5G are advanced wireless systems. Industry association 3GPP defines any system using "5G NR" software as "5G", a definition that came into general use by late 2018, it supercedes 2G, 3G and 4G and their respective associated technologies The first substantial deployments were in April, 2019. In South Korea, SK Telecom claimed 38,000 base stations, KT Corporation 30,000 and LG U Plus 18,000. 85% are in six major cities. They tested speeds were from 193 to 430 megabits down. All carriers use Samsung base stations and equipment. Verizon opened service on a limited number of base stations in the US cities of Chicago and Minneapolis using 400 MHz of 28 GHz millimeter wave spectrum. Download speeds in Chicago were from 80 to 634 megabits. Upload speeds were from 12 to 57 megabits. Ping was 25 milliseconds. LTE tested 57 megabits up. There are only 5 companies in the world offering 5G radio hardware and complete systems: Huawei, ZTE, Nokia and Ericsson. 5G networks are digital cellular networks, in which the service area covered by providers is divided into a mosaic of small geographical areas called cells.
Analog signals representing sounds and images are digitized in the phone, converted by an analog to digital converter and transmitted as a stream of bits. All the 5G wireless devices in a cell communicate by radio waves with a local antenna array and low power automated transceiver in the cell, over frequency channels assigned by the transceiver from a common pool of frequencies, which are reused in geographically separated cells; the local antennas are connected with the telephone network and the Internet by a high bandwidth optical fiber or wireless backhaul connection. Like existing cellphones, when a user crosses from one cell to another, their mobile device is automatically "handed off" seamlessly to the antenna in the new cell. Millimeter waves have shorter range than microwaves, therefore the cells are limited to smaller size. Millimeter wave antennas are smaller than the large antennas used in previous cellular networks, only a few inches long Another technique used for increasing the data rate is massive MIMO.
Each cell will have multiple antennas communicating with the wireless device, received by multiple antennas in the device, thus multiple bitstreams of data will be transmitted in parallel. In a technique called beamforming the base station computer will continuously calculate the best route for radio waves to reach each wireless device, will organise multiple antennas to work together as phased arrays to create beams of millimeter waves to reach the device; the new 5G wireless devices have 4G LTE capability, as the new networks use 4G for establishing the connection with the cell, as well as in locations where 5G access is not available. The ITU-R has defined three main types of uses, they are Enhanced Mobile Broadband, Ultra Reliable Low Latency Communications, Massive Machine Type Communications. Enhanced Mobile Broadband refers to using 5G as an evolution to 4G LTE mobile broadband services with faster connections, higher throughput, more capacity. Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications is a planned future system with high aspirations for reliability and low latency.
Dates of availability and deployment are not yet known. 5G NR is designed to support up to 1 million devices per square kilometer. 5G NR speed in sub-6 GHz bands can be higher than the 4G with a similar amount of spectrum and antennas, though some 3GPP 5G networks will be slower than some advanced 4G networks, such as T-Mobile's LTE/LAA network, which achieves 500+ Mbit/s in Manhattan. The 5G specification allows LAA as well but it has not yet been demonstrated. Adding LAA to an existing 4G configuration can add hundreds of megabits per second to the speed, but this is an extension of 4G, not a new part of the 5G standard. Speeds in the less common millimetre wave spectrum can be higher. Early testing on Verizon's 5G millimeter wave system showed speeds of 200-634 megabits using 400 MHz of spectrum. See above for more recent data; the term was associated with the International Telecommunication Union's IMT-2020 standard, which required a theoretical peak download capacity of 20 gigabits, along with other requirements.
