Dinting railway station
Dinting railway station serves the village of Dinting near Glossop in Derbyshire, England. The station is on the Manchester-Glossop Line 12¼ miles east of Manchester Piccadilly. Prior to the Woodhead Line closure in 1981 Dinting was a station on a major cross Pennine route. An earlier station had been opened as "Glossop" by the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway in 1842, but was renamed when the Glossop branch opened in 1845. In 1847 a temporary "Glossop Junction" station was built, on the site of which the present station was built in 1848. A direct west to south curve was added in 1884. Although named Dinting, it serves the people of Gamesley. For most of the day all trains use platform 2. However, in the rush hour platform 1 is the departure platform for services to Glossop via Hadfield, with platform 2 being used for trains to Manchester Piccadilly, or this can reverse with trains to Hadfield via Glossop departing from platform 2 and Manchester Piccadilly services using platform 1.
Two further platforms survive but both are out of use and fenced off - the old eastbound mainline platform towards Hadfield and that used by Manchester-bound trains on the Glossop branch. Buildings still stand on each one. There are buildings on platform 1 and a signal box that controls the triangular junction and single lines to both termini. Adjacent to the station is the Dinting viaduct where three people were killed in an accident in September 1855. Another accident south of the station in 1906 resulted in 20 passengers and 3 members of train crew being injured when two trains were involved in a rear-end collision. A derailment of a freight train took place along the eastbound Hadfield platform on 10 March 1981, destroying much of its original structure. Dinting is considered to be part of the Transport for Greater Manchester rail network, being only a short distance from the administrative boundary; this means that ticketing such as rail rangers, season tickets and integrated multi-mode ticketing is the same as Greater Manchester rather than Derbyshire.
Derbyshire County Council's Derbyshire Wayfarer ticket is not valid on trains on the Glossop Line. In the 1990s and early 2000s a new railway station was proposed a short distance down the line across the viaduct at Gamesley, with funding in place at one point for the project to go forward after a feasibility study; however such plans have yet to come to fruition. The station is staffed part-time, with the ticket office on platform 2. Outside the times listed, tickets must be purchased prior to travel or on the train There is a shelter on this platform, whilst canopies on the buildings on platform 1 offer a covered waiting are when this platform is in use. Level access is available to both platforms from the car station entrance. Train running information is offered via automated announcements, timetable posters and digital CIS displays. There is a half-hourly daily daytime service to Manchester Piccadilly and Hadfield via Glossop, though some peak journeys go direct to or from Hadfield along the north side of the triangle in order to allow a more frequent service to operate with the same number of train sets.
Early morning, late evening services start or terminate at Glossop. Trains operate hourly in the evenings in each direction; the Dinting Railway Centre was based at Dinting station. Formed by the Bahamas Locomotive Society, at its peak the museum used to feature visits by such famous railway engines as Flying Scotsman and Blue Peter and surviving members of the LMS Jubilee Class. Closed in 1991, the society and its collection are now based at Ingrow West railway station near Keighley, West Yorkshire. Train times and station information for Dinting railway station from National Rail
National Lottery Heritage Fund
The National Lottery Heritage Fund the Heritage Lottery Fund, distributes a share of National Lottery funding, supporting a wide range of heritage projects across the United Kingdom. Since it was set up in 1994, under the National Lottery Act, it has awarded over £7.1billion to more than 40,000 projects and small, helping people across the UK explore and protect their heritage. The fund supports all kinds of projects, as long as they make a lasting difference for heritage and communities; these vary from restoring natural landscapes to rescuing neglected buildings, from recording diverse community histories to providing life-changing skills training. The income of all the National Lottery distributors comes from the sale of National Lottery tickets. Of every £2 spent on a ticket, 56 pence goes to the "good causes"; the current operator of the National Lottery is Camelot Group. The fund is responsible for distributing 20 per cent of funds raised for "good causes"; this amount varies from year to year, depending on National Lottery income, is in the region of £300m per year.
The Heritage Fund provides grants to not-for-profit organisations in response to applications for funding. It uses a variety of methods to distribute funding. Most of its grants go to voluntary and community organisations which apply within a range of funding programmes. However, in certain cases to meet a specific need, it will seek applications from organisations with recognised expertise or make a substantial grant to a partner to award funds on its behalf. Ninety percent of the fund’s grant decisions are made locally. Decisions about its strategic direction, grant applications over £2million, are made by the Trustees of the NHMF. Funding decisions under £2million are taken by local committees and staff across the nine English regions and in Scotland and Northern Ireland; the Heritage Fund is a non-departmental public body accountable to Parliament via the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport. Although it is not a government department, the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport issues financial and policy directions to the organisation, which reports to Parliament through the Department.
