Lord's Resistance Army
The Lord's Resistance Army known as the Lord's Resistance Movement, is a rebel group and heterodox Christian group which operates in northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Known as the United Holy Salvation Army and Uganda Christian Army/Movement, its stated goals include establishment of multi-party democracy, ruling Uganda according to the Ten Commandments, Acholi nationalism, though in practice "the LRA is not motivated by any identifiable political agenda, its military strategy and tactics reflect this", it appears to function as a personality cult of its leader Joseph Kony, a self-declared prophet whose leadership has earned him the nickname "Africa's David Koresh". The LRA was listed as a terrorist group by the United States, though it has since been removed from the list of designated active terrorist groups, it has been accused of widespread human rights violations, including murder, mutilation, child-sex slavery, forcing children to participate in hostilities.
Bantu-speaking agriculturists such as the Baganda people in Uganda's south and east developed different and competing social and economic structures from the Nilotic language speaking Acholi in the north, whose economic system was centred around hunting and livestock herding. The ethnic and cultural divisions within Uganda continued to exist during the years of the British Uganda Protectorate, created in 1894. While the agricultural Baganda people worked with the British, the Acholi and other northern ethnic groups supplied much of the national manual labour, came to comprise a majority of the military; the southern region became the centre for commercial trade development. The livestock-raising Acholi from the north of Uganda were resented for dominating the army and policing. Following the country's independence in 1962, Uganda's ethnic groups continued to compete with each other within the bounds of Uganda's new political system. In 1986, the armed rebellion waged by Yoweri Museveni's National Resistance Army won the Ugandan Bush War and achieved control of the country.
The victors sought vengeance against ethnic groups in the North of Uganda. Their activities included Operation Simsim, which engaged in burning and killings of locals; such acts of violence led to the formation of rebel groups from the ranks of the previous Ugandan army, UNLA. Many of those groups made peace with Museveni. However, the southern-dominated army did not stop attacking civilians in the north of the country. Therefore, by late 1987 to early 1988, a civilian resistance movement led by Alice Lakwena was formed. Lakwena did not pick up arms against the central government, she believed. Lakwena portrayed herself as a prophet who received messages from the Holy Spirit, expressed the belief that the Acholi could defeat the Museveni government, she preached that her followers should cover their bodies with shea nut oil as protection from bullets, never take cover or retreat in battle, never kill snakes or bees. Joseph Kony would preach a similar superstition, encouraging soldiers to use oil to draw a cross on their chest as a protection from bullets.
During a interview, Alice Lakwena distanced herself from Kony, claiming that the spirit does not want soldiers to kill civilians or prisoners of war. Kony sought to align himself with Lakwena and in turn garner support from her constituents going so far as to claim they were cousins. Meanwhile, Kony gained a reputation as having been possessed by spirits and became a spiritual figure or a medium, he and a small group of followers first moved beyond his home village of Odek on 1 April 1987. A few days he met a group of former Uganda National Liberation Front soldiers from the Black Battalion whom he managed to recruit, they launched a raid on the city of Gulu. By August 1987, Lakwena's Holy Spirit Mobile Force scored several victories on the battlefield and began a march towards the capital Kampala. In 1988, after the Holy Spirit Movement was decisively defeated in the Jinja District and Lakwena fled to Kenya, Kony seized this opportunity to recruit the Holy Spirit remnants; the LRA carried out local attacks to underline the inability of the government to protect the population.
The fact that most National Resistance Army government forces, in particular former members of the Federal Democratic Movement, were known for their lack of discipline and brutal actions meant that the civilian population were accused of supporting the rebel LRA. In March 1991, the Ugandan government's NRA started Operation North, which combined efforts to destroy the LRA, while cutting away its roots of support among the population through heavy-handed tactics; as part of Operation North, the army created the "Arrow Groups", village guards armed with bows and arrows. The creation of the Arrow Groups angered Kony, who began to feel that he no longer had the support of the population. After the failure of Operation North, Betty Bigombe initiated the first face-to-face meeting between representatives of the rebel LRA and NRA government; the rebels asked for a general amnesty for their combatants and to "return home", but the government stance was hampered by disagreement over the credibility of the LRA negotiators and political infighting.