The industry standards group 3GPP chose the 5G NR standard together with LTE as their proposal for submission to the IMT-2020 standard. The first phase of 3GPP 5G specifications in Release-15 is scheduled to complete in 2019; the second phase in Release-16 is due to be completed in 2020.5G NR can include lower frequencies, below 6 GHz, higher frequencies, above 24 GHz. However, the speed and latency in early FR1 deployments, using 5G NR software on 4G hardware, are only better than new 4G systems, estimated at 15 to 50% better. IEEE covers several areas of 5G with a core focus in wireline sections between the Remote Radio Head and Base Band Unit; the 1914.1 standards focus on network architecture and dividing the connection between the RRU and BBU into two key sections. Radio Unit to the Distributor Unit being the NGFI-I and the DU to the Central Unit being the NGFI-II interface allowing a more diverse and cost-effective network. NGFI-I and NGFI-II have defined performance values which should b
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP, UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA2000 standard set for networks based on the competing cdmaOne technology. UMTS uses wideband code division multiple access radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators. UMTS specifies a complete network system, which includes the radio access network, the core network and the authentication of users via SIM cards; the technology described in UMTS is sometimes referred to as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access or 3GSM. Unlike EDGE and CDMA2000, UMTS requires new base stations and new frequency allocations. UMTS supports maximum theoretical data transfer rates of 42 Mbit/s when Evolved HSPA is implemented in the network. Users in deployed networks can expect a transfer rate of up to 384 kbit/s for Release'99 handsets, 7.2 Mbit/s for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access handsets in the downlink connection.
These speeds are faster than the 9.6 kbit/s of a single GSM error-corrected circuit switched data channel, multiple 9.6 kbit/s channels in High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data and 14.4 kbit/s for CDMAOne channels. Since 2006, UMTS networks in many countries have been or are in the process of being upgraded with High-Speed Downlink Packet Access, sometimes known as 3.5G. HSDPA enables downlink transfer speeds of up to 21 Mbit/s. Work is progressing on improving the uplink transfer speed with the High-Speed Uplink Packet Access. Longer term, the 3GPP Long Term Evolution project plans to move UMTS to 4G speeds of 100 Mbit/s down and 50 Mbit/s up, using a next generation air interface technology based upon orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing; the first national consumer UMTS networks launched in 2002 with a heavy emphasis on telco-provided mobile applications such as mobile TV and video calling. The high data speeds of UMTS are now most utilised for Internet access: experience in Japan and elsewhere has shown that user demand for video calls is not high, telco-provided audio/video content has declined in popularity in favour of high-speed access to the World Wide Web—either directly on a handset or connected to a computer via Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or USB.
UMTS combines three different terrestrial air interfaces, GSM's Mobile Application Part core, the GSM family of speech codecs. The air interfaces are called UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access. All air interface options are part of ITU's IMT-2000. In the most popular variant for cellular mobile telephones, W-CDMA is used, it is called "Uu interface", as it links User Equipment to the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Please note that the terms W-CDMA, TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA are misleading. While they suggest covering just a channel access method, they are the common names for the whole air interface standards. W-CDMA or WCDMA, along with UMTS-FDD, UTRA-FDD, or IMT-2000 CDMA Direct Spread is an air interface standard found in 3G mobile telecommunications networks, it supports conventional cellular voice, text and MMS services, but can carry data at high speeds, allowing mobile operators to deliver higher bandwidth applications including streaming and broadband Internet access. W-CDMA uses the DS-CDMA channel access method with a pair of 5 MHz wide channels.
In contrast, the competing CDMA2000 system uses one or more available 1.25 MHz channels for each direction of communication. W-CDMA systems are criticized for their large spectrum usage, which delayed deployment in countries that acted slowly in allocating new frequencies for 3G services; the specific frequency bands defined by the UMTS standard are 1885–2025 MHz for the mobile-to-base and 2110–2200 MHz for the base-to-mobile. In the US, 1710–1755 MHz and 2110–2155 MHz are used instead, as the 1900 MHz band was used. While UMTS2100 is the most deployed UMTS band, some countries' UMTS operators use the 850 MHz and/or 1900 MHz bands, notably in the US by AT&T Mobility, New Zealand by Telecom New Zealand on the XT Mobile Network and in Australia by Telstra on the Next G network; some carriers such as T-Mobile use band numbers to identify the UMTS frequencies. For example, Band I, Band IV, Band V. UMTS-FDD is an acronym for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System - frequency-division duplexing and a 3GPP standardized version of UMTS networks that makes use of frequency-division duplexing for duplexing over an UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access air interface.