Decisions about individual applications and policies are independent of the Government. The fund is administered by a pre-existing non-departmental public body, the National Heritage Memorial Fund; the chief executive is Ros Kerslake OBE and its board of trustees is chaired by Sir Peter Luff. The Heritage Fund has offices across the UK, its head office is in Holbein Place, London but it has local offices across the English regions and in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Heritage Fund provides grants from £3,000 to over £5million. A complete list of funding programmes can be found on the fund's website, they include: Sharing Heritage Grants from £3,000 to £10,000, to help discover and share local heritage. This can be anything from recording personal memories to conserving wildlife. Our Heritage Grants from £10,000 to £100,000. Projects can focus on anything from personal memories and cultural traditions to archaeological sites, museum collections and rare wildlife. Heritage Grants Grants of over £100,000 for larger heritage projects of any kind.
Examples of high-profile Heritage Grant recipients include: Stonehenge Visitor Centre. It has a range of targeted grant programmes which fund projects with a particular focus, including: First World War, its Heritage Enterprise and Townscape Heritage programmes focus on place-based regeneration. The fund’s Resilient Heritage and Heritage Endowment programmes aim to support the long-term financial sustainability of the UK’s heritage; the Heritage Fund has published research into the value and importance of heritage in the UK today, the role heritage can play in modern life. Recent research includes: Heritage, Place Investing in Success – Heritage and the UK’s tourism economy State of the UK's Public Parks Heritage and the 2020 Knowledge Economy New Ideas Need Old Buildings 20 years in 12 places Official website
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is carbon with variable amounts of other elements. Coal is formed if dead plant matter decays into peat and over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial converts the peat into coal. Vast deposits of coal originates in former wetlands—called coal forests—that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous and Permian times; as a fossil fuel burned for heat, coal supplies about a quarter of the world's primary energy and two-fifths of its electricity. Some iron and steel making and other industrial processes burn coal; the extraction and use of coal causes much illness. Coal damages the environment, including by climate change as it is the largest anthropogenic source of carbon dioxide, 14 Gt in 2016, 40% of the total fossil fuel emissions; as part of the worldwide energy transition many countries use less coal. The largest consumer and importer of coal is China.
China mines account for half the world's coal, followed by India with about a tenth. Australia accounts for about a third of world coal exports followed by Russia; the word took the form col in Old English, from Proto-Germanic *kula, which in turn is hypothesized to come from the Proto-Indo-European root *gu-lo- "live coal". Germanic cognates include the Old Frisian kole, Middle Dutch cole, Dutch kool, Old High German chol, German Kohle and Old Norse kol, the Irish word gual is a cognate via the Indo-European root. Coal is composed of macerals and water. Fossils and amber may be found in coal. At various times in the geologic past, the Earth had dense forests in low-lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes such as flooding, these forests were buried underneath soil; as more and more soil deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature rose as they sank deeper and deeper; as the process continued the plant matter was protected from biodegradation and oxidation by mud or acidic water.
This trapped the carbon in immense peat bogs that were covered and buried by sediments. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead vegetation was converted to coal; the conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called coalification. Coalification starts with dead plant matter decaying into peat. Over millions of years the heat and pressure of deep burial causes the loss of water and carbon dioxide and an increase in the proportion of carbon, thus first lignite sub-bituminous coal, bituminous coal, lastly anthracite may be formed. The wide, shallow seas of the Carboniferous Period provided ideal conditions for coal formation, although coal is known from most geological periods; the exception is the coal gap in the Permian -- Triassic extinction event. Coal is known from Precambrian strata, which predate land plants—this coal is presumed to have originated from residues of algae. Sometimes coal seams are interbedded with other sediments in a cyclothem; as geological processes apply pressure to dead biotic material over time, under suitable conditions, its metamorphic grade or rank increases successively into: Peat, a precursor of coal Lignite, or brown coal, the lowest rank of coal, most harmful to health, used exclusively as fuel for electric power generation Jet, a compact form of lignite, sometimes polished.
