Trenitalia c2c Limited, trading as c2c, is an English train operating company owned by Trenitalia that operates the Essex Thameside railway franchise. It manages 25 stations and its trains call at 28. C2c provides commuter services from its London terminus as Fenchurch Street & Liverpool Street to east London and parts of Essex along the London and Southend Railway, is the only operator on the line; the company began operating as LTS Rail in May 1996 under the ownership of Prism Rail, awarded the London, Tilbury & Southend railway franchise as part of the privatisation of British Rail. LTS Rail rebranded as c2c in May 2000 and Prism Rail was bought by National Express in July that year. National Express sold c2c to the Italian operator Trenitalia in February 2017; the London, Tilbury & Southend franchise was due to start in February 1996, but after the discovery of ticketing and settlement irregularities within hours of the scheduled handover with the preferred bidder, Enterprise Rail, it was re-tendered.
In May 1996, the franchise was awarded to Prism Rail by the Director of Passenger Rail Franchising for 15 years. It began operating as LTS Rail on 26 May 1996. In May 2000, the business was rebranded as c2c. In July 2000, c2c was included in the sale of Prism Rail to National Express; the franchise was due to conclude on 26 May 2011. In December 2010, the Department for Transport granted National Express an extension until 26 May 2013 to allow DfT time to conduct a review of the franchising process. In March 2013 the Secretary of State for Transport announced the franchise would again be extended until 13 September 2014. A further delay saw this extended until 8 November 2014. On 9 November 2014, National Express was awarded a new 15-year franchise, having tendered against Abellio, FirstGroup and MTR Corporation; the new franchise retains the c2c brand, albeit operated through a new legal entity, NXET Trains Limited in lieu of c2c Limited. In 2003, National Express operated nine UK rail franchises.
By February 2012, c2c was their only remaining franchise. In February 2017 National Express sold c2c to Trenitalia; the c2c name could be conceived to represent city to coast or capital to coast, reflecting the nature of the route, or commitment to customers. The c2c website stated:The name c2c doesn't mean anything specific. In a sense it can mean anything, its uniqueness reflects the vibrant character of the people we serve. C2c could stand for capital to coast. From our point of view, one of the most important things it stands for is commitment to customers. National Express referred to the c2c route as City to Coast. C2c used the slogan way2go, but used the Making travel simpler slogan used by other National Express companies. C2c operates services on the London and Southend Railway line from London Fenchurch Street to the northern Thames Gateway area of southern Essex, including Grays, Leigh-on-Sea and Southend-on-Sea; the main route from Fenchurch Street to Shoeburyness is 39.5 miles, with a fastest timetabled journey time of 58 minutes giving an average speed of 40.7 mph, although the route can be done in 47 minutes, an average speed of 50 mph.
The line has a speed limit of 75 mph, although the Class 357 Electrostar trains are capable of 100 mph. All stations on the route are managed by c2c except West Ham and Stratford, which are managed by London Underground, Liverpool Street station, managed by Network Rail; the typical off-peak service per hour consists of 8 trains arriving and departing Fenchurch Street: In the rush hour there are additional services, with a few services to/from London starting/terminating at Laindon and Leigh-on-Sea. In the morning, one peak-time service does not call at West Ham and Limehouse and one calls at West Ham, missing Limehouse. Other than this, all trains call at West Limehouse. In the evening, all trains stop at Limehouse and few miss out West Ham; this was changed in the new December 2015 timetable. On Sundays, the non-stopping service to Shoeburyness does not run. Additionally some early-morning and late-evening weekday services to/from Shoeburyness and Grays terminate at Barking via Rainham; as c2c is a London commuter railway and the typical c2c journey is between 40 and 80 minutes, c2c does not offer first-class seating.