W-CDMA is the basis of Japan's NTT DoCoMo's FOMA service and the most-commonly used member of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System family and sometimes used as a synonym for UMTS. It uses the DS-CDMA channel access method and the FDD duplexing method to achieve higher speeds and support more users compared to most used time division multiple access and time division duplex schemes. While not an evolutionary upgrade on the airside, it uses the same core network as the 2G GSM networks deployed worldwide, allowing dual mode mobile operation al
Zenith Electronics, LLC is a research and development company that develops ATSC and digital rights management technologies. It is owned by the South Korean company LG Electronics. Zenith was an American brand of consumer electronics, a manufacturer of radio and television receivers and other consumer electronics, was headquartered in Glenview, Illinois. After a series of layoffs, the consolidated headquarters moved to Illinois. For many years, their famous slogan was "The quality goes in before the name goes on." LG Electronics acquired a controlling share of Zenith in 1995. Zenith was the inventor of subscription television and the modern remote control, the first to develop High-definition television in North America. Zenith-branded products were sold in North America, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Myanmar; the company was co-founded by Ralph Matthews and Karl Hassel in Chicago, Illinois, as Chicago Radio Labs in 1918 as a small producer of amateur radio equipment. The name "Zenith" came from ZN'th, a contraction of its founders' ham radio call sign, 9ZN.
They were joined in 1921 by Eugene F. McDonald, Zenith Radio Company was formally incorporated in 1923; the fledgling company soon became known for electronic innovations. Zenith introduced the first portable radio in 1924, the first mass-produced AC radio in 1926, push-button tuning in 1927, it added automobile radios in the 1930s with its Model 460, promoting the fact that it needed no separate generator or battery, selling at US$59.95. The first Zenith television set appeared in 1939, with its first commercial sets sold to the public in 1948; the company is credited with having invented such things as the wireless remote control and FM multiplex stereo. In fact, Zenith established one of the first FM stations in the country in 1940, among the earliest FM multiplex stereo stations, first broadcasting in stereo in June 1961; the station was sold in the early 1970s and is now WUSN. Zenith pioneered in the development of high-contrast and flat-face picture tubes, the multichannel television sound stereo system used on analog television broadcasts in the United States and Canada Zenith was one of the first companies to introduce a digital HDTV system implementation, parts of which were included in the ATSC standard starting with the 1993 model Grand Alliance.
They were one of the first American manufacturers to market a home VCR, selling a Sony-built Betamax video recorder starting in 1977. The 1962 Illinois Manufacturers Directory lists Zenith Radio Corporation as having a total of 11,000 employees of which at least 6,460 were employed in seven Chicago plants; the corporate office was in plant number 1 located at 6001 West Dickens Avenue where 2,500 workers made radio and television sets and Hi-Fi stereophonic phonographs. Plant number 2 was located at 1500 North Kostner Ave. where 2,100 employees made government electronics and television components and hearing aids. Plant number 3 was located at 5801 West Dickens Ave. where 300 employees made electronics and servicing. Plant number 4 was located at 3501 West Potomac Ave.. Plant number 5 located at 6501 West Grand Ave. employed 500-600 workers who made government hi-fi equipment. A subsidiary of Zenith, the Rauland Corporation, located at 4245 North Knox Avenue, employed 850 workers who made television picture tubes.
