The newton is the International System of Units derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics Newton's second law of motion. See below for the conversion factors. One newton is the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass at the rate of one metre per second squared in the direction of the applied force. In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures Resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared. In 1948, the 9th CGPM Resolution 7 adopted the name newton for this force; the MKS system became the blueprint for today's SI system of units. The newton thus became the standard unit of force in the Système international d'unités, or International System of Units; this SI unit is named after Isaac Newton. As with every International System of Units unit named for a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case.
However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it is treated as a common noun and should always begin with a lower case letter —except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case. Newton's second law of motion states that F = ma, where F is the force applied, m is the mass of the object receiving the force, a is the acceleration of the object; the newton is therefore: where the following symbols are used for the units: N for newton, kg for kilogram, m for metre, s for second. In dimensional analysis: F = M L T 2 where F is force, M is mass, L is length and T is time. At average gravity on Earth, a kilogram mass exerts a force of about 9.8 newtons. An average-sized apple exerts about one newton of force. 1 N = 0.10197 kg × 9.80665 m/s2 The weight of an average adult exerts a force of about 608 N. 608 N = 62 kg × 9.80665 m/s2 It is common to see forces expressed in kilonewtons where 1 kN = 1000 N.
For example, the tractive effort of a Class Y steam train locomotive and the thrust of an F100 fighter jet engine are both around 130 kN. One kilonewton, 1 kN, is about 100 kg of load. 1 kN = 102 kg × 9.81 m/s2 So for example, a platform that shows it is rated at 321 kilonewtons, will safely support a 32,100 kilograms load. Specifications in kilonewtons are common in safety specifications for: the holding values of fasteners, Earth anchors, other items used in the building industry. Working loads in tension and in shear. Rock climbing equipment. Thrust of rocket engines and launch vehicles clamping forces of the various moulds in injection moulding machines used to manufacture plastic parts
A safety valve is a valve that acts as a fail-safe. An example of safety valve is a pressure relief valve, which automatically releases a substance from a boiler, pressure vessel, or other system, when the pressure or temperature exceeds preset limits. Pilot-operated relief valves are a specialized type of pressure safety valve. A leak tight, lower cost, single emergency use option would be a rupture disk. Safety valves were first developed for use on steam boilers during the Industrial Revolution. Early boilers operating without them were prone to explosion unless operated. Vacuum safety valves are used to prevent a tank from collapsing while it is being emptied, or when cold rinse water is used after hot CIP or SIP procedures; when sizing a vacuum safety valve, the calculation method is not defined in any norm in the hot CIP / cold water scenario, but some manufacturers have developed sizing simulations. The earliest and simplest safety valve was used on a 1679 steam digester and utilized a weight to retain the steam pressure.
On the Stockton and Darlington Railway, the safety valve tended to go off when the engine hit a bump in the track. A valve less sensitive to sudden accelerations used a spring to contain the steam pressure, but these could still be screwed down to increase the pressure beyond design limits; this dangerous practice was sometimes used to marginally increase the performance of a steam engine. In 1856, John Ramsbottom invented a tamper-proof spring safety valve that became universal on railways; the Ramsbottom valve consisted of two plug-type valves connected to each other by a spring-laden pivoting arm, with one valve element on either side of the pivot. Any adjustment made to one of valves in an attempt to increase its operating pressure would cause the other valve to be lifted off its seat, regardless of how the adjustment was attempted; the pivot point on the arm was not symmetrically between the valves, so any tightening of the spring would cause one of the valves to lift. Only by removing and diassembling the entire valve assembly could its operating pressure be adjusted, making impromptu'tying down' of the valve by locomotive crews in search of more power impossible.
The pivoting arm was extended into a handle shape and fed back into the locomotive cab, allowing crews to'rock' both valves off their seats to confirm they were set and operating correctly. Safety valves evolved to protect equipment such as pressure vessels and heat exchangers; the term safety valve should be limited to compressible fluid applications. The two general types of protection encountered in industry are thermal protection and flow protection. For liquid-packed vessels, thermal relief valves are characterized by the small size of the valve necessary to provide protection from excess pressure caused by thermal expansion. In this case a small valve is adequate because most liquids are nearly incompressible, so a small amount of fluid discharged through the relief valve will produce a substantial reduction in pressure. Flow protection is characterized by safety valves that are larger than those mounted for thermal protection, they are sized for use in situations where significant quantities of gas or high volumes of liquid must be discharged in order to protect the integrity of the vessel or pipeline.
