Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, the entire Forest of Dean; the county town is the city of Gloucester, other principal towns include Cheltenham, Tewkesbury and Dursley. Gloucestershire borders Herefordshire to the north west, Wiltshire to the south and Somerset to the south west, Worcestershire to the north, Oxfordshire to the east, Warwickshire to the north east, the Welsh county of Monmouthshire to the west. Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe and the Forest of Dean were not added until the late 11th century. Gloucestershire included Bristol a small town; the local rural community moved to the port city, Bristol's population growth accelerated during the industrial revolution. Bristol became a county in its own right, separate from Gloucestershire and Somerset in 1373, it became part of the administrative County of Avon from 1974 to 1996.
Upon the abolition of Avon in 1996, the region north of Bristol became a unitary authority area of South Gloucestershire and is now part of the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire. The official former postal county abbreviation was "Glos.", rather than the used but erroneous "Gloucs." or "Glouc". In July 2007, Gloucestershire suffered the worst flooding in recorded British history, with tens of thousands of residents affected; the RAF conducted the largest peacetime domestic operation in its history to rescue over 120 residents from flood affected areas. The damage was estimated at over £2 billion. Gloucestershire has three main landscape areas, a large part of the Cotswolds, the Royal Forest of Dean and the Severn Vale; the Cotswolds take up a large portion of the east and south of the county, The Forest of Dean taking up the west, with the Severn and its valley running between these features. The Daffodil Way in the Leadon Valley, on the border of Gloucestershire and Herefordshire surrounding the village of Dymock, is known for its many spring flowers and woodland, which attracts many walkers.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Gloucestershire at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling. The following is a chart of Gloucestershire's gross value added total in thousands of British Pounds Sterling from 1997-2009 based upon the Office for National Statistics figures The 2009 estimation of £11,452 million GVA can be compared to the South West regional average of £7,927 million. Gloucestershire has comprehensive schools with seven selective schools. There are 42 state secondary schools, not including sixth form colleges, 12 independent schools, including the renowned Cheltenham Ladies' College, Cheltenham College and Dean Close School. All but about two schools in each district have a sixth form, but the Forest of Dean only has two schools with sixth forms. All schools in South Gloucestershire have sixth forms. Gloucestershire has two universities, the University of Gloucestershire and the Royal Agricultural University, four higher and further education colleges, Gloucestershire College, Cirencester College, South Gloucestershire and Stroud College and the Royal Forest of Dean College.
Each has campuses at multiple locations throughout the county. The University of the West of England has three locations in Gloucestershire. Gloucestershire has one city and 33 towns: Gloucester The towns in Gloucestershire are: Town in Monmouthshire with suburbs in Gloucestershire: Chepstow The county has two green belt areas, the first covers the southern area in the South Gloucestershire district, to protect outlying villages and towns between Thornbury and Chipping Sodbury from the urban sprawl of the Bristol conurbation; the second belt lies around Gloucester and Bishop's Cleeve, to afford those areas and villages in between a protection from urban sprawl and further convergence. Both belts intersect with the boundaries of the Cotswolds AONB. There are a variety of religious buildings across the county, notably the cathedral of Gloucester, the abbey church of Tewkesbury, the church of Cirencester. Of the abbey of Hailes near Winchcombe, founded by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in 1246, little more than the foundations are left, but these have been excavated and fragments have been brought to light.
Most of the old market towns have parish churches. At Deerhurst near Tewkesbury and Bishop's Cleeve near Cheltenham, there are churches of special interest on account of the pre-Norman work they retain. There is a Perpendicular church in Lechlade, that at Fairford was built, according to tradition, to contain a series of stained-glass windows which are said to have been brought from the Netherlands; these are, adjudged to be of English workmanship. Other notable buildings include Calcot Barn in a relic of Kingswood Abbey. Thornbury Castle is a Tudor country house, the pretensio
The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte, came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels the number of driving wheels, the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels. In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles in front three driving axles and one trailing axle is classified as 4-6-2, is known as a Pacific. Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of each engine, thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies.
