LNER Class B17
The London and North Eastern Railway Class B17 known as "Sandringham" or "Footballer" class was a class of 4-6-0 steam locomotive designed by Nigel Gresley for hauling passenger services on the Great Eastern Main Line. In total 73 were built. By 1926, the former GE B12 class locomotives were no longer able to cope with the heaviest express passenger trains on the Great Eastern Main Line between London and Cambridge and Norwich, yet Gresley was unable to use his larger classes due to severe weight restrictions on the line. The requirement for a lightweight yet powerful 4-6-0 proved to be difficult to achieve. After several unsuccessful attempts by Doncaster Works to satisfy Gresley's specification, the contract for the detailed design and building of the class was given to the North British Locomotive Company in 1927, they used several features from a batch of A1 Pacifics they had built in 1924. The cab and motion had all been copied directly or modified. Most of the boiler design was taken from the LNER Class K3 LNER Class O2 2-8-0 designs.
Darlington Works provided drawings for the bogies, Stratford Works designs for the GE-type 3,700-imperial-gallon, 4-long-ton tender. Due to weight restrictions it proved to be impossible for all three cylinders to drive the middle coupled axle, the design used divided drive with the middle cylinder driving the leading axle and was positioned forward above the front bogie; the LNER ordered some modifications, including an increase in cylinder size from 17 in to 17 1⁄2 in, a lengthening of the firebox by 5 in with longer frames, lighter springs. The design continued to prove problematic and the LNER cancelled a penalty clause in the original contract; the first locomotive, thirteen weeks late. Ten locomotives were built by the North British Locomotive Company during November and December, which were allocated the running numbers 2800-9. Five further orders were placed with Darlington Works between December 1928 and March 1935 for a further fifty-two locomotives to be delivered between August 1930 and June 1936.
A final batch of eleven were ordered from Robert Stephenson and Company in February 1936 for delivery between January and July 1937. The first ten by the North British Locomotive Company were designated B17 B17/1; the second and third batches had boilers supplied by Armstrong Whitworth and different springing and became B17/2. The next two batches had different springing and were designated B17/3. However, as the locomotives passed through the works the original springs were replaced by those of the design and in 1937 the three sub-classes were merged into B17/1; the final Darlington batch introduced in 1936, those built by Robert Stephenson and Company had 4,200-imperial-gallon, 7.5-long-ton tenders and were intended for use in the North Eastern area of the LNER: these were designated B17/4. In September 1937 two locomotives (Nos. 2859 Norwich City and 2870 Tottenham Hotspur were streamlined in the manner of the LNER Class A4s, renamed East Anglian and City of London and intended for use on the East Anglian train.
They were designated B17/5. However, the streamlining was cladding for publicity purposes only and had little effect on the overall speed of the locomotive. By 1951 both engines had been stripped of the streamlining altogether. Between 1943 and 1957 most of the surviving members of the class were rebuilt with a LNER 100A boiler with increased pressure and were designated B17/6. Ten B17s were rebuilt by Edward Thompson as 2-cylinder locomotives with a LNER 100A boiler, between 1945 and 1949, becoming the Class B2. No more were rebuilt because of the success of the Thompson's B1 class. On 4 October 1929, locomotive No. 2808 Gunton was hauling an express passenger train, in collision with a freight train at Tottenham, London after the latter had departed against a danger signal and subsequently stopped foul of a junction. On 15 February 1937, locomotive No. 2829 Narworth Castle was hauling a passenger train, derailed at Sleaford North Junction, Lincolnshire due to excessive speed on a curve. Four people were killed and sixteen were injured, one seriously.
On 10 February 1941, locomotive No. 2828 Harewood House was hauling an express passenger train that came to a halt between Harold Wood and Brentwood, Essex as it was too heavy for the locomotive. A passenger train overran was in a rear-end collision with the express. Seven people were killed and seventeen were injured. On 16 January 1944, locomotive 2868 Bradford City was hauling a train from Great Yarmouth to Liverpool Street, hit from behind by a train from Norwich in darkness and dense fog at Ilford station. Nine people were killed and 38 injured. On 2 January 1947, locomotive No. 1602 Walsingham was hauling an express passenger train that overran signals and was in a rear-end collision with a local passenger train at Gidea Park, Essex. Seven people were killed and 45 were hospitalised. Several were named after football clubs. None of the class have survived into preservation but a few of the football clubs were presented with the nameplates after the locomotives were scrapped. In Steam Railway magazine issue 349, on 1 May 2008 the North British Locomotive Preservation Group launched a unique project to build two LNER Class B17 4-6-0s.