This protection can alternatively be achieved by installing a high integrity pressure protection system. In the petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing, natural gas processing, power generation, drinks and pharmaceuticals industries, the term safety valve is associated with the terms pressure relief valve, pressure safety valve and relief valve; the generic term is pressure safety valve. PRVs and PSVs are not the same thing, despite. Relief valve: an automatic system, actuated by the static pressure in a liquid-filled vessel, it opens proportionally with increasing pressure. Safety valve: an automatic system that relieves the static pressure on a gas, it opens accompanied by a popping sound. Safety relief valve: an automatic system that relieves by static pressure on both gas and liquid. Pilot-operated safety relief valve: an automatic system that relieves on remote command from a pilot, to which the static pressure is connected. Low pressure safety valve: an automatic system that relieves static pressure on a gas.
Used when the difference between the vessel pressure and the ambient atmospheric pressure is small. Vacuum pressure safety valve: an automatic system that relieves static pressure on a gas. Used when the pressure difference between the vessel pressure and the ambient pressure is small and near to atmospheric pressure. Low and vacuum pressure safety valve: an automatic system that relieves static pressure on a gas. Used when the pressure difference is small, negative or positive and near to atmospheric pressure. RV, SV and SRV are spring-operated. LPSV and VPSV are weight-loaded. In most countries, industries are required to protect pressure vessels and other equipment by using relief valves. In most countries, equipment design codes such as those provided by the ASME, API and other organizations like ISO mus
Scrap consists of recyclable materials left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap has monetary value recovered metals, non-metallic materials are recovered for recycling. Scrap metal originates both in business and residential environments. A "scrapper" will advertise their services to conveniently remove scrap metal for people who don't need it. Scrap is taken to a wrecking yard, where it is processed for melting into new products. A wrecking yard, depending on its location, may allow customers to browse their lot and purchase items before they are sent to the smelters, although many scrap yards that deal in large quantities of scrap do not selling entire units such as engines or machinery by weight with no regard to their functional status. Customers are required to supply all of their own tools and labor to extract parts, some scrapyards may first require waiving liability for personal injury before entering.
Many scrapyards sell bulk metals by weight at prices below the retail purchasing costs of similar pieces. A scrap metal shredder is used to recycle items containing a variety of other materials in combination with steel. Examples are automobiles and white goods such as refrigerators, clothes washers, etc; these items are labor-intensive to manually sort things like plastic, copper and brass. By shredding into small pieces, the steel can be separated out magnetically; the non-ferrous waste stream requires other techniques to sort. In contrast to wrecking yards, scrapyards sell everything by weight, instead of by item. To the scrapyard, the primary value of the scrap is what the smelter will give them for it, rather than the value of whatever shape the metal may be in. An auto wrecker, on the other hand, would price the same scrap based on what the item does, regardless of what it weighs. If a wrecker cannot sell something above the value of the metal in it, they would take it to the scrapyard and sell it by weight.
Equipment containing parts of various metals can be purchased at a price below that of either of the metals, due to saving the scrapyard the labor of separating the metals before shipping them to be recycled. Scrap prices may vary markedly over time and in different locations. Prices are negotiated among buyers and sellers directly or indirectly over the Internet. Prices displayed. Other prices are not updated frequently; some scrap yards' websites have updated scrap prices. In the US, scrap prices are reported in a handful of publications, including American Metal Market, based on confirmed sales as well as reference sites such as Scrap Metal Prices and Auctions. Non-US domiciled publications, such as The Steel Index report on the US scrap price, which has become important to global export markets. Scrap yards directories are used by recyclers to find facilities in the US and Canada, allowing users to get in contact with yards. With resources online for recyclers to look at for scrapping tips, like web sites and search engines, scrapping is referred to as a hands and labor-intensive job.
Taking apart and separating metals is important to making more money on scrap, for tips like using a magnet to determine ferrous and non-ferrous materials, that can help recyclers make more money on their metal recycling. When a magnet sticks to the metal, it will be a ferrous material, like iron; this is a less expensive item, recycled but is recycled in larger quantities of thousands of pounds. Non-ferrous metals like copper and brass do not stick to a magnet; some cheaper grades of stainless steel are other grades are not. These items are higher priced commodities for metal recycling and are important to separate when recycling them; the prices of non-ferrous metals tend to fluctuate more than ferrous metals so it is important for recyclers to pay attention to these sources and the overall markets. Great potential exists in the scrap metal industry for accidents in which a hazardous material present in scrap causes death, injury, or environmental damage. A classic example is radioactivity in scrap.
