LMS Royal Scot Class
The London and Scottish Railway Royal Scot Class is a class of 4-6-0 express passenger locomotive introduced in 1927. Having parallel boilers, all members were rebuilt with tapered type 2A boilers, were in effect two classes; until the mid-1920s, the LMS had followed the Midland Railway's small engine policy, which meant that it had no locomotives of sufficient power for its expresses on the West Coast Main Line. These trains were entrusted to pairs of LMS/MR Midland Compound 4-4-0s between Glasgow and Carnforth, a 4-6-0 locomotive of the LNWR Claughton Class, piloted by an LNWR George V 4-4-0, southwards to Euston station; the Operating and Motive Power Departments of the LMS were satisfied with the small engine policy. However, in 1926 the Chief Mechanical Engineer, Henry Fowler, began the design of a compound Pacific express locomotive; the management of the LMS, faced with disagreement between the CME and the other departments, obtained a loan of a GWR Castle class locomotive, Launceston Castle, operated for one month between Euston and Carlisle.
Following the success of the Castle 4-6-0 in working on the LMS, a decision was taken to cancel Fowler's Pacific project, to replace it with a 4-6-0 with three cylinders and a simple-expansion steam circuit. Because there was an urgent need for new express locomotives the LMS placed an order with the North British Locomotive Company of Glasgow for 50 engines; the North British, with its extensive drawing office and two works, possessed sufficient capacity to expedite the order within a year. The Derby drawing office and North British staff collaborated in designing the class, with the latter producing the working drawings. Fowler took little part in the design process, carried out by Herbert Chambers, Chief Draughtsman at Derby, his staff; the LMS didn't receive them. Instead a set of drawings of the SR Lord Nelson Class were obtained, used for the design of the firebox; the main features of the design followed existing Derby practice, with the cylinders and valve gear being derived from the Fowler 2-6-4T being designed at Derby at that time.
They were introduced without testing. Radford claims that the boiler owed much to the MR 0-10-0 Lickey Banker'Big Bertha'. A further 20 were built by Derby Works, they were named after regiments of the British Army, after historical LNWR locomotives. Those with LNWR names were renamed in 1936 with more names of regiments. From late 1931, after several bizarre forms of smoke deflectors were tried on various locomotives to stop drifting smoke obscuring the crew's forward vision, the straight sided smoke deflectors were added; these were replaced by deflectors with angled top. From 1933 the class was taken off the top-link expresses, being superseded by the LMS Princess Royal Class and the LMS Coronation Class pacifics. In 1933 the LMS was invited to send a locomotive and train to the Century of Progress International Exposition in Chicago, USA, it was decided to send an engine of the Royal Scot class, one was selected, due for general overhaul. The identity of this locomotive is regarded as having been No. 6152 "The Kings Dragoon Guardsman".
The coupled axleboxes were replaced with larger ones, based on a GWR design, the bogie replaced by a De Glehn type derived from GWR practice. Springs and spring rigging were updated, the boiler replaced; the rebuilt locomotive assumed the identity of 6100 The Royal Scot with an enlarged nameplate with details of its appearance at the exhibition. It retained this identity after its return from the USA. LMS 6399 Fury, built in 1929, was an unsuccessful experimental prototype locomotive with a high-pressure, water tube boiler and compound 3-cylinder drive, based on the Royal Scot, it was rebuilt by William Stanier in 1935 with a Type 2 conventional boiler to become 6170 British Legion. This served as the blueprint for rebuilding, but always remained a one-off. In 1942 the LMS rebuilt two LMS Jubilee Class locomotives with Type 2A boilers, but turned to the parallel-boilered Royal Scots whose boilers and cylinders were life-expired, whose smokeboxes were difficult to keep airtight. Between 1943 and 1955 the whole class was rebuilt to create the LMS Rebuilt Royal Scot Class.
The rebuilds were quite substantial, requiring new boiler and cylinders, but in most cases the original frame stretchers, wheels and fittings were retained. The usual procedure was that as each locomotive arrived for rebuilding, it was stripped and the identity transferred to a fresh frameset prepared using the parts recovered from the locomotive, rebuilt; the new frames were shorter than the originals. Thus, most rebuilt examples retained their own cab, wheels etc. but most of the frame stretchers, other integral parts of the frame were from the rebuilt loco. The new'Rebuilt Scot' design was carried out under the auspices of William Stanier, engaged on war work, so was undertaken by George Ivatt and E. S. Cox; these too were built without smoke deflectors but acquired them. On 30 September 1945, at the Bourne End rail crash, 6157 The Royal Artilleryman was hauling an express passenger train, derailed at Bourne End, Hertfordshire due to excessive speed through a set of points. Forty-three people were killed and 64 were injured.
