LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 44686/7
The last two of the 842 LMS Stanier Black Fives, numbers 44686 and 44687 were constructed by British Railways at Horwich Works in 1951. They were fitted with Caprotti valve gear, raised running plates without splashers, a double chimney and SKF roller bearings on all axles. Caprotti valve gear had been fitted to a batch of twenty Black Fives, nos. 44738-57, built in 1948. The valve gear on these was driven by one drive-line between the frames, driven from the leading coupled axle. Although these locomotives developed a great deal of power at high speeds and were free in coasting, acceleration at low speeds was poor. 44686 and 44687 were fitted with a modified form of valve gear, with an external shaft on each side, driven by a worm gear mounted on a flycrank attached to the driving axle. The British Caprotti valve gear was a new development of Caprotti valve gear by the Associated Locomotive Engineers, under the leadership of L. A. Daniels. 44686 and 44687 emerged from Horwich works in May 1951 respectively.
The two locomotives cost £20,642 each, over £5,000 more than a contemporary standard Class Five. This was in part because of the high cost of development for a type of which only two examples were built. For much of their lives they were allocated to Longsight. 44686 was withdrawn in October 1965. 44687 was withdrawn in January 1966. Both were scrapped. In the early 1960s both 44686 and 44687 worked off Southport shed on passenger trains from Southport to Manchester and Rochdale via Bolton. Other non-standard LMSR 5MTs were at Southport including LMSR Caprottis and the unique Stephenson Link machine 44767; the success of the British Caprotti valve gear lead to its fitting to the final batch of thirty BR Standard class 5s and to the solitary BR Standard class 8 71000 Duke of Gloucester. One of the Caprotti Standard fives survives. Rowledge, J. W. P.. The Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7385-4. Railuk database 44686 and 44687
Henry George Ivatt known as George Ivatt, was the post-war Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London Midland and Scottish Railway. He was the son of the Great Northern Railway locomotive engineer Henry Ivatt. George Ivatt was born in Dublin and educated at Uppingham School, England. In 1904, he started an apprenticeship at the Crewe Works of the North Western Railway. After working in the drawing office, he became head of experimental locomotive work, he was appointed as Assistant Foreman at Crewe North Shed in 1909, a year became Assistant Outdoor Machinery Superintendent. During the 1914–1918 World War I Ivatt served on the staff of the Director of Transport in France. After the war, he became Assistant Locomotive Superintendent of the North Staffordshire Railway at Stoke-on-Trent in 1919. Under the Railways Act 1921, the NSR was absorbed into the London and Scottish Railway, he was transferred to Derby Works in 1928 and appointed Locomotive Works Superintendent in 1931. At the end of 1932 Ivatt moved to Glasgow, becoming Scotland.
He returned to England in 1937 as Principal Assistant for Locomotives to the Chief Mechanical Engineer, William Stanier. Stanier was succeeded as CME by Charles Fairburn; when Fairburn died in October 1945, a new shortlist was prepared and George Ivatt, the senior candidate, with significant LMS locomotive experience, was appointed CME on 1 February 1946. Robert Riddles, the other notable candidate for the post, was promoted to the board as Vice-President of the LMS; as CME in post-war austerity Britain, Ivatt continued to build standard existing LMS locomotive types for which parts were available. Two additional LMS Princess Coronation Class 4-6-2 express locomotives were built and several modified Black Fives and the work of'rebuilding' the Royal Scot and Patriot classes continued; the LMS Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 was introduced as well as the notable "Mickey Mouse" LMS Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 and LMS Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T, built to replace life expired 19th century branch line 0-6-0 and motor train 2-4-2T locomotive types, the Class WT 2-6-4T locomotives for the Northern Counties Committee.