They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge that links the two engines. Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels; the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; this numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame. No suffix means a tender locomotive. T indicates a tank locomotive: in European practice, this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means side tank, PT pannier tank, ST saddle tank, WT well tank. T+T means a tank locomotive that has a tender. In Europe, the suffix R can signify rack or reversible, the latter being Bi-cabine locomotives used in France; the suffix F indicates a fireless locomotive. This locomotive has no tender. Other suffixes have been used, including ng for narrow-gauge and CA or ca for compressed air.
In Britain, small diesel and petrol locomotives are classified in the same way as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. This may be followed by D for diesel or P for petrol, another letter describing the transmission: E for electric, H hydraulic, M mechanical. Thus, 0-6-0DE denotes a six-wheel diesel locomotive with electric transmission. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are used. Thus, 4wPE indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used; the main limitation of Whyte Notation is that it does not cover non-standard types such as Shay locomotives, which use geared trucks rather than driving wheels. The most used system in Europe outside the United Kingdom is UIC classification, based on German practice, which can define the exact layout of a locomotive. In American practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built.
For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left. AAR wheel arrangement Swiss locomotive and railcar classification UIC classification Wheel arrangement Boylan, Richard. "American Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements". SteamLocomotive.com. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Media related to Whyte notation at Wikimedia Commons
Horwich Works was a railway works built in 1886 by the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in Horwich, near Bolton, in North West England when the company moved from its original works at Miles Platting, Manchester. Horwich Works was built on 142 hectares of land bought in April 1884 for £36,000. Rivington House, the first of several workshops was 106.7 metres long by 16.8 metres wide and opened in February 1887. The long brick built workshops had full-height arched windows and were separated by tram and rail tracks. Work to construct the three bay, 463.3 metres long by 36 metres wide, erecting shop began in March 1885. Inside were 20 overhead cranes. An 18-inch gauge railway, with 7.5 miles of track was built to carry materials around the works complex, modelled on a similar system at Crewe Works. Two small 0-4-0 tank locomotives were bought from Beyer, Peacock & Company in 1887 to haul stores trains around the site, six more were acquired at intervals to 1901; the first of these was bought from Beyer Peacock.
From 1930 they were withdrawn from service, the last, was withdrawn in 1961 and is preserved at the National Railway Museum. The first locomotive built by the LYR at Horwich was a 2-4-2 tank engine designed by John Aspinall; this locomotive was L&YR 1008. By 1899 a further 677 locomotives had been built, another 220 under Henry Hoy. Between 1891 and 1900, 230 0-6-0 tender engines designed by Barton Wright were rebuilt as 0-6-0ST saddle tanks, LYR Class F16. In 1899, the Aspinall-designed'Atlantic' 4-4-2 express passenger locomotive was introduced and forty had been completed by 1902. Horwich works produced its 1,000th engine in 1907, a four-cylinder compound 0-8-0. In 1923 when the railway became part of the London and Scottish Railway, its Chief Mechanical Engineer was George Hughes. In 1926 he was responsible for the design of a 2-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive of unusual appearance, which became known as the "Horwich Crab." The class proved successful, 245 locomotives were built, 70 at Horwich, including the first 30 examples.
The "Crabs" continued in service with British Railways' London Midland and Scottish regions until the last two survivors were withdrawn in early 1967. Three of the four future Chief Mechanical Engineers of the post-grouping railways learned their craft at Horwich: Nigel Gresley, Henry Fowler and Richard Maunsell, as well as aviator Alliott Verdon-Roe who went on to found the Manchester-based Avro aeroplane company. During World War II, the works built nearly 500 Cruiser and Matilda tanks. After nationalisation in 1948, locomotive construction at Horwich continued at a high level for ten years. During 1948 twenty LMS Ivatt Class 4 tender engines were completed, twenty-seven followed in 1949, with twenty-four in 1951, followed by a single locomotive in early 1952. Between 1945 and 1950, 120 LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 tender engines were built at Horwich by the LMS and British Railways; the last BR Standard design steam engine to be built was outshopped in 1957. BR continued to overhaul steam engines for several more years.