The other Zenith subsidiary in Chicago was Central Electronics, Incorporated located at 1247 West Belmont Ave. where 100 employees made amateur radio equipment and performed auditory training. The other Central Electronics plant was located at State Route 133 and Grandview in Paris, Illinois where 500 employees made radio receivers, with the total Zenith work force in Illinois being thus at least 6,960. In December, 1970, National Union Electric sued most of the Japanese television manufacturers for violation of the Anti-Dumping Act and a conspiracy which violated American antitrust laws. During the pendency of that suit, Zenith Radio Corporation encountered increasing financial difficulty as their market share progressively went to Japanese companies. Concerned about losing market share to Japanese companies, Zenith filed suit in federal court in Philadelphia in 1974 against the major Japanese television and electronic manufacturers charging violation of the United States Antitrust Laws and the Anti-Dumping Act of 1916.
Zenith joined two United States companies Sears, Roebuck and Co. and Motorola, Inc. as co-plaintiffs. The NUE suit was transferred to the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and the two suits were consolidated for pretrial proceedings and trial; the suit, styled In re Japanese Electric Products Antitrust Litigation, sought $900,000,000.00 in damages. By the end of 1983, Zenith had spent millions of dollars in connection with the litigation. In 1981, the trial court entered summary judgment on the antitrust and antidumping claims and dismissed the lawsuits. Plaintiffs appealed and the appellate court affirmed the summary judgment for Sears, Roebuck and Co. Motorola, Inc. and Sony. The case was appealed, in March 1986 the Supreme Court of the United States ruled in favor of the defendants on Zenith’s antitrust claims. Zenith's hopes to salvage a
Evolution-Data Optimized is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals for broadband Internet access. EV-DO is an evolution of the CDMA2000 standard which supports high data rates and can be deployed alongside a wireless carrier's voice services, it uses advanced multiplexing techniques including code division multiple access as well as time division multiplexing to maximize throughput. It is a part of the CDMA2000 family of standards and has been adopted by many mobile phone service providers around the world those employing CDMA networks, it is used on the Globalstar satellite phone network. EV-DO service has been or will be discontinued in much of Canada in 2015. An EV-DO channel has a bandwidth of 1.25 MHz, the same bandwidth size that IS-95A and IS-2000 use, though the channel structure is different. The back-end network is packet-based, is not constrained by restrictions present on a circuit switched network; the EV-DO feature of CDMA2000 networks provides access to mobile devices with forward link air interface speeds of up to 2.4 Mbit/s with Rel. 0 and up to 3.1 Mbit/s with Rev. A.
The reverse link rate for Rel. 0 can operate up to 153 kbit/s, while Rev. A can operate at up to 1.8 Mbit/s. It was designed to be operated end-to-end as an IP based network, can support any application which can operate on such a network and bit rate constraints. There have been several revisions of the standard, starting with Release 0; this was expanded upon with Revision A to support Quality of Service and higher rates on the forward and reverse link. In late 2006, Revision B was published, whose features include the ability to bundle multiple carriers to achieve higher rates and lower latencies; the upgrade from EV-DO Rev. A to Rev. B involves a software update of the cell site modem, additional equipment for new EV-DO carriers. Existing cdma2000 operators may have to retune some of their existing 1xRTT channels to other frequencies, as Rev. B requires all DO carriers be within 5 MHz; the initial design of EV-DO was developed by Qualcomm in 1999 to meet IMT-2000 requirements for a greater-than-2Mbit/s down link for stationary communications, as opposed to mobile communication.
The standard was called High Data Rate, but was renamed to 1xEV-DO after it was ratified by the International Telecommunication Union under the designation TIA-856. 1xEV-DO stood for "1x Evolution-Data Only", referring to its being a direct evolution of the 1x air interface standard, with its channels carrying only data traffic. The title of the 1xEV-DO standard document is "cdma2000 High Rate Packet Data Air Interface Specification", as cdma2000 is another name for the 1x standard, numerically designated as TIA-2000. Due to possible negative connotations of the word "only", the "DO"-part of the standard's name 1xEV-DO was changed to stand for "Data Optimized", the full name - EV-DO now stands for "Evolution-Data Optimized." The 1x prefix has been dropped by many of the major carriers, is marketed as EV-DO. This provides a more market-friendly emphasis of the technology being data-optimized; the primary characteristic that differentiates an EV-DO channel from a 1xRTT channel is that it is time multiplexed on the forward link.