The famous Ivatt twins, diesel-electric locomotives numbered 10000 and 10001, built by the LMS at Derby in association with English Electric were Britain's first main-line diesel locomotives and were designed to operate singly or in pairs. On nationalisation in 1948, Riddles became CME of British Railways, whilst Ivatt remained as CME of the London Midland Region until his retirement in 1951. From mid-1951 Ivatt was a consultant and director of Brush Bagnall Traction becoming their General Manager, he retired as a director in 1957 but was retained as a consultant until 1964. Following the demise of Brush Bagnall Traction, Ivatt became a director of Brush Traction where he was involved with the building of the Brush Type 2 locomotives. Http://www.steamindex.com/people/ivatt.htm#son
A double chimney is a form of chimney for a steam locomotive, where the conventional single opening is duplicated, together with the blastpipe beneath it. Although the internal openings form two circles, the outside appearance is as a single elongated oval; the classic exhaust design for a steam locomotive began with Hackworth's invention of the blastpipe, placed centrally within a tall chimney. Victorian developments reduced the chimney's height, such that natural draught was no longer significant; the standard design was a circular drumhead smokebox, with a single blastpipe nozzle leading into a chimney with a flared petticot pipe beneath it. From the work of theorists such as W. F. M. Goss of Purdue University, S. O. Ell of Swindon, guidelines were developed at each locomotive works, describing how these were to be proportioned, it was recognised both that a particular diameter of chimney and blastpipe would be needed for the steam-raising capacity of each boiler, that the conical taper from blastpipe to chimney could not be made too steep.
As boilers became more powerful, not only did the chimney diameter need to become greater, but the minimum height for the chimney was becoming longer – just as the increasing size of boilers restricted the clearance height available within the loading gauge. A chimney height of at least 24 inches was considered the minimum workable. By the 1930s, it was difficult to provide such a height and other solutions were sought. A solution to this limit was to adopt a double chimney; this allowed adequate cross-section area for airflow, whilst reducing the diameter of each and thus the minimum height needed for an acceptably gentle taper. A simultaneous development was the Kylchap blastpipe, combining the Kylälä spreader by Finnish engineer Kyösti Kylälä, a further flue choke tube added by the French engineer André Chapelon; this split the blastpipe area into four smaller nozzles, the vertical draught induction across three stacked venturis. Although the total blastpipe area remained constant, their perimeter, thus the area for mixing with the exhaust gases, was doubled.
The additional petticoats improved the effectiveness of the blast in inducing a draught. Although there is no reason why one approach, either the double chimney or the Kylchap blastpipe, depends on the other, interest in both was simultaneous and so both were installed together; the first 50 of the Ivatt class 4MT 2-6-0 were built with double chimneys. These performed poorly however, were noted as poor steamers. Work on the static test plant at Rugby discovered that there was both no advantage to the double chimney and that it had been poorly designed initially; when revised with a single chimney and improved gasflow in the smokebox, their steaming rate was raised from 9,000 lb/hour with a double chimney to 17,000 lb/hour with a single chimney though this was still below the theoretical limit, restricted by firegrate size, of 19,000 lb/hour. A minor disadvantage could be a'softer' exhaust blast for the purpose of lifting the external smoke clear of the driver's vision; when the LNER A3 class were fitted with double chimneys in the late 1950s, they suffered problems with smoke obscuring the view from the cab.
The solution to this was to fit small Witte-type smoke deflectors of the German pattern. Many double chimney installations, at least in the UK, were performed as experimental conversions in the 1930s, rather than as new builds. Nigel Gresley, the CME of the LNER, was a keen follower of French locomotive practice the work of André Chapelon and the Nord'Superpacifics' of Marc de Caso; when Gresley designed his P2 class as successor to his A3s, he took this French work into account and used a double chimney with Kylchap blastpipes. Two P2s were built 2001 Cock O' The North and 2002 Earl Marischal, both in 1934. Following French practice, 2001 was built with poppet valves, for comparison 2002 kept the conventional piston valves. To avoid problems with smoke obscuring the driver's vision, both were built with wedged tops to their smokebox and wing plates to the upper sides of it, as had been used for 10000. With the sharper exhaust of the poppet valve-equipped 2001, this was successful and smoke was projected upwards, clear of the cab windows.
2002 had a softer exhaust though and gave trouble, until it was rebuilt with additional smoke deflectors, spaced about 18 inches parallel to the existing wing plates. Both locomotives were considered successful, but 2002 had the edge for efficiency, put down to the smaller volumes within the valve chest; when the further members of the P2 class were built, they followed 2002 with piston valves and the extra smoke deflectors. The first of the A4 class reverted to a conventional blastpipe, they had the greatest attention paid to their gas flow both the inlet and exhaust sides. With the P2s, there had been a tendency for an excess of draught, when working hard at a long cut-off, enough to lift the fire. To avoid this, the A4s used a'jumper top' on their blastpipe, a loose ring which rose under the influence of a strong blast jet, increasing the effective nozzle diameter and so reducing the drawing effect of the blast; this device could not be applied to either a double chimney, nor to a Kylala blastpipe, but it is not clear if, the only reason for the simplified single blastpipe.4468 Mallard the 28th of the A4s was built with a double chimney and Kylchap blastpipes in 1938.