The last steam locomotive was despatched after overhaul on 4 May 1964. In October 1969 it became part of British Rail Engineering Limited. Horwich continued in use as a works for other rolling stock up until it closed in December 1983; the foundry and the spring shop continued in use after this date, although the work force was reduced from 1,400 to 300. In an effort to publicise the redevelopment of the site into small industrial units on 20 June 1985 locomotive 47491 was named Horwich Enterprise by Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Transport David Mitchell at Horwich Works; the site was sold by BREL to the Parkfield Group in 1988 and the rail connection to the works was removed in 1989. The site is now an industrial estate, appropriately named "Horwich Loco Industrial Estate", with most of the buildings still in use. Horwich railway station in the town centre used by employees at the works, was opened in 1887, it closed in 1965 with the last passenger train departing on 27 September 1965, hauled by 2-6-4T number 42626.
The locomotive works site was designated a conservation area by Bolton Council in 2006. The site was proposed for mixed-use development in 2010 to include 15 to 20 hectares of land for employment and up to 1,600 houses within a timescale extending from 2013 to 2026; the proposal was adopted as council strategy in 2011, supplementary planning guidance was released in 2012 designating part of the site for preservation. An initial planning application was approved by Bolton Council in 2016. Work began in 2018. Horwich photos, National Railway Museum "Horwich Locomotive Works", www.warmemorials.org
North British Locomotive Company
The North British Locomotive Company was created in 1903 through the merger of three Glasgow locomotive manufacturing companies. Its main factories were located at the neighbouring Atlas and Hyde Park Works in central Springburn, as well as the Queens Park Works in Polmadie. A new central Administration and Drawing Office for the combined company was completed across the road from the Hyde Park Works on Flemington Street by James Miller in 1909 sold to Glasgow Corporation in 1961 to become the main campus of North Glasgow College; the two other Railway works in Springburn were St. Rollox railway works, owned by the Caledonian Railway and Cowlairs railway works, owned by the North British Railway. Latterly both works were operated by British Rail Engineering Limited after rail nationalisation in 1948. In 1918 NBL produced the first prototype of the Anglo-American Mark VIII battlefield tank for the Allied armies, but with the Armistice it did not go into production. NBL built steam locomotives for countries all over the world.
This included North America, South America, Sub-Saharan Africa. The New South Wales Government Railways purchased numerous North British locomotives, as did the Victorian Railways as late as 1951; the Western Australian Government Railways purchased many North British Locomotives, such as the P class. Between 1903 and 1959 NB supplied many locomotives of various classes to Egyptian State Railways, they included 40 of the 545 class 2-6-0 in 1928. Between 1921 and 1925, NBL supplied New Zealand Government Railways with 85 NZR AB class locomotives; the whole fleet of AB class engines numbered 143, as built. Two were lost at sea. In 1935 NB supplied six Palestine Railways P class 4-6-0 locomotives to haul main line trains between Haifa and the Suez Canal. In 1939 NB supplied 40 4-8-2 locomotives to the New Zealand Railways Department. In 1951 NB supplied another 16 JA class, though these did not have the American-style streamlining of the J class. Together with the NB predecessor firms, North British supplied about a quarter of the steam locomotives used by the NZR.
In 1949 South African Railways bought more than 100 2-8-4 locomotives from NBL and these became the Class 24. Additionally South Africa purchased some of its Class 25, 4-8-4 engines from the company between 1953–55; these successful engines with various in-service modifications survived until the end of steam in South Africa in 1992. NB introduced the Modified Fairlie locomotive in 1924. In total South Africa purchased over 2,000 locomotives from the North British Locomotive Company; as of January 2010, Umgeni Steam Railway operates SAR Class 3BR engine 1486, now named "Maureen", on the line between Kloof and Inchanga, a distance of about 23.5 kilometres. She hauls vintage sightseeing trains some coaches of which date back to 1908. In 1953, RENFE in Spain acquired 25 2-8-2 locomotives from the North British Locomotive Company. One example, 141F 2111 is preserved in working order. Locomotives made for railways in Britain and Ireland included the Barry Railway. After 1923, customers included the Great Western Railway.