Toxic materials such as asbestos, toxic metals such as beryllium and mercury may pose dangers to personnel, as well as contaminating materials intended for metal smelters. Many specialized tools used in scrapyards are hazardous, such as the alligator shear, which cuts metal using hydraulic force and scrap metal shredders. According to research conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency, recycling scrap metals can be quite beneficial to the environment. Using recycled scrap metal in place of virgin iron ore can yield: 75% savings in energy. 90% savings in raw materials used. 86% reduction in air pollution. 40% reduction in water use. 76% reduction in water pollution. 97% reduction in mining wastes. Every ton of new steel made from scrap steel saves: 1,115 kg of iron ore. 625 kg of coal. 53 kg of limestone. Energy savings from other metals include: Aluminium savings of 95% energy. Copper savings of 85% energy. Lead savings of 65% energy. Zinc savings of 60% energy; the metal recycling industry encompasses a wide range of metals.
The more recycled metals are scrap steel, lead, copper, stainless steel and zinc. There are two main categories of metals: ferrous and
The footplate of a steam locomotive is a large metal plate that rests on top of the frames and is covered with wooden floorboards. It is the full width of the locomotive and extends from the front of the cab to the rear of cab or coal bunker just above the buffer beam; the boiler, the cab, other superstructure elements are in turn mounted on the footplate. The footplate does extend beyond the front of the cab on some locomotives, but is usually referred to as the "running board/plate." The footplate is where the Driver and Fireman stand in the cab to operate the locomotive, giving rise to the expression of working on the footplate for being in the cab of a steam locomotive. The part of the footplate ahead of the cab is referred to by a variety of different names. In the modern age, although the steam locomotive has been phased out, the word footplate remains current coin, it is used to describe the act of travelling inside the cab of a locomotive, in this context to the cab itself also. Thus: "when the General Manager travels on a train, an engineer must be present on the footplate" or "an engineer footplated the locomotive after trouble in its bogies was reported at an intermediate station".
However, in most varieties of English the word is not used to refer to the cab outside the context of someone riding in it. The term footplate can be applied to the step along the length of a classical tram on both sides; the presence of a footplate is universal in British locomotive construction, is seen in continental European locomotives, never on locomotives constructed in the United States. American practice mounted the locomotive's cab directly on the frame; the walkways and running boards seen on American locomotives that sometimes give an appearance of a footplate are attached to the boiler or the pilot and are not structural elements. The absence of a footplate on American locomotives is one thing that makes them look "not quite right" to those accustomed to the British look; the footplate has openings cut in it for various purposes. The firebox always extends beneath the footplate; the cylinders are beneath the footplate, steam pipes pass through holes to them. The reversing gear control for the valve gear passes through, in some locomotives part of the valve motion extends through the footplate.
On British Railways Standard Locomotives the running plate was high enough to clear the wheels. On earlier British locomotives, the tops of the wheels projected through slots in the running plate and were covered by "splashers" which are analogous to mudguards on a road vehicle. Running board
Stephenson valve gear
The Stephenson valve gear or Stephenson link or shifting link is a simple design of valve gear, used throughout the world for all kinds of steam engines. It was invented by his employees. During the 1830s the most popular valve drive for locomotives was known as gab motion in the U. K. and V-hook motion in the U. S. A; the gab motion incorporated two sets of rods for each cylinder. It was a clumsy mechanism, difficult to operate, only gave fixed valve events. In 1841 two employees in Stephenson’s locomotive works, draughtsman William Howe and pattern-maker William Williams, suggested the simple expedient of replacing the gabs with a vertical slotted link, pivoted at both ends to the tips of the eccentric rods. To change direction, the link and rod ends were bodily raised or lowered by means of a counterbalanced bell crank worked by a reach rod that connected it to the reversing lever; this not only simplified reversing but it was realised that the gear could be raised or lowered in small increments, thus the combined motion from the “forward” and “back” eccentrics in differing proportions would impart shorter travel to the valve, cutting off admission steam earlier in the stroke and using a smaller amount steam expansively in the cylinder, using its own energy rather than continuing to draw from the boiler.