One to be a replica, named after a football club, 61662 Manchester United. The other will be the newest member of 61673 Spirit of Sandringham; the frames of a Great Eastern Railway tender, fitted with an original axle from 2802'Walsingham', a LNER tender have be
The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with a piston. Cylinders were cast in cast iron and in steel; the cylinder casting includes other features such as mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were provided by cast-iron bushings; the way the valve controlled the steam entering and leaving the cylinder was known as steam distribution and shown by the shape of the indicator diagram. What happened to the steam inside the cylinder was assessed separately from what happened in the boiler and how much friction the moving machinery had to cope with; this assessment was known as "engine performance" or "cylinder performance". The cylinder performance, together with the boiler and machinery performance, established the efficiency of the complete locomotive; the pressure of the steam in the cylinder was measured as the piston moved and the power moving the piston was calculated and known as cylinder power.
The forces produced in the cylinder moved the train but were damaging to the structure which held the cylinders in place. Bolted joints came loose, cylinder castings and frames cracked and reduced the availability of the locomotive. Cylinders may be arranged in several different ways. On early locomotives, such as Puffing Billy, the cylinders were set vertically and the motion was transmitted through beams, as in a beam engine; the next stage, for example Stephenson's Rocket, was to drive the wheels directly from steeply inclined cylinders placed at the back of the locomotive. Direct drive became the standard arrangement, but the cylinders were moved to the front and placed either horizontal or nearly horizontal; the front-mounted cylinders could be placed either outside. Examples: Inside cylinders, Planet locomotive Outside cylinders, GNR Stirling 4-2-2In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inside cylinders were used in the UK, but outside cylinders were more common in Continental Europe and the United States.
The reason for this difference is unclear. From about 1920, outside cylinders became more common in the UK but many inside-cylinder engines continued to be built. Inside cylinders give a more stable ride with less yaw or "nosing" but access for maintenance is more difficult; some designers used inside cylinders for aesthetic reasons. The demand for more power led to the development of engines with four cylinders. Examples: Three cylinders, SR Class V, LNER Class A4, Merchant Navy class Four Cylinders, LMS Princess Royal Class, LMS Coronation Class, GWR Castle Class On a two-cylinder engine the cranks, whether inside or outside, are set at 90 degrees; as the cylinders are double-acting this gives four impulses per revolution and ensures that there are no dead centres. On a three-cylinder engine, two arrangements are possible: cranks set to give six spaced impulses per revolution – the usual arrangement. If the three cylinder axes are parallel, the cranks will be 120 degrees apart, but if the centre cylinder does not drive the leading driving axle, it will be inclined, the inside crank will be correspondingly shifted from 120 degrees.
For a given tractive effort and adhesion factor, a three-cylinder locomotive of this design will be less prone to wheelslip when starting than a 2-cylinder locomotive. Outside cranks set at 90 degrees, inside crank set at 135 degrees, giving six unequally spaced impulses per revolution; this arrangement was sometimes used on three-cylinder compound locomotives which used the outside cylinders for starting. This will give evenly spaced exhausts. Two arrangements are possible on a four-cylinder engine: all four cranks set at 90 degrees. With this arrangement the cylinders act in pairs, so there are four impulses per revolution, as with a two-cylinder engine. Most four-cylinder engines are of this type, it is cheaper and simpler to use only one set of valve gear on each side of the locomotive and to operate the second cylinder on that side by means of a rocking shaft from the first cylinder's valve spindle since the required valve events at the second cylinder are a mirror image of the first cylinder.