Bituminous coal, a dense sedimentary rock black, but sometimes dark brown with well-defined bands of bright and dull material It is used as fuel in steam-electric power generation and to make coke. Anthracite, the highest rank of coal is a harder, glossy black coal used for residential and commercial space heating. Graphite is difficult to ignite and not used as fuel. Cannel coal is a variety of fine-grained, high-rank coal with significant hydrogen content, which consists of liptinite. There are several international standards for coal; the classification of coal is based on the content of volatiles. However the most important distinction is between thermal coal, burnt to generate electricity via steam. Hilt's law is a geological observation, the higher its rank, it applies if the thermal gradient is vertical. The earliest recognized use is from the Shenyang area of China where by 4000 BC Neolithic inhabitants had begun carving ornaments from black lignite. Coal from the Fushun mine in northeastern China was used to smelt copper as early as 1000 BC.
Marco Polo, the Italian who traveled to China in the 13th century, described coal as "black stones... which burn like logs", said coal was so plentiful, people could take three hot baths a week. In Europe, the earliest reference to the use of coal as fuel is from the geological treatise On stones by the Greek scientist Theophrastus: Among the materials that are dug because they are useful, those known as anthrakes are made of earth, once set on fire, they burn like charcoa
Ingrow (West) railway station
Ingrow railway station is a single-platform station serving the suburb of Ingrow in Keighley, West Yorkshire, England. It is served by the preserved Worth Valley Railway; the station opened in 1867, along with the rest of the line, but was closed in 1962. After the station's closure, the existing station building was vandalised, so, when re-opened in 1968, it was used as an unstaffed request stop. An appeal for donations raised enough money to buy the station building at Foulridge which had closed in 1959 and had been built in a similar style to the other stations on the Worth Valley line; the building at Foulridge was demolished and rebuilt at Ingrow, opening in 1989. The station is the first scheduled stop on the line from Keighley railway station; the Vintage Carriages Trust has its Museum of Rail Travel. The station is its collection of locomotives; the society runs the Ingrow Loco Museum in the former goods shed, extended to create workshop space for the overhaul of its collection of locomotives.
The gates at the entrance to Ingrow West are from the former Midland Goods Yard in Keighley, now Sainsbury's. Ingrow had a second station, which served the Great Northern Railway's Queensbury Lines to Bradford and Halifax. Information about Ingrow station from K&WVR Ingrow Museum of Rail Travel - Vintage Carriages Trust Ingrow Loco Museum - Bahamas Locomotive Society
Carlisle Upperby TMD
Carlisle Upperby TMD is a former railway Traction Maintenance Depot situated in Carlisle, England. The depot is owned by DB Cargo UK; the depot was of service to steam locomotives. The depot code is now CL; the old steam shed used to be known colloquially as "the Lanky", a reference to its origins as the main depot of the Lancaster and Carlisle railway. Constructed by the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway, the depot passed into London and Scottish Railway ownership as part of the 1923 Grouping; the LMS rebuilt Upperby in 1948, replacing the original shed with a large concrete roundhouse. The LMS constructed an enginemen's hostel on the hill adjacent to the depot. In the 1960s, Upperby was allocated diesel locomotives including Sulzer Type 2 and the unsuccessful Metro-Vic Co-Bo Type 2. However, once the new purpose-built diesel depot, Kingmoor TMD was completed, work was transferred there and Upperby closed as a locomotive depot on 1 January 1968; the roundhouse was demolished in 1979, but the remaining buildings continued in use as a carriage maintenance and servicing facility until closure in the early 1990s.
When British Rail was privatised in 1994-7, the disused depot became the property of EWS as part of a nationwide portfolio of sites which included the nearby Currock wagon repair depot. Upperby is no longer an operational depot, although some sidings are still present and used to store redundant wagons. Part of the land making up the site is now used by Network Rail for office space and storage of equipment; the former carriage shed was demolished in December 2016. Carlisle Kingmoor TMD Rail Atlas Great Britain & Ireland, S. K. Baker ISBN 0-86093-553-1 An overhead view of the depot
Hunslet Engine Company
The Hunslet Engine Company was founded in 1864 in Hunslet, England. The company manufactured steam-powered shunting locomotives for over 100 years, manufactures diesel-engined shunting locomotives; as of 2012 the company is part of the LH Group, a subsidiary The Hunslet Steam Company maintains and manufactures build steam locomotives. The Hunslet Engine Company was founded in 1864 at Jack Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England by John Towlerton Leather, a civil engineering contractor, who appointed James Campbell as his Works Manager; the first engine built in 1865 was Linden, a standard gauge 0-6-0 saddle tank delivered to Brassey and Ballard, a railway civil engineering contractor as were several of the firm's early customers. Other customers included collieries; this basic standard gauge shunting and short haul'industrial' engine was to be the main-stay of Hunslet production for many years. In 1871, James Campbell bought the company for £25,000 and the firm remained in the Campbell family ownership for many years.
