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LIBRIS

LIBRIS is a Swedish national union catalogue maintained by the National Library of Sweden in Stockholm. It is possible to search about 6.5 million titles nationwide. In addition to bibliographic records, one for each book or publication, LIBRIS contains an authority file of people. For each person there is a record connecting name and occupation with a unique identifier; the MARC Code for the Swedish Union Catalog is SE-LIBR, normalized: selibr. The development of LIBRIS can be traced to the mid-1960s. While rationalization of libraries had been an issue for two decades after World War II, it was in 1965 that a government committee published a report on the use of computers in research libraries; the government budget of 1965 created a research library council. A preliminary design document, Biblioteksadministrativt Information System was published in May 1970, the name LIBRIS, short for Library Information System, was used for a technical subcommittee that started on 1 July 1970; the newsletter LIBRIS-meddelanden has been published since 1972 and is online since 1997.

National Library of Sweden: LIBRIS Open Data, Information about LIBRIS bibliographic records and authority file as open data, 3 April 2012

Hetton-le-Hole

Hetton-le-Hole is a village and civil parish situated in the City of Sunderland and Wear, England. In County Durham, it is on the A182 between Houghton-le-Spring and Easington Lane, at the southwest corner of Sunderland, off the A690 and close to the A1, it has a population of 14,402 including the village of Warden Law. The civil parish includes Hetton proper, along with East Rainton, Middle Rainton, Low Moorsley, High Moorsley and Easington Lane. South Hetton is a separate parish. Great Eppleton Wind Farm, a wind farm of four dual-bladed alternators, provides electricity to the National Grid; the original wind turbines have been replaced by larger three-bladed versions. The turbines are far enough away from local houses not to cause any audible disturbance; the history of the Hetton area can be traced back for up to a thousand years. The name of Hetton-le-Hole derives from two Anglo-Saxon words which were spelt together "Heppedune", meaning Bramble Hill; the name was adopted by the le Hepdons, who owned part of the Manor.

The ancient manor, bounded by that of Elemore, was divided into two parts known as Hetton-on-the-Hill and Hetton-in-the-Hole. The latter, a more sheltered vicinity, was. Records exist of the many holders of the manor back to the 14th century. William de Hepdon held half the Manor by deed in 1363. Earlier charters go back to 1187 and mention the early village of Heppedune, its people, crofts and strips of land for the villagers in the three great fields around the settlement. In 1187 Bertram de Heppedune held the manor for the King. Coal has been mined in the surrounding area since Roman times. Coal was obtained by drift mining, but by the 14th century shafts were used. In 1819 the Hetton Coal Company was formed and the first shaft was sunk a year later, it was a controversial undertaking, with geologists doubtful as to whether coal of any value existed there. The Hetton Coal Company's owners decided to build a wagonway from their new Hetton colliery to the River Wear at Sunderland. George Stephenson was hired to build the 8 miles line.

The trains were powered by gravity down the inclines and by locomotives for its level and upward stretches. It was the first railway to use no animal power at all; these methods were used until 1959. These activities led to a rapid increase in the size of Hetton and over 200 houses for the miners were built at once; these have all but gone now, but twelve of these former mining cottages from Francis Street in the Hetton Downs area of the town were re-erected stone by stone at Beamish Open Air Museum, near Chester-le-Street. The UK miners' strike brought about hardship for many of the workers. Two local unsigned bands recorded and released a single to raise money for the families and to recognise the contribution made by miners over the years in their locality, their adapted version of a Bob Dylan classic failed to chart, but the project made a slight profit as local support from other mining communities ensured that'Knocking on Hetton's Floor' sold in excess of 1000 copies. Hetton Colliery closed in 1950, Elemore Colliery closed in 1974 and Eppleton Colliery closed in 1986.