It became the practice to start the engine or climb gradients at long cutoff about 70-80% maximum of the power stroke and to shorten the cutoff as momentum was gained to benefit from the economy of expansive working and the effect of increased lead and higher compression at the end of each stroke. This process was popularly known as "linking up" or “notching up”, the latter because the reversing lever could be held in precise positions by means of a catch on the lever engaging notches in a quadrant. A further intrinsic advantage of the Stephenson gear not found in most other types was variable lead. Depending on how the gear was laid out, it was possible to reduce compression and back pressure at the end of each piston stroke when working at low speed in full gear. American locomotives universally employed inside Stephenson valve gear placed between the frames until around 1900 when it gave way to outside Walschaerts motion. In Europe, Stephenson gear could be placed either outside the driving wheels and driven by either eccentrics or return cranks or else between the frames driven from the axle through eccentrics, as was the case in Great Britain.
Abner Doble considered Stephenson valve gear: " the most universally suitable valve gear of all, for it can be worked out for a long engine structure or a short one. It can be a simple valve gear and still be accurate, but its great advantage is that its accuracy is self-contained, for the exact relationship between its points of support have but little effect on the motion of the valve, its use on engines in which all the cylinders lie in one plane, represents, in the belief of the writer, the best choice." Another benefit of the Stephenson gear, intrinsic to the system, is variable lead: zero in full gear and increasing as cutoff is shortened. One consequent disadvantage of the Stephenson gear is that it has a tendency to over-compression at the end of the stroke when short cut-offs are used, therefore the minimum cut-off cannot be as low as on a locomotive with Walschaerts gear. Longer eccentric rods and a shorter link reduce this effect. Stephenson valve gear is a convenient arrangement for any engine that needs to reverse and was applied to railway locomotives, traction engines, steam car engines and to stationary engines that needed to reverse, such as rolling-mill engines.
It was used on the overwhelming majority of marine engines. The Great Western Railway used Stephenson gear on most of its locomotives, although the four-cylinder engines used inside Walschaerts gear. Details of the gear differ principally in the arrangement of the expansion link. In early locomotive practice, the eccentric rod ends were pivoted at the ends of the link while, in marine engines, the eccentric rod pivots were set behind the link slot; these became known as the'locomotive link' and the'launch link'. The launch link superseded the locomotive type as it allows more direct linear drive to the piston rod in full gear and permits a longer valve travel within a given space by reducing the size of eccentric required for a given travel. Launch-type links were pretty well universal for American locomotives right from the 1850s but, in Europe, although occurring as early as 1846, they did not become widespread until around 1900. Larger marine engines used the bulkier and more expensive marine double-bar link, which has greater wearing surfaces and which improved valve events by minimising geometric compromises inherent in the launch link.
In the United Kingdom, locomotives having Stephenson valve gear had this mounted in between the locomotive frames. In 1947, the London and Scottish Railway built a series of their Stanier Cl
The Whyte notation for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte, came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in American Engineer and Railroad Journal. The notation counts the number of leading wheels the number of driving wheels, the number of trailing wheels, numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels. In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles in front three driving axles and one trailing axle is classified as 4-6-2, is known as a Pacific. Articulated locomotives such as Garratts, which are two locomotives joined by a common boiler, have a + between the arrangements of each engine, thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt locomotives the + sign is used when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies.
They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge that links the two engines. Simpler articulated types such as Mallets have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels; the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; this numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives, which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame. No suffix means a tender locomotive. T indicates a tank locomotive: in European practice, this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means side tank, PT pannier tank, ST saddle tank, WT well tank. T+T means a tank locomotive that has a tender. In Europe, the suffix R can signify rack or reversible, the latter being Bi-cabine locomotives used in France; the suffix F indicates a fireless locomotive. This locomotive has no tender. Other suffixes have been used, including ng for narrow-gauge and CA or ca for compressed air.
In Britain, small diesel and petrol locomotives are classified in the same way as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. This may be followed by D for diesel or P for petrol, another letter describing the transmission: E for electric, H hydraulic, M mechanical. Thus, 0-6-0DE denotes a six-wheel diesel locomotive with electric transmission. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are used. Thus, 4wPE indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used; the main limitation of Whyte Notation is that it does not cover non-standard types such as Shay locomotives, which use geared trucks rather than driving wheels. The most used system in Europe outside the United Kingdom is UIC classification, based on German practice, which can define the exact layout of a locomotive. In American practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built.