This means that a single mobile has full use of the forward traffic channel within a particular geographic area during a given slot of time. Using this technique, EV-DO is able to modulate each user’s time slot independently; this allows the service of users in favorable RF conditions with complex modulation techniques while serving users in poor RF conditions with simpler. The forward channel is divided into each being 1.667 ms long. In addition to user traffic, overhead channels are interlaced into the stream, which include the'pilot', which helps the mobile find and identify the channel, the Media Access Channel which tells the mobile devices when their data is scheduled, the'control channel', which contains other information the network needs the mobile devices to know; the modulation to be used to communicate with a given mobile unit is determined by the mobile device itself. It communicates this information back to the serving sector in the form of an integer between 1 and 12 on the "Digital Rate Control" channel.
Alternatively, the mobile can select a "null" rate, indicating that the mobile either cannot decode data at any rate, or that it is attempting to hand off to another serving sector. The DRC values are as follows: Another important aspect of the EV-DO forward link channel is the scheduler; the scheduler most used is called "proportional fair". It's designed to maximize sector throughput while guaranteeing each user a certain minimum level of service; the idea is to schedule mobiles reporting higher DRC indices more with the hope that those reporting worse conditions will improve in time. The system incorporates Incremental Redundancy Hybrid ARQ; each sub-packet of a multi-slot transmission is a turbo-coded replica of the original data bits. This allows mobiles to acknowledge a packet. For example, if a mobile transmits a DRC index of 3 and is scheduled to receive data
A mobile phone, cell phone, cellphone, or hand phone, sometimes shortened to mobile, cell or just phone, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network. Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America. In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, Internet access, short-range wireless communications, business applications, video games, digital photography. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; the first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms.
In 1979, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone launched the world's first cellular network in Japan. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. From 1983 to 2014, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew to over seven billion—enough to provide one for every person on Earth. In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were Samsung and Huawei, smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales. For feature phones as of 2016, the largest were Samsung and Alcatel. A handheld mobile radio telephone service was envisioned in the early stages of radio engineering. In 1917, Finnish inventor Eric Tigerstedt filed a patent for a "pocket-size folding telephone with a thin carbon microphone". Early predecessors of cellular phones included analog radio communications from trains; the race to create portable telephone devices began after World War II, with developments taking place in many countries. The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service.
These 0G systems were not cellular, supported few simultaneous calls, were expensive. The first handheld cellular mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing 2 kilograms; the first commercial automated cellular network analog was launched in Japan by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone in 1979. This was followed in 1981 by the simultaneous launch of the Nordic Mobile Telephone system in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. Several other countries followed in the early to mid-1980s; these first-generation systems could support far more simultaneous calls but still used analog cellular technology. In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone. In 1991, the second-generation digital cellular technology was launched in Finland by Radiolinja on the GSM standard; this sparked competition in the sector as the new operators challenged the incumbent 1G network operators. Ten years in 2001, the third generation was launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo on the WCDMA standard.
This was followed by 3.5G, 3G+ or turbo 3G enhancements based on the high-speed packet access family, allowing UMTS networks to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. By 2009, it had become clear that, at some point, 3G networks would be overwhelmed by the growth of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as streaming media; the industry began looking to data-optimized fourth-generation technologies, with the promise of speed improvements up to ten-fold over existing 3G technologies. The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera. 5G is a technology and term used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase in mobile telecommunication standards beyond the 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. The term 5G is not used in any specification or official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization bodies such as 3GPP, WiMAX Forum or ITU-R.