At a meeting in January 1994, Kony asked for six months to regroup his troops, but by early February the tone of the negotiations was growing acrimonious and the LRA broke off negotiations, accusing the government of trying to entrap them. Starting in the mid-1990s, the LRA was strengthen
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
Long-Range Aviation was the branch of the Soviet Air Forces and Russian Air Force tasked with long-range bombardment of strategic targets with nuclear weapons. During the Cold War, it was the counterpart to the Strategic Air Command of the United States Air Force; the first three Air Armies, designated Air Armies of Specific Purpose were created between 1936 and 1938. According to the predominant Deep operations doctrine the Workers-Peasant Red Army was reorganized in six echelones; the long-range aviation was the 1st echelon, 2nd echelon consisted of heavy tanks, 3rd echelon - medium and light tanks, 4th echelon - motorised infantry, 5th echelon - heavy artillery and the 6th echelon consisted of the bulk of forces - the rifle troops with integral tank support. The Airborne Troops were a separate echelon in the role of General Staff reserve force; the 1st Specific Purpose Air Army was formed on January 8, 1936 as 1st Air Army of the General Reserve Command headquartered at Monino Airfield. The initial TO&E established by the General Staff included two heavy bomber air brigades, one fast bomber air brigade and one fighter air brigade.
As Ilyushin DB-3 started entering service they formed long-range bomber squadrons. 2nd Army was created on 15 March 1937 in the Far East, headquartered in Khabarovsk. The 3rd Air Army was created on May 21, 1938 in the North Caucasus Military District, headquartered in Rostov-on-Don. On October 20, 1939 the three air armies' order of battle included: 1st Specific Purpose Army 27th Aviation Brigade at Monino 21st and the 53rd Long Range Bomber Air Regiments 13th Aviation Brigade at Migalovo 41st Fast Bomber Air Regiment and 6th Long Range Bomber Air Regiment at Ivanovo 2nd Specific Purpose Army 64th Aviation Brigade at Voronezh 7th and the 42nd Long Range Bomber Air Regiments 30th Aviation Brigade at Kursk 51st Fast Bomber Air Regiment and 45th Long Range Bomber Air Regiment at Oryol 3rd Specific Purpose Army 3rd Aviation Brigade at Rostov-on-Don 1st Heavy Bomber Air Regiment and 12th Long Range Bomber Air Regiment at Novocherkassk 7th Aviation Brigade at Zaporizhia 8th and 11th Long Range Bomber Air RegimentsOn 5 November 1940 the three Specific Purpose Air Armies were disbanded due to poor combat performance during the Winter War with Finland.
Their units were reshuffled from three air armies into five air corps, three separate air divisions and one separate air regiment into a Long-Range Bomber Aviation of the Red Army's Supreme Command. Постановлением ГКО от 5 марта 1942 г. дальнебомбардировочная авиация была преобразована в авиацию дальнего действия с непосредственным подчинением Ставке ВГК. Оn 5 March 1942 the service was once again renamed from Long-Range Bomber Aviation of the Red Army's Supreme Command to Long-Range Impact Aviation. The subordination to the Stavka was retained; the following strategic objectives were set: bomb strikes on administrative and military targets deep in the enemy's rear, disruption of enemy's transport networks, destruction of warehouses behind the line of front and for strategic operations. ADD was placed under the command of Alexander Golovanov. In addition, ADD was used to support guerrillas in the occupied territory of the USSR and Yugoslavia. Throughout its existence, the ADD was part of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command.
It only received orders from Iosef Stalin. The basis of the combat fleet were long-range Ilyushin Il-4 bombers, though Petlyakov Pe-8s and other aircraft were used. During the Battle of Stalingrad, the ADD, having taken crippling losses over the past 18 months, was restricted to flying at night; the Soviets flew 11,317 night sorties over Stalingrad and the Don bend sector between 17 July and 19 November 1942. These raids were of nuisance value only. Five long-range bomber corps were established which had in service at various times nearly 3000 aircraft, of which 1800 were combat aircraft. Heavy bombers struck the cities of Danzig, Königsberg, Kraków, Helsinki and others; the ADD took an active part in the operations in the Baltic States. On March 9, 1944 between 1500 and 2000 explosive incendiary bombs were dropped on residential areas of Tallinn. Results of two Soviet air raids: 40% of the buildings in the city destroyed, 463 dead, 649 injured and about 20,000 left without shelter. Harju Street was hard hit, along with the theater "Estonia", where a concert had just started.
From 6 to 8 March 1944 the historical part of Narva was wiped out. In the period July–December 1944, the ADD made more than 7,200 sorties, dropping about 62,000 bombs with a total weight of 7,600 tons. In December 1944 the ADD was transferred to the Red Army Air Force and converted into the 18th Air Army; the composition of 18th Air Army included: Headquarters 1st Guards Smolensk Long-Range Bomber Air Corps 2nd Guards Bryansk Long-Range Bomber Aviation Corps 3rd Guards Stalingrad Long-Range Bomber Aviation Corps 4th Guards Gomel Long-Range Bomber Aviation Corps 6th Long-Range Aviation Corps 19th Long-Range Bomber Aviation Corps Four sepa