Between 1865 and 1870, production had averaged less than ten engines per year, but in 1871 this had risen to seventeen and was set to rise over the next thirty years to a modest maximum of thirty-four. In 1870, Hunslet constructed their first narrow gauge engine Dinorwic, a diminutive 1 ft 10 3⁄4 in gauge 0-4-0 saddle tank for the Dinorwic Slate Quarry at Llanberis; this engine renamed Charlie was the first of twenty similar engines built for this quarry and did much to establish Hunslet as a major builder of quarry engines. This quarry was linked to Port Dinorwic by a 4 ft gauge line for which Hunslet built three 0-6-0T engines Dinorwic and Velinheli. Much larger than the normal quarry type, 1 ft 10 3⁄4 in gauge 0-4-0ST engines Charles and Linda were built in 1882/3 for use on the Penrhyn Quarry Railway'main line' between Bethesda and Port Penrhyn in North Wales. A large number of short wheelbase tank locomotives were supplied to the Manchester Ship Canal Company in 1881; the first Hunslet engine built for export was their No.
10, an 0-4-0ST shipped via Hull and Rotterdam to Java. By 1902, Hunslet had supplied engines to over thirty countries worldwide opening up new markets. In Ireland, Hunslet supplied engines to several of the newly opened narrow gauge lines and in 1887 built the three unorthodox engines for the Lartigue Monorail system used by the Listowel & Ballybunion Railway. From 1873 onwards a large number of Hunslet locomotives were exported to Australia for use on both main line and lesser lines. In 1901, James Campbell was still in charge as proprietor and James's four sons were, by all working for the company including the eldest son Alexander III who had taken over as Works Manager on the death of his Uncle George in 1890. In 1902, the company was reorganised as a private limited company with the name Hunslet Engine Company Ltd. but was still a family business. Following the death of James Campbell in 1905, the chairmanship passed to Alexander III and brother Robert became works manager, whilst brother Will retained the role of secretary and traveller with a seat on the board.
About this time Hunslet was building a series of 2-6-2 tank locomotives for the Sierra Leone Government Railway design elements of which were included in the construction of the famous Russell a 1 ft 11 1⁄2 in gauge engine built for the Portmadoc and South Snowdon Railway. Following family disagreements both Will and the youngest brother Gordon soon left the company and a serious injury left Robert disabled and unable to continue as works manager; the post of works manager was advertised and Edgar Alcock assistant works manager at the Gorton Foundry of Beyer-Peacock, was appointed in 1912. Alcock came to Hunslet at a time of change when the industry was being asked for far larger and more powerful locomotives than had been required in the past; this was true at Hunslet which found its overseas customers asking for large engines. One example was an order for two 86 ton 2-8-4 tank locomotives from the Antofagasta, Chile & Bolivia Railway. During the First World War overseas orders dried up; the company, like many others, found itself employing women on the shop floor and engaged in the manufacture of munitions.
It continued to produce limited numbers of locomotives, significant examples being lightweight narrow gauge 4-6-0T designs for the War Department Light Railways. After the First World War Hunslet were once more able to attract overseas orders and they received a series of repeat orders from the London and Scottish Railway for 90 LMS Fowler Class 3F'Jinty' 0-6-0T shunting engines, it was during the 1930s. A year or so the same design formed the basis for an 0-8-0 tender engine for India. Many other'large-engine' orders were received in these inter-war years. Other independent British manufacturers failed to survive the depression of the 1920s and 30s and Hunslet acquired the patterns and designs of other builders including Kerr Stuart and the Avonside Engine Co.. John Alcock, following in his father's footsteps, became Managing Director of Hunslet in 1958, recalled his father telling him circa 1920, when he was still a schoolboy, that his main endeavour for the company would be in the application of the internal combustion engine to railway locomotion.