New standards beyond 4G are being developed by standardization bodies, but they are at this time seen as under the 4G umbrella, not for a new mobile generation. Smartphones have a number of distinguishing features; the International Telecommunication Union measures those with Internet connection, which it calls Active Mobile-Broadband subscriptions. In the developed world, smartphones have now overtaken the usage of earlier mobile systems. However, in the developing world, they account for around 50% of mobile telephony. Feature phone is a term used as a retronym to describe mobile phones which are limited in capabilities in contrast to a modern smartphone. Feature phones provide voice calling and text messaging functionality, in addition to basic multimedia and Internet capabilities, other services offered by the user's wireless service provider. A feature phone has additional functions over and above a basic mobile phone, only capable of voice calling and text messaging. Feature phones and basic mobile phones tend to use a proprietary, custom-designed software and user interface.
By contrast, smartphones use a mobile operating system that shares common traits across devices. There are Orthodox Jewish religious re
A public company, publicly traded company, publicly held company, publicly listed company, or public limited company is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets. In some jurisdictions, public companies over a certain size must be listed on an exchange. A public company can be unlisted. Public companies are formed within the legal systems of particular nations, therefore have national associations and formal designations which are distinct and separate. For example one of the main public company forms in the United States is called a limited liability company, in France is called a "society of limited responsibility", in Britain a public limited company, in Germany a company with limited liability. While the general idea of a public company may be similar, differences are meaningful, are at the core of international law disputes with regard to industry and trade. In the early modern period, the Dutch developed several financial instruments and helped lay the foundations of modern financial system.
The Dutch East India Company became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the first publicly traded company, because it was the first company to be actually listed on an official stock exchange. While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fledged capital market: corporate shareholders; as Edward Stringham notes, "companies with transferable shares date back to classical Rome, but these were not enduring endeavors and no considerable secondary market existed." The securities of a publicly traded company are owned by many investors while the shares of a held company are owned by few shareholders. A company with many shareholders is not a publicly traded company. In the United States, in some instances, companies with over 500 shareholders may be required to report under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Public companies possess some advantages over held businesses.
Publicly traded companies are able to raise funds and capital through the sale of shares of stock. This is the reason publicly traded corporations are important; the profit on stock is gained in form of capital gain to the holders. The financial media and the public are able to access additional information about the business, since the business is legally bound, motivated, to publicly disseminate information regarding the financial status and future of the company to its many shareholders and the government; because many people have a vested interest in the company's success, the company may be more popular or recognizable than a private company. The initial shareholders of the company are able to share risk by selling shares to the public. If one were to hold a 100% share of the company, he or she would have to pay all of the business's debt; this increases asset liquidity and the company does not need to depend on funding from a bank. For example, in 2013 Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg owned 29.3% of the company's class A shares, which gave him enough voting power to control the business, while allowing Facebook to raise capital from, distribute risk to, the remaining shareholders.
Facebook was a held company prior to its initial public offering in 2012. If some shares are given to managers or other employees, potential conflicts of interest between employees and shareholders will be remitted; as an example, in many tech companies, entry-level software engineers are given stock in the company upon being hired. Therefore, the engineers have a vested interest in the company succeeding financially, are incentivized to work harder and more diligently to ensure that success. Many stock exchanges require that publicly traded companies have their accounts audited by outside auditors, publish the accounts to their shareholders. Besides the cost, this may make useful information available to competitors. Various other annual and quarterly reports are required by law. In the United States, the Sarbanes–Oxley Act imposes additional requirements; the requirement for audited books is not imposed by the exchange known as OTC Pink. The shares may be maliciously held by outside shareholders and the original founders or owners may lose benefits and control.