Pairs of cranks set at 90 degrees with the inside pair set at 45 degrees to the outside pair. This gives eight impulses per revolution, it increases weight and complexity, by requiring four sets of valve gear, but gives smoother torque and reduces the risk of slipping. This was unusual in British practice but was used on the SR Lord Nelson class; such locomotives are distinguished by their exhaust beats, which occur at twice the frequency of a normal 2- or 4-cylinder engine. The valve chests or steam chests which contain the slide valves or piston valves may be located in various positions. If the cylinders are small, the valve chests may be located between the cylinders. For larger cylinders the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in early locomotives, they were sometimes underneath the cylinders; the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in older locomotives, the valve chests were sometimes located alongside the cylinders and inserted through slots in the frames. This meant that, while the cylinders were outside, the valves were inside a
Darlington railway works, was established in 1863 by the Stockton and Darlington Railway in the town of Darlington in the north east of England. The main part of the works, the North Road Shops was located on the northeast side of the Stockton and Darlington Railway The first new locomotive was built at the works in 1864. Though the railway had amalgamated with the North Eastern Railway in 1863, it continued to build its own designs for a number of years. In 1877 the first North Eastern designs appeared. Additionally works where constructed west of the S&DR railway in the Stooperdale area of Darlington. Grandiose offices for the NER were constructed in the Stooperdale area in 1911, to the design of William Bell; the offices were used by NER chief mechanical engineer Vincent Raven until 1917. In 1914 a class of NER Bo-Bo electric locomotives was built at the works to run between Shildon and Newport. Ten of these 1500 volt direct current locomotives were completed. Sir Vincent Raven designed the NER Class T2 0-8-0 freight locomotive in 1913, by 1921 the works had built 120 of the engines, which were designated Q6 by the LNER.
The heavier and more powerful Raven NER Class T3 0-8-0 followed in 1919, 15 engines being completed by 1924. Under the LNER it continued to play a major role, producing a new engine each week, with Gresley's K3 class 2-6-0 appearing in 1924. Both the class V2 and A1 express locomotives were built. By 1927 the works was the town's largest employer. Darlington works built six LNER Class K4 2-6-0 locomotives in 1937/38 for operation on the West Highland Line. No. 3442 The Great Marquess has been preserved in full working order and in 2009 was still hauling special steam trains on the UK main line network. After nationalisation, Darlington built both steam and diesel locomotives, including BR standard class 2; the equivalent of the NER Class E1 0-6-0 tank locomotive had been built unchanged since 1898. In 1954 during the modernisation of British Railways the works was enlarged and had grown to cover over 238,000 square feet, but in 1962 the BR Workshops Division was formed and, with rationalisation, the works was run down and closed in 1966.
The land of the Stooperdale part of the works was sold to Whessoe in 1962. The site since about 1979/80, is occupied by the Morrisons supermarket, the adjacent Bowls Hall, with the original clock, restored, was re-erected by contractors Fairclough Building Ltd onto the east wall of the supermarket overhanging North Road; the Stooperdale offices were grade II listed in 2001. Stockton and Darlington Railway Carriage Works known as Hopetown works Darlington TMD Hoole, K. North Road Locomotive Works, Darlington, 1863-1966. Hatch End: Roundhouse, 1967 Larkin, E. J.. G.. The Railway Workshops of Great Britain 1823-1986. Macmillan Press. Emett, Charlie; the Stockton and Darlington Railway 175 Years. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-2511-6. 54.53802°N 1.55488°W / 54.53802.
LNER Thompson Class B1
The London and North Eastern Railway Thompson Class B1 is a class of steam locomotive designed for medium mixed traffic work. It was designed by Edward Thompson, it was the LNER's equivalent to the successful GWR Hall Class and the LMS Stanier Black Five, two-cylinder mixed traffic 4-6-0s. However, it had the additional requirement of having to be cheap because, due to wartime and post-war economies, the LNER, never the richest railway company, had to make savings. Introduced in 1942, the first example, No. 8301, was named Springbok in honour of a visit by Jan Smuts. The first 40 of the class were named after breeds of antelopes and the like, they became known as bongos after 8306 Bongo. 274 were built by the LNER. 136 were built by British Railways after nationalisation in 1948. The total number in stock at any one time however was only 409 as 61057 crashed in 1950 and was scrapped; the prototype for the new B class 4-6-0 was built at Darlington and entered service on 12 December 1942. It was the first 2-cylinder main-line locomotive constructed for the LNER since the grouping, such had been Sir Nigel Gresley's faith in the 3 cylinder layout.