Today, nothing now exists of the mines in Hetton. The surrounding area of Hetton Colliery has been landscaped and is now occupied by a lake and leisure facilities. Meanwhile, Eppleton Colliery has been landscaped, all that remains is the Hetton Centre and the Eppleton Colliery Welfare Ground which hosts the home games of Sunderland A. F. C. Ladies and Sunderland U23s. There is a quarry where sand is mined; this is now undergoing a reformation. The decommissioned St Nicholas' Church in Front Street was destroyed in November 2006, it is unknown. It had been listed due to its architectural significance. Thomas Adey, former footballer Allan Ball, former footballer, now honorary director of Queen of the South Ralph Coates, former football player Bobby Cram, former footballer Bob Paisley, former football player and manager Harry Potts, former football player and manager Bryan "Pop" Robson, former footballer Trevor Horn, record producer and recording artist Albert H. Oswald, composer of light music Hetton School Railways - Herrington Heritage History - Hetton Town Council

Murād Mīrzā

Murād Mīrzā was the 36th Imam of the Nizari Ismaili Shia Islam community. He was a politically active Imam alongside the Nuqtavi Shia group, had a large following. Murād Mīrzā did not always operate from the Nizari base of Anjudan; as a result of his activeness, he acquired followers in other central Persian areas. Ali Shah, surnamed Shah Murad or Murad Mirza lived in Anjudan, he had retained his close relations with Shah Ismail cemented by his father. His mode of living, his dress and food were characterised by a rare simplicity; the Ottoman sultan Salim began his long march to northern Azerbaijan after putting 40,000 Shias to death in his dominions. He reached the plain of Chaldiran and the outbreak of war occurred in 920/1514, he inflicted a defeat to Shah Ismail. The Ottoman firepower, consisting of 200 cannon and 100 mortars was brought into play with devastating effect. After suffering heavy casualties, the Safavid artilleries were forced to break off the engagement; when Shah Ismail left the battlefield, sultan Salim did not pursue him.

He marched to Tabriz, the Safavid capital, which he occupied in 922/1517. Caterino Zeno, the Venetian ambassador writes in "Travels in Persia" that, "If the Turk had been beaten in the battle of Chaldiran, the power of Ismail would have become greater than that of Tamerlane, as by the fame alone of such a victory he would have made himself absolute lord of the East." The Mamluks of Syria and Egypt remained wedded to their cavalry, were defeated by the Ottomans. The effect of the Safavid defeat at Chaldiran was the loss of the province of Diyar Bakr, annexed to the Ottoman empire in 921/1516. Shah Ismail went into mourning after his defeat. During the remaining ten years of his reign, he never once led his troops into action in person, he did not devote his attention to the affairs of the state as in the past. On the contrary, he seems to have tried to drown his sorrows by wine, his abdication of his responsibilities in regard to the personal direction of the affairs of state gave certain officials the opportunity to increase their own power.

The clash between the Kizilbash and the Iranian soldiers began to be a threat to the Safavid kingdom. Kizilbash were the Turkomans, who were distinguished for wearing red pointed caps, which they had begun to wear in the time of Shaikh Hyder, the father of Shah Ismail, they let their moustaches grow. The Kizilbash constituted the backbone of the Safavid army, it seems probable on that juncture that Shah Ismail had generated a close tie with the Ismaili Imams in Anjudan, granted them the title of Amir al-Umra. There is its another reason that the Ismailis had joined the Safavid army in Khorasan, who had repulsed the aggressive advance of the Uzbeks in 916/1510. Shah Ismail had most planned to seek the martial aids from the Khorasani Ismaili warriors to crush the uprising in his military if required, he therefore, maintained cordial relation with the Imams of Anjudan. Shah Ismail however died in 930/1524, it is said. They carried a small taziyah, placed it in front of the caravan and passed through the teeth of the bitterest and aggressive places in the Shiite garbs.

They put the taziyah at the entrance of Anjudan, took it again while leaving the town. Imam Murad Mirza was succeeded by his son Zulfikar Ali. In 1573, due to the threat posed by the Imam, the 2nd Safavid monarch, Shah Tahmasp, ordered the governor of Hamadan, Amir Khan Musilu, to go to Anjudan to capture Murad Mirza. Amir Khan proceeded to Anjudan, while killing a large number of the Imam's followers and taking much booty, was unable to capture him. However, the Imam was soon captured and imprisoned, but again escaped, this time with the aid of a sympathetic high-ranking Safavid official named Muhammad Muqim. With the help of his followers, the Imam was able to escape to Kandahar. However, while in Afghanistan, he was once again captured by the Safavids; this time there would be no escape, after being brought before Shah Tahmasp he was executed alongside Muhammad Muqim in 1574