This was considered successful and so the final three of the class, built a few months were built with them. The entire class was refitted in the 1950s, together with some of the A3s. Peppercorn's A2 pacifics were built, post-war, with similar double Kylchap blastpipes. Five members of the LMS J
BR Standard Class 5 73129
British Railways Standard Class 5 No. 73129 is a preserved British steam locomotive. It is the only surviving Standard Class 5 built by British Railways, fitted with Caprotti valve gear. 73129 was outshopped from Derby Works in August 1956. It was one of 30 built fitted with Caprotti valve gear. Allocated at Shrewsbury Shed, it was transferred to Patricroft Shed in 1958, it spent the rest of its working life there until it was stored at Patricroft from June to November 1967. It was withdrawn from traffic on 2 December 1967. During 73129's working life, it covered 198,359 miles - 35,814 of those in 1957. In February 1968, 73129 was sent to Woodham Brothers scrapyard in Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales. In 1972, 73129 was purchased by the Midland Railway Project Group. Preparation work for the transportation of the locomotive to Butterley was undertaken at Woodham Brothers with small working parties. In addition, many spare parts were acquired from other locomotives 73129's neighbour at Barry, 73096, now itself preserved.
Parts were taken from the only other remaining Caprotti valve geared locomotive at Woodham Brothers, 71000 "Duke of Gloucester", now preserved. Whilst stored at Woodham Brothers, the original BR1B tender was sold to a steel works for conversion into an ingot carrier. 73129 has tender number 1043. It is of the same BR1B type, but has no water pick-up apparatus, as it was from a Southern Region based engine 75079 where there was no need for the apparatus. On 6 January 1973 a convoy from Barry hauled by a British Rail Class 46 number 157 took 73129 on part of its journey to Derby Works; the convoy included 7819 "Hinton Manor", 4141 and 5164, 4930 "Hagley Hall", a Stanier 4000 gallon tender and a brake van. Assistance out of Woodham Brothers scrapyard was given by a Class 37 diesel 6978. At Kidderminster whilst dropping off the locomotives for the Severn Valley Railway the motive power was changed to a Class 25 7655. 73129 was left at Derby Works as a temporary home. By early 1975, 73129 along with Jinty 16440 had arrived at Butterley.
Restoration was started on a limited scale on 73129 shortly after the locomotive arrived at the Midland Railway Centre, now Midland Railway - Butterley, in 1975 although work began to tail off in around 1985. Another small attempt to restart the restoration was tried in 1992 although minimal work was carried out due to lack of financial and human resources. In late 1993, restoration began in earnest; this took over a decade. The first fire in 73129's firebox since 1967 was lit at 3.25 pm on 22 February 2004. Steam locomotives 92214, 80098, 47357 and Peckett 1163 "Whitehead" were all in attendance, all whistling when smoke first appeared from 73129's chimney. Midland Railway – British Railways Standard Class 5MT 4-6-0 locomotive no. 73129
BR Standard Class 8
The BR Standard Class 8 was a class of 4-6-2 Pacific steam locomotive designed by Robert Riddles for use by British Railways. Only the prototype was constructed, named Duke of Gloucester. Constructed at Crewe Works in 1954, the Duke, as it is popularly known, was a replacement for the destroyed LMS Princess Royal Class locomotive number 46202 Princess Anne, involved in the Harrow and Wealdstone rail disaster of 1952; the Duke was based on the BR Standard Class 7 Britannia design. It incorporated three sets of modified Caprotti valve gear new to British locomotive engineering and more efficient than Walschaerts or Stephenson valve gear; the Duke was regarded as a failure by locomotive crews due to its poor steaming characteristics and its heavy fuel consumption. Trials undertaken by British Railways returned negative feedback, reporting problems with the poor draughting of the locomotive which resulted in difficulty adhering to the timetables; the result was an operational period of only eight years.
This unique locomotive was saved from being scrapped at Woodham Brothers scrapyard in Barry, Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales when it was purchased by a group of railway enthusiasts who restored it from scrapyard to as-built condition in 13 years. Since modifications have been made to the original design, resulting in one of the most efficient and powerful steam locomotives to run in Britain; as a result, the Duke of Gloucester can be seen on the mainline around Britain. Riddles had argued the case for the inclusion of a Standard Class 8 Pacific into the standard range of locomotives being introduced by British Railways. However, these proposals were rejected by the Railway Executive on the grounds of cost in attempting to develop a form of steam motive power, not required for use on Britain's railways, as there were enough class 8 locomotives available for use. However, opportunity came out of adversity when the short-lived rebuild of The Turbomotive, 46202 Princess Anne, was destroyed in the Harrow and Wealdstone rail disaster of 1952.