With cost saving a wartime priority the LNER's draughtsmen went to great lengths to re-use existing patterns and tools to economise on materials and labour. Extensive use was made of welding instead of steel castings; the boiler was derived from the Diagram 100A type fitted to the LNER Class B17 Sandringham 4-6-0s but with a larger grate area and an increase in boiler pressure to 225 pounds per square inch. The appearance of No. 8301 coincided with a visit to Britain by the Prime Minister of South Africa, Field Marshal Jan Smuts, and, as mentioned above, it was named Springbok. 18 other B1s took the names of LNER directors. Not that there were many B1s to be named during the war years: constraints on production meant that the first ten were not completed until 1944. However, Thompson placed substantial orders with two outside builders: Vulcan Foundry and the North British Locomotive Company of Glasgow. Between April 1946 and April 1952 NBL built 290 B1s. Over the period the cost of each engine rose from £14,893 to £16,190.
Vulcan Foundry contributed 50 at £15,300 apiece. Orders for the B1s, which became Nos. 61000–61409 under British Railways, totalled 410. The B1s operated throughout LNER territory; the first batch was distributed among depots on the former Great Eastern Railway section: Ipswich and Stratford in London. They were an immediate success and were soon working the Liverpool Street - Harwich boat trains, the Hook Continental, the Day Continental and the Scandinavian. B1s were a familiar sight on other top-link workings such as The East Anglian, The Broadsman and The Fenman. During the 1950s over 70 B1s were stationed on ex-GE lines, they enjoyed similar popularity on ex-Great Great Central territory. Engines based at Darnall, Sheffield were rostered for the Master Cutler and South Yorkshireman expresses. Elsewhere there were substantial allocations in West Yorkshire and East Yorkshire. If any fault is to be highlighted on the B1, it must be the ride quality. O. S. Nock criticised the B1s for a poor ride, not something many were used to on the Gresley engines.
The B1 was cheap to build, but the final result was an engine, somewhat lacking in the quality LNER men had come to expect. The two-cylinder layout gave the engines good starting power and excellent hill climbing abilities, but it caused bad hunting effects, a result of the use of cut-offs of up to 75%, as such they were less kind on the passengers they carried than the B17s they replaced. Overall, however, it was necessary that the B1s be introduced, because the LNER was operating a large number of engines that were well past their economic life, it was somewhat ironic that among the engines that came under threat with the arrival of the B1s were the ones that Thompson admired the most: the engines of the North Eastern Railway designed by Vincent Raven. On 7 March 1950, locomotive No. 61057 was hauling an express passenger train at night, when it collided with the rear of a mineral train in fog, 3⁄4 mile north east of Witham Junction. The locomotive was badly damaged. On 4 September 1953, locomotive No. 61046 was hauling a passenger train, derailed at Bethnal Green, London when a set of points moved under it.
In August 1961, locomotive No. 61229 was derailed at Yorkshire. 59 of the 410 locomotives were named. Early B1s were named after species of antelope, whilst engines were named after members of the board of directors of the LNER; this led to the fact that the Class B1 contained the shortest name given to a British locomotive and one of the longest. Note this does not include all engines With the change in the policies of British Railways, the B1s were withdrawn long before their projected economic working life. Excepting No. 61057, destroyed in an accident in 1950, the first normal withdrawal was No. 61085 in November 1961. The remaining locomotives were withdrawn between 1962 and 1967. After withdrawal from capital stock, 17 were taken into departmental stock where they were used as boilers for carriage heating. For this they had their couplers removed so they could not haul trains, though they could still propel themselves. Two have been preserved, these being 1264 and 61306. Both of these were built by North British.
SourcesBoddy, M. G..
Mallaig is a port in Lochaber, on the west coast of the Highlands of Scotland. The local railway station, Mallaig, is the terminus of the West Highland railway line and the town is linked to Fort William by the A830 road – the "Road to the Isles"; the village of Mallaig was founded in the 1840s, when Lord Lovat, owner of North Morar Estate, divided up the farm of Mallaigvaig into seventeen parcels of land and encouraged his tenants to move to the western part of the peninsula and turn to fishing as a way of life. The population and local economy expanded in the 20th century with the arrival of the railway. Ferries operated by Caledonian MacBrayne and Western Isles Cruises sail from the port to Armadale on the Isle of Skye, Inverie in Knoydart, the isles of Rùm, Eigg and Canna. Mallaig is the main commercial fishing port on the West Coast of Scotland, during the 1960s was the busiest herring port in Europe. Mallaig prided itself at that time on its famous traditionally smoked kippers, the fishmonger Andy Race still providing genuine oak smoked kippers from the factory shop on the harbour.