Note: Date built refers to the'LMS build date'. No original Royal Scots in as built condition survive as all were rebuilt by 1955. No. 6115 Scots Guardsman featured in the 1936 film Night Mail along with No.6108 Seaforth Highlander, the latter being cleaned at an unknown shed. 46126 Royal Army Service Corps
LMS Patriot Class
The Patriot Class was a class of 52 express passenger steam locomotives built for the London Midland and Scottish Railway. The first locomotive of the class was built in 1930 and the last in 1934; the class was based on the chassis of the Royal Scot combined with the boiler from Large Claughtons earning them the nickname Baby Scots. A total of 18 were rebuilt to create the LMS Rebuilt Patriot Class between 1946 and 1948; these remaining 34 unrebuilt engines were withdrawn between 1960 and 1962. The first two were rebuilt in 1930 from the 1912-built LNWR Large Claughton Class, retaining the original driving wheels with their large bosses, the "double radial" bogie truck and some other parts. Of the subsequent 50 locomotives of the class 40 were nominal rebuilds of Claughtons, being in fact new builds classified as rebuilt engines so that they could be charged to revenue accounts, rather than capital; the last ten were classified as new builds. The two former Claughtons retained their original numbers until 1934, when they were renumbered 5500–1.
The 40 built as replacements took the numbers of the Claughtons. The remainder of the class were numbered 5542 -- 51 from new; the numbering of the similar LMS Jubilee Class continued on from. This was because 5552–5556 were ordered as Patriots but built with taper boilers as Jubilees on the orders of Sir William Stanier. Naming of the class was somewhat erratic; some retained old Claughton names, whilst others continued the military associations of the names Patriot and St Dunstans, 13 carried names of holiday resorts served by the LMS. Seven remained unnamed, although they had been allocated names in 1943. Between 1946 and 1949 eighteen were rebuilt with Stanier 2A boiler and tender, though again these were paper rebuilds, based on the LMS Rebuilt Royal Scot Class. Seven had been rebuilt by the start of 1948 when British Railways inherited the remaining 45 Baby Scots. In March 1948 BR added 40000 to their numbers to number them 45500–13/15-20/2-5/7/8/32-9/41-51. Subsequently, BR rebuilt another 11, so that the rebuilt engines were 5512/14/21–23/25–32/34–36/45.
The two original members of the class, the first ten of the nominal rebuilds, were not rebuilt due to their non-standard parts. Note some never received BR numbers as unrebuilt engines because either they were rebuilt by the LMS. In the table below BR numbers for BR-rebuilt engines are given, but some engines may not have received BR numbers while in an unrebuilt condition as renumbering took several years. On 13 March 1935, a milk train was in a rear-end collision with an express freight train at King's Langley, Hertfordshire due to a signalman's error. No. 5511 was hauling a freight train. A fourth freight train ran into the wreck. One person was killed. On 16 October 1939, No. 5544 was hauling a train, in a collision with another train at Winwick Junction and was derailed. On 13 October 1940, No. 5529 was hauling an express passenger train that collided with a platform barrow obstructing the line at Wembley Central station and was derailed. Several people were killed and many more were injured.
All of the Unrebuilt Patriots were withdrawn between 1960 and 1962 in accordance with the BR Modernisation Plan. No Patriot in either rebuilt or unrebuilt form survived into preservation; the LMS-Patriot Project, a registered charity, is building a replica which will carry the number of the last built – LMS number 5551 or British Railways number 45551. It will be named The Unknown Warrior; this class of engine forms the basis of Big City Engine from the Railway Series of children's books by the Rev. W. Awdry. Both Hornby and Bachmann have produced OO gauge models. Hornby first introduced an original Patriot in the 1979 catalogue that has remained in production and now forms part of the'Railroad' budget range; the following models have been produced: Bachmann Industries make a more detailed and expensive model of the original Patriot in OO gauge. The following models have been produced: Earnshaw, Alan. Trains in Trouble: Vol. 6. Penryn: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-37-0. Hall, Stanley; the Railway Detectives.