For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named Planet, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left. AAR wheel arrangement Swiss locomotive and railcar classification UIC classification Wheel arrangement Boylan, Richard. "American Steam Locomotive Wheel Arrangements". SteamLocomotive.com. Retrieved 2008-02-08. Media related to Whyte notation at Wikimedia Commons
North Riding of Yorkshire
The North Riding of Yorkshire is one of the three historic subdivisions of the English county of Yorkshire, alongside the East and West ridings. From the Restoration it was used as a lieutenancy area, having been part of the Yorkshire lieutenancy previously; the three ridings were treated as three counties for many purposes, such as having separate quarter sessions. An administrative county was created with a county council in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888 on the historic boundaries. In 1974 both the administrative county and the Lieutenancy of the North Riding of Yorkshire were abolished, being succeeded in most of the riding by the new non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire; the highest point in the North Riding is Mickle Fell at 2,585 ft. During the English Civil War, the North Riding predominantly supported the royalist cause, while other areas of Yorkshire tended to support the parliamentarians; the County of York, North Riding administrative county was formed in 1889. In 1894 it was divided into municipal boroughs, urban districts and rural districts under the Local Government Act 1894.
Middlesbrough had been incorporated as a municipal borough in 1853 and formed a county borough, exempt from county council control, from 1889. Richmond and Scarborough had been incorporated as municipal boroughs in 1835, with Thornaby-on-Tees added in 1892; the urban districts in 1894 were Eston, Hinderwell, Kirklington cum Upsland, Malton, Northallerton, Redcar and Marske by the Sea, Scalby and Brotton and Whitby. In 1922 Redcar was incorporated as a borough; the rural districts in 1894 were Aysgarth, Croft, Flaxton, Helmsley, Kirkby Moorside, Malton, Middlesbrough, Pickering, Richmond, Startforth, Thirsk and Whitby. County Review Orders reduced the number of urban and rural districts in the county: Hinderwell urban district was absorbed by Whitby rural district in 1932 A new Saltburn and Marske by the Sea urban district was formed from Saltburn by the Sea urban district and part of Guisborough rural district; the remainder of Guisborough RD passed to Loftus urban district and Whitby rural district in 1932 Kirklington cum Upsland urban district was absorbed by Bedale rural district in 1934 Masham urban district was redesignated as Masham rural district in 1934In 1968 a new county borough of Teesside was created, taking in Middlesbrough and parts of the administrative counties of Durham and North Riding.
From the North Riding came the boroughs of Redcar and Thornaby-on-Tees, the urban district of Eston, part of Stokesley rural district. The entirety of Teesside, including the parts north of the River Tees in Durham, was associated with the North Riding for lieutenancy and other purposes. In 1974 the North Riding was abolished as both a Lieutenancy; the majority of its former area became part of the new non-metropolitan county of North Yorkshire, which includes much of the northern rural part of the West Riding as well as the city of York and the northern and western fringes of the traditional East Riding. Middlesbrough and Redcar became part of Cleveland and are now in independent unitary authorities which became part of North Yorkshire for ceremonial purposes; the Startforth Rural District was transferred to County Durham, becoming part of the Teesdale district, subsequently abolished in 2009. The North Riding is now represented in the districts of Hambleton, Ryedale, Scarborough and Redcar and Cleveland, parts in Harrogate district, Stockton-on-Tees and County Durham.
The principal towns are Middlesbrough, Whitby and Northallerton. On three occasions a re-use of the name of the North Riding for local government purposes has been considered. During the 1990s UK local government reform, the Banham Commission suggested uniting Richmondshire, Hambleton and Scarborough districts in a new unitary authority called North Riding of Yorkshire; the government proposed renaming the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire the North Riding of Yorkshire. This was deemed inappropriate and rejected, after a "chorus of disapprobation". During a further local government review in the 2000s as part of the preparations for the regional assembly referendums, a unitary authority with the name North Riding of Yorkshire, consisting of Richmondshire, Hambleton and Scarborough was again suggested. However, the Commission withdrew this in favour or two unitary authorities, one for Hambleton and Richmondshire, the other for Ryedale and Scarborough. Unlike most counties in England, which were divided anciently into hundreds, Yorkshire was divided first into three ridings and into numerous wapentakes within each riding.
Within the North Riding of Yorkshire there were thirteen wapentakes in total, as follows: List of Lord Lieutenants of the North Riding List of High Sheriffs of North Yorkshire Custos Rotulorum of the North Riding of Yorkshire - List of Keepers of the Rolls Map of the North Riding of Yorkshire on Wikishire Information on the North Riding of Yorkshire on I'm From Yorkshire