Mallaig and the surrounding area is a popular area for holidays. The majority of the community speaks English, with a minority of residents speaking both English and Gaelic. In addition, traditional Gaelic is still taught in the school to pupils who choose to learn the language. Mallaig has extensive distance learning facilities, allowing the local population access to all forms of education from leisure classes to university degrees through Lochaber College and the UHI Millennium Institute; the College is one of the most successful of its kind in Britain, with over 8% of the local population accessing its facilities. The college has published a PDF version of the 19th century Royal Commission of Inquiry into the Condition of Crofters and Cottars in the Highlands and Islands report; the Learning Centre has opened a marine-specific vocational centre and is at the forefront of developing Marine Certification courses for fishermen, as well as being a RYA certified centre. Mallaig has its own primary school, which accepted the Gaelic medium schoolchildren from Lady Lovat Primary School in the nearby village of Morar, to allow that school to focus more on their English medium students.
Mallaig has its own High School, opened in 1989 which caters for Mallaig, the villages of Morar and Arisaig, along with the nearby Small Isles of Eigg, Rùm, Muck and Canna and the nearby Knoydart peninsula. The school has increasing numbers of pupils from the Small Isles, as daily travel from home to school is impossible, these pupils are boarded in the school's hostel. Mallaig has several restaurants and takeaways along with a community-run swimming pool and leisure centre; the main focus is on the tourist trade during the summer, however some facilities are open all year round, including the swimming pool. Mallaig has lots of self-catering accommodation and several guest houses. There are three pubs; the compact village centre is close to the harbour and railway station, with residential areas beyond to the south and east of the harbour. Most of the retail premises are in the main street, or on Davies Brae, which runs south from the village centre; the swimming pool is at the high point of the village on Fank Brae.
There are two minimarkets, gift shops. An art gallery sells work by local artists. There is a small bookshop A heritage centre next to the railway station is based around old photographs of the locality, but as Mallaig has only existed during the age of photography this offers a good introduction to the history and heritage of the locality. There are Roman Catholic and Church of Scotland churches, a Fishermen's Mission facility run by the Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen. There is a small petrol station with restricted opening times near the harbour. Completed in 1901, the West Highland Line links Mallaig railway station by rail to Fort William and Glasgow; the line was voted the top rail journey in the world by readers of independent travel magazine Wanderlust in 2009, ahead of the iconic Trans-Siberian and the Cuzco to Machu Picchu line in Peru. The five-hour trip to Glasgow Queen Street railway station passes through spectacular scenery including seascapes, lochsides and moorland terrain, offers views of Loch Lomond, the Gare Loch, Rannoch Moor, Ben Nevis and Glen Shiel, Loch Eil.
The line runs along the Clyde between Helensburgh and Glasgow and offers views across the estuary. In the years prior to the First World War, following the opening of the line in 1901 there was a steady increase in the value of fish sold,exceeding £60,000 in 1914. In the summer the Jacobite steam train service from Fort William visits Mallaig. Sheil Buses operate a bus service from Mallaig to Fort William. Buses run south along the A861 to the villages of Acharacle and Strontian. Mallaig is an important ferry port with regular Caledonian MacBrayne ferry services to Armadale on the Isle of Skye, a thirty-minute sailing, they run a daily service to the Small Isles of Canna, Rùm, Eigg and Muck, although the timetable and itinerary differ from day to day. Calmac offers a non-landing ticket which allows visitors to cruise the Small Isles. In addition, a local ferry service owned by former lifeboatman Bruce Watt sails daily to Inverie in Knoydart, a remote village, calls by prior arrangement at Tarbet in Morar, a location, only accessible by sea.
This service offers a non-landing cruise through scenic Loch Nevis
LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0
The London Midland and Scottish Railway Class 5 4-6-0 universally known as the Black Five, is a class of steam locomotive. It was introduced by William Stanier in 1934 and 842 were built between and 1951. Members of the class survived to the last day of steam on British Railways in 1968, eighteen are preserved; the Black Fives were a mixed traffic locomotive, a "do-anything go-anywhere" type, designed by Stanier, with the GWR. In his early LMS days, he designed his Stanier Mogul 2-6-0 in which he experimented with the GWR school of thought on locomotive design. A number of details in this design he would never use again realising the superiority of details not used on the GWR. Stanier realised; these were to be the LMS version of the GWR Halls but not a copy, as the Hall was too wide to run most places in Britain. They shared similar cylinder arrangement, internal boiler design and size and 6 foot driving wheel diameters. In their early days the locomotives were known as the "Black Staniers" from their black livery, in contrast to Stanier's other class of 4-6-0, the LMS Stanier Jubilee Class, which were painted crimson.