London: Ian Allan. ISBN 0 7110 1929 0. Longworth, Hugh. British Railway Steam Locomotives 1948-1968. ISBN 0-86093-593-0. Nock, O. S. Royal Scots and Patriots of the LMS. Rowledge, J. W. P.. Engines of the LMS built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-902888-59-5. Toms, George. J.. Historical Locomotive Monographs No. 3: Claughton & Patriot 4-6-0s. Didcot: Wild Swan. ISBN 1-905184-19-0. Whiteley, John S.. The Power of the Patriots. ISBN 0-86093-232-X. Rail UK database The LMS Patriot Project
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."
Pounds per square inch
The pound per square inch or, more pound-force per square inch is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch. In SI units, 1 psi is equal to 6895 N/m2. Pounds per square inch absolute is used to make it clear that the pressure is relative to a vacuum rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure. Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi, this will be added to any pressure reading made in air at sea level. The converse is pounds per square inch gauge, indicating that the pressure is relative to atmospheric pressure. For example, a bicycle tire pumped up to 65 psig in a local atmospheric pressure at sea level will have a pressure of 79.7 psia. When gauge pressure is referenced to something other than ambient atmospheric pressure the units would be pounds per square inch differential; the kilopound per square inch is a scaled unit derived from psi, equivalent to a thousand psi. ksi are not used for gas pressures.
They are used in materials science, where the tensile strength of a material is measured as a large number of psi. The conversion in SI Units is 1 MPa = 0.145 ksi. The megapound per square inch is another multiple equal to a million psi, it is used in mechanics for the elastic modulus of materials for metals. The conversion in SI Units is 1 GPa = 0.145 Mpsi. Inch of water: 0.036 psid Blood pressure – clinically normal human blood pressure: 2.32 psig/1.55 psig Natural gas residential piped in for consumer appliance. Boost pressure provided by an automotive turbocharger: 6–15 psig NFL football: 12.5–13.5 psig Atmospheric pressure at sea level: 14.7 psia Automobile tire overpressure: 32 psig Bicycle tire overpressure: 65 psig Workshop or garage air tools: 90 psig Air brake or air brake reservoir overpressure: 90–120 psig Road racing bicycle tire overpressure: 120 psig Steam locomotive fire tube boiler: 150–280 psig Union Pacific Big Boy steam locomotive boiler: 300 psig US Navy steam boiler pressure 800 psi Natural gas pipelines: 800–1000 psig Full SCBA for IDLH atmospheres: 2216 psig nuclear reactor primary loop 2300 psi Full SCUBA tank overpressure: 3000 psig Full SCBA for interior firefighting operations: 4500 psig Airbus A380 hydraulic system: 5000 psig Ultimate strength of ASTM A36 steel: 58,000 psi Water jet cutter: 40,000–100,000 psig The exact conversions to and from SI are, by definition: 1 psi = Pa 1 Pa = psi As the pascal is small unit, relative to industrial pressures, the kilopascal is used.
1000 kPa = 147 psi. Approximate conversions are shown in the following table. Conversion of units: Pressure or mechanical stress Pressure: Units Pressure measurement primer Online pressure conversions ksi to psi conversions
LMS Class 2P 4-4-0
The London Midland and Scottish Railway Class 2P 4-4-0 was a class of steam locomotive designed for light passenger work. The class was introduced in 1928 and was a post-grouping development of the Midland Railway 483 Class with modified dimensions and reduced boiler mountings; the numbering continued from where the Midland engines left off at 563 and reached 700. 138 were built, though numbering is complicated by renumberings and transfers. Numbers 633 and 635 were fitted with Dabeg feedwater heater in 1933. Numbers 591 and 639 were withdrawn in 1934 after being damaged in an accident at Port Eglinton Junction near Cumberland Street Station, Glasgow on 6 September of the same year. After nationalisation in 1948, British Railways added 40000 to the numbers of the remaining 136 engines. Further withdrawals came between 1954 and 1962. All were scrapped. Hornby produce a 00 gauge model based on the old Dapol tooling, reasonably accurate. Graham Farish produced an N gauge model of the 4P 4-4-0 Compound when they were in Poole and the chassis for this could be modified to represent the 2P.