In 1922 the New Zealand Railways Department ordered a batch of its successful AB class Pacifics from NBL, to be built and shipped as soon as possible. The trio 22878, 22879 and 22880 were built amidst this batch. 22878 and 22879 were loaded aboard SS Wiltshire and she sailed for Auckland, New Zealand, but she got into difficulty at Rosalie Bay, on the east coast of Great Barrier Island and sank. Remnants of both locomotives, the Wiltshire can be seen on the sea floor. 22880 was dispatched on a subsequent sailing and was put into service in New Zealand as AB class number 745. This locomotive was in service for more than 30 years but hit a washout near Hawera, it was left in the mud for nearly 50 years but
LMS Fowler Class 3F
The London Midland and Scottish Railway Fowler 3F 0-6-0T is a class of steam locomotive known as Jinty. They represent the ultimate development of the Midland Railway's six-coupled tank engines. Design of this class was based on rebuilds by Henry Fowler of the Midland Railway 2441 Class introduced in 1899 by Samuel Waite Johnson; these rebuilds featured improved cab. 422 Jinties were built between 1924 and 1931. The locomotives were built by the ex-L&YR Horwich Works and the private firms Bagnall's, Hunslet, North British and the Vulcan Foundry; when new, they were numbered 7100–7149, 16400–16764. Numbers 7150–7156 were added when the LMS absorbed the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway locomotives in 1930. In the 1934 LMS renumbering scheme, the locomotives were assigned the series 7260–7681. On the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 they were chosen as the standard shunting locomotive for the War Department, but the more modern Hunslet "Austerity" 0-6-0ST was chosen in preference. Eight were dispatched to France before its fall in 1940, only five returned in 1948.
Two, 7456 and 7553, were converted to the 5 ft 3 in Irish broad gauge in 1944 and 1945 for use on Northern Counties Committee lines in Northern Ireland, becoming the NCC Class Y, numbered 18 and 19. A total of 412 thus entered British Railways stock in 1948. British Railways numbers were the LMS numbers prefixed with'4'. Numbers 47477, 47478, 47479, 47480, 47481, 47655 and 47681 were fitted for push-pull train working; the first withdrawals by 1964 half had been withdrawn. The final five survived until 1967, with a further one, 47445 continuing with the National Coal Board. Due to their large numbers, late withdrawals and renowned performances, nine of these engines have been preserved, they are most suited to a further working life and many were restored within years of leaving the scrap heap. Today only 47445 has never steamed in preservation, their locations and conditions are as follows: Their current number is highlighted in Bold. One member of the class has operated on the main line in preservation.
This was 7298/47298, which took part during the Rainhill celebrations in 1980 when it hauled a number of Steamport residents from the museum in Southport to Rainhill and took part in the cavalcade. Owned by Ian Riley, in February 2017 it was undergoing it's "ten-yearly overhaul" and was expected to return to operation "in a couple of years". An engine of this type can be seen in the Rev. W. Awdry's The Railway Series book'The Eight Famous Engines'; the character's name was Jinty, came from the "Other Railway" to help out when the main engines went on a journey to England. In the videogame Transport Tycoon of Chris Sawyer, the Jinty is offered as the cheapest and most basic engine of the game. An OO gauge model of the Class 3F was first produced by Tri-ang in 1952 and production continued after the company became Hornby Railways in the 1970s. Hornby released a retooled version in 1978 with better detailing and continue to produce that model for their "Railroad" range. In the 2000s Bachmann Branchline released a more detailed OO model.
In N gauge Graham Farish produced a model as a "GP Tank" in various liveries including some of other railway companies before tooling an accurate'Jinty' model. In O gauge and Gauge 1 Bachmann Brassworks produce an example. In O gauge, Connoisseur Models produces an etched brass kit. In HO scale Firedrake Productions produced a small run of 20 kits. Darstaed, a model train company in Great Britain produces O gauge tintype models of the LMS Fowler Class 3F, affectionately referring to them by the nickname of Jinty. Dapol has produced a Jinty for the O gauge market, released in September 2017 Rowledge, J. W. P.. Engines of the LMS, built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-902888-59-5. Hunt, David. LMS Locomotive Profiles No. 14 The Standard Class 3 Freight Tank Engines. ISBN 978-1-905184-80-4. LMS Jinty at Spa Valley Railway - 28 April 2004 - Photo gallery