Throughout the 1930s Hunslet worked on the perfecting of the diesel locomotive. During the second world war, the company again served the country well in the manufacture of munition
The Bahamas, known as the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, is a country within the Lucayan Archipelago. The archipelagic state consists of more than 700 islands and islets in the Atlantic Ocean, is located north of Cuba and Hispaniola, northwest of the Turks and Caicos Islands, southeast of the U. S. state of Florida, east of the Florida Keys. The capital is Nassau on the island of New Providence; the designation of "the Bahamas" can refer either to the country or to the larger island chain that it shares with the Turks and Caicos Islands. The Royal Bahamas Defence Force describes the Bahamas territory as encompassing 470,000 km2 of ocean space; the Bahamas is the site of Columbus's first landfall in the New World in 1492. At that time, the islands were inhabited by the Lucayans, a branch of the Arawakan-speaking Taíno people. Although the Spanish never colonised the Bahamas, they shipped the native Lucayans to slavery in Hispaniola; the islands were deserted from 1513 until 1648, when English colonists from Bermuda settled on the island of Eleuthera.
The Bahamas became a British crown colony in 1718. After the American Revolutionary War, the Crown resettled thousands of American Loyalists in the Bahamas. Africans constituted the majority of the population from this period; the slave trade was abolished by the British in 1807. Subsequently, the Bahamas became a haven for freed African slaves. Today, Afro-Bahamians make up nearly 90% of the population; the Bahamas became an independent Commonwealth realm in 1973 with Elizabeth II as its queen. In terms of gross domestic product per capita, the Bahamas is one of the richest countries in the Americas, with an economy based on tourism and finance; the name Bahamas is most derived from either the Taíno ba ha ma, a term for the region used by the indigenous Native Americans, or from the Spanish baja mar reflecting the shallow waters of the area. Alternatively, it may originate from a local name of unclear meaning; the word The constitutes an integral part of the short form of the name and is, capitalised.
So in contrast to "the Congo" and "the United Kingdom", it is proper to write "The Bahamas." The name The Bahamas is thus comparable with certain non-English names that use the definite article, such as Las Vegas or Los Angeles. The Constitution of the Commonwealth of The Bahamas, the country's fundamental law, capitalizes the "T" in "The Bahamas." Taino people moved into the uninhabited southern Bahamas from Hispaniola and Cuba around the 11th century, having migrated there from South America. They came to be known as the Lucayan people. An estimated 30,000 Lucayans inhabited the Bahamas at the time of Christopher Columbus's arrival in 1492. Columbus's first landfall in the New World was on an island; some researchers believe this site to be present-day San Salvador Island, situated in the southeastern Bahamas. An alternative theory holds that Columbus landed to the southeast on Samana Cay, according to calculations made in 1986 by National Geographic writer and editor Joseph Judge, based on Columbus's log.
Evidence in support of this remains inconclusive. On the landfall island, Columbus exchanged goods with them; the Spanish forced much of the Lucayan population to Hispaniola for use as forced labour. The slaves suffered from harsh conditions and most died from contracting diseases to which they had no immunity; the population of the Bahamas was diminished. In 1648, the Eleutherian Adventurers, led by William Sayle, migrated from Bermuda; these English Puritans established the first permanent European settlement on an island which they named Eleuthera—the name derives from the Greek word for freedom. They settled New Providence, naming it Sayle's Island after one of their leaders. To survive, the settlers salvaged goods from wrecks. In 1670, King Charles II granted the islands to the Lords Proprietors of the Carolinas in North America, they rented the islands from the king with rights of trading, appointing governors, administering the country. In 1684 Spanish corsair Juan de Alcon raided Charles Town.
In 1703, a joint Franco-Spanish expedition occupied the Bahamian capital during the War of the Spanish Succession. During proprietary rule, the Bahamas became a haven for pirates, including Blackbeard. To put an end to the'Pirates' republic' and restore orderly government, Great Britain made the Bahamas a crown colony in 1718 under the royal governorship of Woodes Rogers. After a difficult struggle, he succeeded in suppressing piracy. In 1720, Rogers led local militia to drive off a Spanish attack. During the US War of Independence in the late 18th century, the islands became a target for US naval forces under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins. US Marines occupied the capital of Nassau for 2 weeks. In 1782, following the British defeat at Yorktown, a Spanish fleet appeared off the coast of Nassau; the city surrendered without a fight. Spain returned possession of the Bahamas to Great Britain the following year, u