Union Mills on the Isle of Man make a 2P in N gauge. Rowledge, J. W. P.. Engines of the LMS, built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-902888-59-5. "Report on the Accident at Port Eglinton Junction on 6th September 1934". Railways Archive. Retrieved 22 April 2012. Railuk database
The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with a piston. Cylinders were cast in cast iron and in steel; the cylinder casting includes other features such as mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were provided by cast-iron bushings; the way the valve controlled the steam entering and leaving the cylinder was known as steam distribution and shown by the shape of the indicator diagram. What happened to the steam inside the cylinder was assessed separately from what happened in the boiler and how much friction the moving machinery had to cope with; this assessment was known as "engine performance" or "cylinder performance". The cylinder performance, together with the boiler and machinery performance, established the efficiency of the complete locomotive; the pressure of the steam in the cylinder was measured as the piston moved and the power moving the piston was calculated and known as cylinder power.
The forces produced in the cylinder moved the train but were damaging to the structure which held the cylinders in place. Bolted joints came loose, cylinder castings and frames cracked and reduced the availability of the locomotive. Cylinders may be arranged in several different ways. On early locomotives, such as Puffing Billy, the cylinders were set vertically and the motion was transmitted through beams, as in a beam engine; the next stage, for example Stephenson's Rocket, was to drive the wheels directly from steeply inclined cylinders placed at the back of the locomotive. Direct drive became the standard arrangement, but the cylinders were moved to the front and placed either horizontal or nearly horizontal; the front-mounted cylinders could be placed either outside. Examples: Inside cylinders, Planet locomotive Outside cylinders, GNR Stirling 4-2-2In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inside cylinders were used in the UK, but outside cylinders were more common in Continental Europe and the United States.
The reason for this difference is unclear. From about 1920, outside cylinders became more common in the UK but many inside-cylinder engines continued to be built. Inside cylinders give a more stable ride with less yaw or "nosing" but access for maintenance is more difficult; some designers used inside cylinders for aesthetic reasons. The demand for more power led to the development of engines with four cylinders. Examples: Three cylinders, SR Class V, LNER Class A4, Merchant Navy class Four Cylinders, LMS Princess Royal Class, LMS Coronation Class, GWR Castle Class On a two-cylinder engine the cranks, whether inside or outside, are set at 90 degrees; as the cylinders are double-acting this gives four impulses per revolution and ensures that there are no dead centres. On a three-cylinder engine, two arrangements are possible: cranks set to give six spaced impulses per revolution – the usual arrangement. If the three cylinder axes are parallel, the cranks will be 120 degrees apart, but if the centre cylinder does not drive the leading driving axle, it will be inclined, the inside crank will be correspondingly shifted from 120 degrees.
For a given tractive effort and adhesion factor, a three-cylinder locomotive of this design will be less prone to wheelslip when starting than a 2-cylinder locomotive. Outside cranks set at 90 degrees, inside crank set at 135 degrees, giving six unequally spaced impulses per revolution; this arrangement was sometimes used on three-cylinder compound locomotives which used the outside cylinders for starting. This will give evenly spaced exhausts. Two arrangements are possible on a four-cylinder engine: all four cranks set at 90 degrees. With this arrangement the cylinders act in pairs, so there are four impulses per revolution, as with a two-cylinder engine. Most four-cylinder engines are of this type, it is cheaper and simpler to use only one set of valve gear on each side of the locomotive and to operate the second cylinder on that side by means of a rocking shaft from the first cylinder's valve spindle since the required valve events at the second cylinder are a mirror image of the first cylinder.
Pairs of cranks set at 90 degrees with the inside pair set at 45 degrees to the outside pair. This gives eight impulses per revolution, it increases weight and complexity, by requiring four sets of valve gear, but gives smoother torque and reduces the risk of slipping. This was unusual in British practice but was used on the SR Lord Nelson class; such locomotives are distinguished by their exhaust beats, which occur at twice the frequency of a normal 2- or 4-cylinder engine. The valve chests or steam chests which contain the slide valves or piston valves may be located in various positions. If the cylinders are small, the valve chests may be located between the cylinders. For larger cylinders the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in early locomotives, they were sometimes underneath the cylinders; the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in older locomotives, the valve chests were sometimes located alongside the cylinders and inserted through slots in the frames. This meant that, while the cylinders were outside, the valves were inside a
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa