at the request of the Executive Council, the Falkland Islands are divided into two constituencies and Stanley. Camp returns three elected members and Stanley returns five elected members using block voting, the Camp constituency includes any part of the Overseas Territory which is not in the boundaries of the Stanley constituency. The Constitution allows for the constituencies and their boundaries to be amended, regular members of Her Majestys Armed Forces are not allowed to vote. If an elected member of the Legislative Assembly vacates his or her seat for any other than a dissolution of the Assembly. The by-election must be held within 70 days the vacancy occurring, the last election took place on 7 November 2013 and the next election must take place by November 2017
The Falkland Islands are an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf. The principal islands are about 300 miles east of South Americas southern Patagonian coast, the archipelago, with an area of 4,700 square miles, comprises East Falkland, West Falkland and 776 smaller islands. As a British overseas territory, the Falklands have internal self-governance, the islands capital is Stanley on East Falkland. Controversy exists over the Falklands discovery and subsequent colonisation by Europeans, at various times, the islands have had French, British and Argentine settlements. Britain reasserted its rule in 1833, although Argentina maintains its claim to the islands, in April 1982, Argentine forces temporarily occupied the islands. British administration was restored two months at the end of the Falklands War, most Falklanders favour the archipelago remaining a UK overseas territory, but its sovereignty status is part of an ongoing dispute between Argentina and the United Kingdom.
The population primarily consists of native-born Falkland Islanders, the majority of British descent, other ethnicities include French and Scandinavian. Immigration from the United Kingdom, the South Atlantic island of Saint Helena, under the British Nationality Act 1983, Falkland Islanders are British citizens. The islands lie on the boundary of the oceanic and tundra climate zones. They are home to bird populations, although many no longer breed on the main islands because of competition from introduced species. Major economic activities include fishing and sheep farming, with an emphasis on high-quality wool exports, oil exploration, licensed by the Falkland Islands Government, remains controversial as a result of maritime disputes with Argentina. The Falkland Islands take their name from the Falkland Sound, a strait separating the two main islands. The name Falkland was applied to the channel by John Strong, Strong named the strait in honour of Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount of Falkland, the Treasurer of the Navy who sponsored their journey.
The name Falklands was not applied to the islands until 1765, the term Falklands is a standard abbreviation used to refer to the islands. The Spanish name for the archipelago, Islas Malvinas, derives from the French Îles Malouines — the name given to the islands by French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville in 1764, who founded the islands first settlement, named the area after the port of Saint-Malo. The port, located in the Brittany region of western France, was in turn named after St. Malo, in Spanish, the territory was designated as Islas Malvinas. The nomenclature used by the United Nations for statistical processing purposes is Falkland Islands, although Fuegians from Patagonia may have visited the Falkland Islands in prehistoric times, the islands were uninhabited at the time of their discovery by Europeans. Claims of discovery date back to the 16th century, but no consensus exists on whether these early explorers discovered the Falklands or other islands in the South Atlantic, whether or not the settlements were aware of each others existence is debated by historians
This includes treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated. Discriminatory traditions, ideas and laws exist in countries and institutions in every part of the world. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but have sometimes been called reverse discrimination, the term discriminate appeared in the early 17th century in the English language. It is from the Latin discriminat- distinguished between, from the verb discriminare, from discrimen distinction, from the verb discernere, Discrimination derives from Latin, where the verb discrimire means to separate, to distinguish, to make a distinction. Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration, an individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against.
They just need to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason, in addition to this discrimination develops into a source of oppression. It is similar to the action of recognizing someone as different so much that they are treated inhumanly, social competition is driven by the need for self-esteem and is aimed at achieving a positive social status for the in-group relative to comparable out-groups. Consensual discrimination is driven by the need for accuracy and reflects stable, the United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement, Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection. International bodies United Nations Human Rights Council work towards helping ending discrimination around the world, important UN documents addressing discrimination include, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948. The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination is a United Nations convention, the Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination.
The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as a bill of rights for women, it came into force on 3 September 1981. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is a human rights instrument treaty of the United Nations. Parties to the Convention are required to promote and ensure the full enjoyment of human rights by persons with disabilities, the text was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 13 December 2006, and opened for signature on 30 March 2007. Following ratification by the 20th party, it came into force on 3 May 2008, ageism or age discrimination is discrimination and stereotyping based on the grounds of someones age. It is a set of beliefs and values used to justify discrimination or subordination based on a persons age.
Ageism is most often directed towards old people, or adolescents, Age discrimination in hiring has been shown to exist in the United States. In Europe, Stijn Baert, Jennifer Norga, Yannick Thuy and Marieke Van Hecke, researchers at Ghent University, they found that age discrimination is heterogeneous by the activity older candidates undertook during their additional post-educational years