On, the nickname of the former became "Black Five", the number referring to the power classification. This was 5P5F, but from 1940 was shown on cabsides as the simple figure 5. Eight hundred and forty-two were constructed. There were a number of detail variations in the locomotives and they did not all remain in the same condition as built; some locomotives built under British Railways administration were used as test beds for various design modifications with a view to incorporating the successful modifications in the Standard Classes of locomotives built from 1951 onwards. These modifications included outside Caprotti valve gear, roller bearings on the coupled and tender axles in varying combinations, an experimental steel firebox. Other locomotives had modified draughting to "self clean" the smokebox. Numbering started from 5000, with the first twenty being ordered from Crewe Works in April 1934, a further fifty ordered from the Vulcan Foundry in 1933; the first of the Vulcan Foundry engines entered service in 1934, the entire order of 50 was delivered before the first Crewe-built engine, no.
5000, was completed in February 1935. The first 57 locomotives were built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and a low degree of superheat, the boilers of the remaining 13 were provided with a three-row version having greater total surface area and giving less obstruction to gas flow; the original 57 boilers were converted to higher superheat and fitted with a dome. Further orders were placed with Crewe, Vulcan Foundry and Armstrong Whitworth for a total of 155 locomotives which were built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and 21 element superheaters. All these boilers, including the early converted ones with a dome, were fitted indiscriminately to any of the first 225 engines, which could appear at various times with domed or domeless boilers. However, many of the early frames were converted to accept sloping throatplate boilers, as listed below; this modification was carried out to provide a stock of spare boilers for the early engines, which would minimise the time spent in works by engines awaiting a fresh boiler.
All locomotives from no. 5225 were fitted. All extra boilers made had the sloping throatplate arrangement, only one example of a engine having been fitted with a straight throatplate boiler is known - no. 45433. Several different patterns of boiler were used on the locomotives; the throatplate design was the most significant, but there were different numbers of superheater flues, firegrate arrangement, stay material and water feed arrangements, washout plug placement, etc. in various combinations. The following locomotives were built with straight throatplate boilers, but were fitted with a sloping throatplate boiler. Conversion was done by relocating the frame stretcher in front of the firebox; some of them reverted to straight throatplate at a date, these are shown where known. Those marked with an asterisk were fitted with a boiler which had the top feed on the front ring on the date shown. In the case of no. 45087 it had been converted. The first conversion was carried out on no. 5022, the last known was on no.
45163, preserved. 5002, 45007, 45008, 45011, 5020, 5022 reverted, 5023 reverted, 5026 reverted, 5027, 5040, 5045, 5047, 45049 reverted, 5054, 5057, 5058, 5059, 45066, 45082, 45087, 5097, 5108, 45109, 5142, 45151, 45163, 45169, 45197 + The subsequent history of 45011 is not clear. Official records have not been relocated. There is a photograph in existence dated April 1963, showing 45011 ex-works with a straight throatplate boiler and simple top feed, i.e. without the dome-like shape. NB: The official records were not always updated after around 1960/61, although some were. For example, in the case of no. 45082, it was fitted with a brand new boiler at the end of 1956, one of the last batch of four boilers that were manufactured for this class. Since it
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-6-0 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels on one axle in a leading truck, six powered and coupled driving wheels on three axles and no trailing wheels. This arrangement is called a Mogul. In the United States of America and Europe, the 2-6-0 wheel arrangement was principally used on tender locomotives; this type of locomotive was built in the United States from the early 1860s to the 1920s. Although examples were built as early as 1852–53 by two Philadelphia manufacturers, Baldwin Locomotive Works and Norris Locomotive Works, these first examples had their leading axles mounted directly and rigidly on the frame of the locomotive rather than on a separate truck or bogie. On these early 2-6-0 locomotives, the leading axle was used to distribute the weight of the locomotive over a larger number of wheels, it was therefore an 0-8-0 with an unpowered leading axle and the leading wheels did not serve the same purpose as, for example, the leading trucks of the 4-4-0 American or 4-6-0 Ten-Wheeler types which, at the time, had been in use for at least a decade.