The principal-agent problem, or the agency problem is a key weakness of public companies. The separation of a company's ownership and control is prevalent in such countries as U. K and U. S. In the United States, the Securities and Exchange Commission requires that firms whose stock is traded publicly report their major shareholders each year; the reports identify all institutional shareholders, all company officials who own shares in their firm, any individual or institution owning more than 5% of the firm's stock. For many years, newly created companies were held but held initial
Jung District, Seoul
Jung District is one of the 25 districts of Seoul, South Korea. Jung has a population of 131,452 and has a geographic area 9.96 km2, making it both the least-populous and the smallest district of Seoul, is divided into 16 dong. Jung is located at the centre of Seoul on the northern side of the Han River, bordering the city districts of Jongno to the north, Seodaemun to the northwest, Mapo to the west, Yongsan to the south, Seongdong to the southeast, Dongdaemun to the northeast. Jung is the historical city center of Seoul with a variety of old and new, including modern facilities such as high rise office buildings, department stores and shopping malls clustered together, a center of tradition where historic sites such as Deoksugung and Namdaemun can be found. Jung is home to cultural sites such as the landmark N Seoul Tower on Namsan Mountain, the Myeongdong Cathedral, the Bank of Korea Museum, the Gwangtonggwan, the oldest continuously-operating bank building in Korea and one of city's protected monuments since March 5, 2001.
The Myeongdong neighborhood is one of the most famous shopping areas and popular tourist destinations in South Korea. Jung District is one of the most significant business cores of Seoul. Notable companies based in Jung District include Hanhwa, Hanjin, Doosan Corporation, SK Telecom, LG U+, Daewoo International, Daehan Logistics, Ssangyong Cement, Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering, Lotte Shopping and many more. Many banking and other financial companies have headquarters in Jung District, such as KB Financial Group, Woori Financial Group, Shinhan Financial Group, Hana Financial Group, Korea Life Insurance, Samsung Life Insurance, Industrial Bank of Korea, Korean Exchange Bank, Samsung Card. Major newspapers such as The Chosun Ilbo and JoongAng Ilbo, The Dong-a Ilbo are based in Jung District; the headquarters of South Korean food company CJ Cheil Jedang is in the CJ Cheiljedang Building in Ssangnim-dong, near the Dongdaemun History & Culture Park Station. Air France operates a ticketing office on the 11th floor of the Korean Air Building in Jung District.
Air China has an office on the 1st and 2nd floors of the Hansuang Building in Seosomun-dong in Jung District. All Nippon Airways operates the Seoul Office in Room 1501 on the 15th floor of the Center Building in Sogong-dong, Jung District. Hainan Airlines operates its South Korea office in Suite 1501 of the Samyoung Building in Sogong-dong. MIAT Mongolian Airlines has its Seoul Branch Office in the Soonhwa Building in Sunhwa-dong. In the 1980s Korean Air had its headquarters in Jung District. Color: Green Tree: Pine tree Flower: Rose Bird: Korean magpie Jung District is the center of Seoul; because this it was a fitting place for many scholars who stayed in Seoul to discuss and pursue crucial academic or political subjects during the Joseon Dynasty. Han Myeong Hoe: scholar and tactician in the early Joseon Dynasty Park Ji won: famous scholar during the mid-Joseon Dynasty. Namgung Uk: activist for the Korean independence movement The National Human Rights Commission of Korea has its headquarters in the Gumsegi Building in Jung District.
The Korean Maritime Safety Tribunal had its headquarters in the S1 Building in Sunhwa-dong, Jung District. The offices of the KMST are now in Sejong City. International schools include: Russian Embassy School in Seoul Seoul Chinese Primary School in Myeong-dong Deoksugung Namdaemun Bank of Korea Museum Global Village Folk Museum Grand Ambassador Seoul hotel Gwangtonggwan Koreana Hotel National Theater of Korea Seoul Museum of Art Myeongdong Cathedral N Seoul Tower Namsan mountain Chungmu Arts Hall Lotte Hotel Seoul Tour Financial Hub Center Hunchun, People's Republic of China Xicheng District, People's Republic of China "중구". Doosan Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2013-01-02. Retrieved 2008-04-22. Jung District, Seoul travel guide from Wikivoyage Jung-gu Official site in English Jung-gu Official site in Korean