A gap now existed in the roster for locomotives with 8P power classification, of which the demand was high for the efficient operation of heavy expresses on the West Coast Main Line between London Euston and Scotland. This presented Riddles with the perfect opportunity to press the case for his new design, a prototype of, duly authorised for construction. At first, Riddles wished to develop an enlarged version of his Standard Class 7 Britannias, as the design still featured a two-cylinder layout. However, the size of the cylinders in order to achieve the 8P power classification would have put the design over the British loading gauge limit and so a reluctant reversion to the three-cylinder layout ensued; this reluctance was born from experience with the Gresley Pacifics, whose conjugated valve gear was difficult to maintain due to the location of the middle cylinder between the frames. Therefore, an alternative type of valve gear had to be found; the valve gear, settled upon was a modified form of Caprotti valve gear, the novel rotary cam-driven British Caprotti valve gear developed by Heenan & Froude with poppet valves.
This was based on Italian locomotive practice and allowed precise control of steam admission to the cylinders while improving exhaust flow and boiler draughting characteristics when compared to the more conventional Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear. On paper this created a free-steaming, hard-working locomotive capable of hauling heavy loads over long distances but, in practice, fundamental design errors and undetected deviations from the drawings made during construction combined to prevent the locomotive from achieving its expected performance during British Railways ownership; the main problem was known when the locomotive was under construction, as Mr. L. T. Daniels, the representative of the British Caprotti company, recommended the use of the Kylchap blastpipe, which could have coped with the fierce exhaust blasts experienced with the Caprotti system. A standard double chimney of the Swindon type had been fabricated in order to cut costs and it had been installed in the smokebox before Riddles could do anything about it.
As a result, the locomotive suffered due to the choke area of both chimney and blastpipe being much too small for the pressure created by the exhaust, leading to poor draughting. Further problems regarding the firebox of the locomotive were only discovered during restoration, including a poorly dimensioned ashpan and dampers that were again too small, strangling the fire of air when operating at speed. Further, British Railways "Modernization Plan" was under development concurrent with the construction of 71000 raising other questions. Following experience of occasional cracks appearing near the spring brackets of the Britannias and Clans, a substantial rearrangement took place in this area that resulted in the locomotive riding on three cast steel "sub-frames" carrying the ten front-most spring brackets and lengthened spring brackets behind the rear driven axle. Had the planned batch of further smaller Pacifics been built, they would have been fitted with this arrangement; the opportunity to create an entire batch of locomotives within the 8P category was declined by the Railway Executive.
It had been said this was because the design process had been expensive and complex, so that when the locomotive emerged from Crewe Works in 1954, such thoughts had to be precluded with the advent of the 1955 Modernisation Plan. As a result, 71000 remained the solitary member of a proposed class of Standard 8P l
The footplate of a steam locomotive is a large metal plate that rests on top of the frames and is covered with wooden floorboards. It is the full width of the locomotive and extends from the front of the cab to the rear of cab or coal bunker just above the buffer beam; the boiler, the cab, other superstructure elements are in turn mounted on the footplate. The footplate does extend beyond the front of the cab on some locomotives, but is usually referred to as the "running board/plate." The footplate is where the Driver and Fireman stand in the cab to operate the locomotive, giving rise to the expression of working on the footplate for being in the cab of a steam locomotive. The part of the footplate ahead of the cab is referred to by a variety of different names. In the modern age, although the steam locomotive has been phased out, the word footplate remains current coin, it is used to describe the act of travelling inside the cab of a locomotive, in this context to the cab itself also. Thus: "when the General Manager travels on a train, an engineer must be present on the footplate" or "an engineer footplated the locomotive after trouble in its bogies was reported at an intermediate station".
However, in most varieties of English the word is not used to refer to the cab outside the context of someone riding in it. The term footplate can be applied to the step along the length of a classical tram on both sides; the presence of a footplate is universal in British locomotive construction, is seen in continental European locomotives, never on locomotives constructed in the United States. American practice mounted the locomotive's cab directly on the frame; the walkways and running boards seen on American locomotives that sometimes give an appearance of a footplate are attached to the boiler or the pilot and are not structural elements. The absence of a footplate on American locomotives is one thing that makes them look "not quite right" to those accustomed to the British look; the footplate has openings cut in it for various purposes. The firebox always extends beneath the footplate; the cylinders are beneath the footplate, steam pipes pass through holes to them. The reversing gear control for the valve gear passes through, in some locomotives part of the valve motion extends through the footplate.