The first American 2-6-0 with a rigidly mounted leading axle was the Pawnee, built for heavy freight service on the Philadelphia and Reading Rail Road. In total, about thirty locomotives of this type were built for various American railroads. While they were successful in slow, heavy freight service, the railroads that used these first 2-6-0 locomotives didn't see any great advantages in them over the 0-6-0 or 0-8-0 designs of the time; the railroads noted their increased pulling power, but found that their rather rigid suspension made them more prone to derailments than the 4-4-0 locomotives of the day. Many railroad mechanics attributed these derailments to having too little weight on the leading truck; the first true 2-6-0s were built in the early 1860s, the first few being built in 1860 for the Louisville and Nashville Railroad. The new design required the utilisation of a single-axle swivelling truck; such a truck was first patented in the United Kingdom by Levi Bissell in May 1857. In 1864, William S. Hudson the superintendent of Rogers Locomotive and Machine Works, patented an equalized leading truck, able to move independently of the driving axles.
This equalized suspension worked much better over the uneven tracks of the day. The first locomotive built with such a leading truck was completed in 1865 for the New Jersey Railroad and Transportation Company as their number 39, it is that the locomotive class name derives from a locomotive named Mogul, built by Taunton Locomotive Manufacturing Company in 1866 for the Central Railroad of New Jersey. However, it has been suggested that, in England, it derived from the engine of that name built by Neilson and Company for the Great Eastern Railway in 1879. Beyer and Company provided large numbers of standard design 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge Mogul locomotives to several Australian Railways. Users of the Mogul type include the South Australian Railways with its Y Class, the Tasmanian Government Railways with its C Class, the Western Australian Government Railways with its G Class and numerous private users. Twenty 2-6-0 locomotives were built by Les Ateliers de Tubize locomotive works in Belgium for the 1,000 mm metre gauge CF du Congo Superieur aux Grands Lacs Africains between 1913 and 1924.
The first eight, numbered 27 to 34, were built in 1913, followed by six more in 1921, numbered 35 to 40. Six more of a larger version followed in 1924, numbered 41 to 46, they had 360 by 460 millimetres cylinders and 1,050 millimetres diameter driving wheels, with the smaller versions having a working order mass of 28.8 tonnes and the larger versions 33.4 tonnes. Most of the CFL was regauged to 3 ft 6 in gauge in 1955. Most of them still survived in 1973. A large number of 2-6-0 locomotives were used in Canada, where they were considered more usable in restricted spaces, being shorter than the more common 4-6-0 Ten-Wheelers; the Canadian National Railway had several. One of them, the CN no. 89, an E-10-a class locomotive built by Canadian Locomotive Company in 1910, has been owned and operated since 1972 by the Strasburg Rail Road in Pennsylvania in the USA, in conjunction with the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania. A good preserved the White Pass and Yukon Railroad no. 51, can be found at the MacBride Museum of Yukon History in Yukon.
Finland’s 2-6-0 locomotives were the Classes Sk1, Sk2, Sk3, Sk4, Sk5 and Sk6. Finnish Steam Locomotive Class Sk1s were built from 1885 by Machine Works, they carried numbers 117 to 131, 134 to 149, 152 to 172 and 183 to 190. These locomotives were nicknamed Little Brown. Class Sk2 locomotives were numbered 196 to 213, 314 to 321 and 360 to 372, they were built by Tampella. No. 315 is preserved at Tampere in Tampella. Finnish Steam Locomotive Class Sk3s were built from 1903 by Tammerfors Jern Manufakt. A. B, they were numbered 173 to 177, 191 to 195, 214 to 221, 334 to 359, 373 to 406 and 427 to 436. These locomotives were nicknamed Grandmothers; the Staatsspoorwegen in Indonesia operated 83 2-6-0 tank locomotives of the C12 series, built by Sächsische Maschinenfabrik of Chemnitz, Germany in 1896. They were wood-burning locomotives which consumed two cubic meters of wood and 3,500 litres of water for 4½ hours of steam production. Of these locomotives, 43 survived the invasion by Japan during the Second World War and were still being operated following independence from the