On British Railways Standard Locomotives the running plate was high enough to clear the wheels. On earlier British locomotives, the tops of the wheels projected through slots in the running plate and were covered by "splashers" which are analogous to mudguards on a road vehicle. Running board
A cannon bearing or cannon box bearing is an arrangement of bearings on a shaft an axle, where two bearings are mounted in an enclosed tube. The function of the cannon box is to preserve the alignment of the two bearings if the overall tube is allowed to move; the two bearings will retain their same relative position. The bearing tube can be attached to the vehicle frame through either springs; the name'cannon box' derives from the appearance of the hollow tube. From the boring machines used to machine the aligned bearing seats, the same machines developed for the boring of cannon and used for machining the cylinders of steam engines. Cannon box bearings are still found today, although much of the need for them was removed by the development of self-aligning ball bearings; these allow the inner race of a bearing to move independently of its outer, so that each bearing can align to both shaft and housing even if the housing moves around. The'cannon box' bearing was introduced by George Stephenson on his locomotive Locomotion of 1825 for the Stockton and Darlington Railway.
One of the axles was carried in a'cannon box' bearing, pivoted centrally and could tilt from side to side. Unlike Stephenson's earlier locomotives and their steam springs, this new suspension had no springing but was a compensated suspension: as one side was raised, the bearing tube pivoted and the other side was pushed downwards. Although not giving a stable ride for the locomotive, it did allow the wheels to follow uneven track. Rails of this period were short pieces of cast iron rather than lengths of rolled steel and had frequent misaligned, joints. A side-effect of the cannon box is that the centre of the shaft is now inaccessible. Stephenson had coupled the driving axles of his locomotives with a central chain; the need for an alternate system spurred the development of the coupling rods, where the drive was connected on the outside face of the wheels. The enclosure of the shaft and bearing had advantages for enclosing the bearings to exclude dirt and to contain lubricating oil. Francis Webb's form of radial axle design for the LNWR used a cannon box.
A radial axle is a form of single axle pony truck, where instead of a pivoted frame, the two axle bearings can slide sideways in a circular track. Webb's design placed them into a curved cannon box. David Joy, designer of the eponymous valvegear, described encountering these axleboxes on Webb's Precedent class; the earlier Adams design for a similar axle had relied on the axle and thrust-faces within the axle bearings to keep the hornblocks in position. In the 1920s, some electric locomotives used rigid frames with a leading and trailing truck, where a cannon bearing was a convenient inside-framed bearing for the truck; the Swiss'Java bogie' design, developed by Jakob Buchli used this for a driving axle, with the drive provided by a one-sided Buchli drive outside the wheels. Roller bearings, their enclosing cannon boxes, were used for the British Railways Standard classes, on bogie axles and on the driving axles of some of the larger classes; this use was simplified. Railway use of such bearings continues today.
The Peppercorn Class A1 Tornado replica uses roller bearings rather than the original plain bearings and these use cannon tube bearings for both the driving and bogie axles, although not for the central cylinder's crank axle. The rigidity of the cannon box allows the faces of the axleboxes which move up and down in the hornguides to only need a single horn flange. Conventional axleboxes have a pair of flanges with the guide between them, so that they can move up and down for suspension without any axial movement. If they are both held at the correct spacing by the cannon tube, only one flange is needed; the thinner axlebox, without the external flange, can allow the hornguides and frames to be placed closer to the inner face of the wheel, giving better support for a heavily-loaded axle. Traction engines began as agricultural vehicles and ignored springing or suspension on their main wheels; as light steam tractors developed from 1896 for road haulage though, locomotives with solid rubber tyres and suspension became favoured.
The driving wheels of a traction engine are carried on a single axle, running behind the rear plate of the boiler firebox and carried in bearings fitted to the hornplates on either side of the boiler. Where springs were used, the cannon box bearing was favoured for maintaining the bearing alignment, with a further advantage of enclosing the axle away from the coal and ash from the firebox. Designs such as the Tasker Little Giant used another compensated suspension, where the tube was suspended from a single transverse leaf spring