Its Class 357s have standard high-density 3+2 seating to meet high demand at peak times, however 17 trains were converted into a "metro" style with 2+2 seating and grab handles. London Underground's District line connects with c2c indirectly at Tower Hill and directly at West Ham and Upminster. Tickets are interchangeable between the two operators. There are interchanges at Limehouse and West Ham with Docklands Light Railway and at Barking and Upminster with London Overground; some peak services do not call at West Ham due to signalling limitations. A peak timetable introduced on 11 December 2006, with the aim of improving services for the Thurrock and London Riverside sections of the Thames Gateway, was withdrawn on 8 January 2007 after a campaign by passengers as a result of delays and cancellations that affected other lines on the network. In January 2005 it was announced that an on-train television service would be tried out, one unit had television installed. In June 2006 the 360 On-Board Television service ran into financial difficulties when c2c's partner in the project, TNCI, ceased trading, the service was withdrawn.
C2c indicated. In June 2006 it was announced that portable X-ray machines and metal detectors would be randomly placed at stations and carried by officers on trains during summer 2006 to catch people
Learning and Teaching Scotland
Learning and Teaching Scotland was a non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government, formed by the merger of the Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum and the Scottish Council for Educational Technology. It was the main organisation for the development and support of the Scottish curriculum, was at the heart of developments in Scottish education until its merger with Her Majesty's Inspectorate for Education to form Education Scotland in 2011; the role of LTS was to provide advice, support and staff development to enhance the quality of learning and teaching in Scotland, combining expertise in the curriculum 3–18 with advice on the use of ICT in education. LTS worked in close partnership with the Scottish Government, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, the Scottish Qualifications Authority, the Association of Directors of Education in Scotland, the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities, education authorities and with a range of professional associations, playing a key role in the drive to improve learning and teaching.
LTS provided support for people working in the Scottish state education system—including ministers, local authorities, school managers and support staff—and was accountable to the Scottish Executive Education Department. LTS operated the LT Scotland Online Service, the successor to the National Grid for Learning in Scotland, it ran a professional development programme known as Masterclass, a range of supported online communities of practice including Heads Together. LTS managed Glow, a national intranet for schools and practitioners, offering a range of teaching and collaborative tools across the Web, in a secure and authenticated way—bringing together more than 700,000 students, 50,000 teachers, all lecturers and students in initial teacher education and many others across the country. LTS had been charged with leading the development of Scotland's'Curriculum for Excellence' programme; the purpose of the programme is to improve the learning and achievement of children and young people in Scotland.
It is about ensuring that pupils achieve on a broad front, not just in terms of examinations. LTS led the innovative Assessment is for Learning programme in Scotland. On 14 October 2010, Cabinet Secretary for Education Mike Russell announced that Learning and Teaching Scotland would be subsumed, along with Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education into a new body named the Scottish Education Quality and Improvement Agency; this was renamed to Education Scotland
London, Tilbury and Southend Railway
The London and Southend Railway known as Essex Thameside, is a commuter railway line on the British railway system which connects Fenchurch Street station in central London with destinations in east London and Essex, including Barking, Basildon, Tilbury and Shoeburyness. Its main users are commuters travelling to and from London the City of London, served by Fenchurch Street, areas in east London including the Docklands financial district via London Underground and Docklands Light Railway connections at Limehouse and West Ham; the line is heavily used by leisure travellers, as it and its branches serve a number of seaside resorts, shopping areas and countryside destinations. Additionally the route provides an artery for freight traffic to and from the port of Tilbury; the railway was authorised in 1852 and the first section was opened in 1854 by the London and Southend Railway Company, a joint venture between the London and Blackwall Railway and the Eastern Counties Railway companies. The route was extended in phases and partnerships were formed with the Midland Railway and District Railway to provide through-services.
The main line runs from Fenchurch Street to Shoeburyness via Basildon over a distance of 39 miles 40 chains. A loop line between Barking and Pitsea provides an alternative route via Grays and Tilbury, there is a short branch line connecting the two via Ockendon; the line has a maximum speed limit of 75 mph, although the Class 357 electric trains which run on it are capable of a speed of 100 mph. The line forms part of Network Rail's strategic route 6, it is classified as a South East commuter line. Passenger services form the Essex Thameside franchise, operated by train operating company c2c; the construction of the London and Southend Railway line was authorised by Parliament on 17 June 1852. The first section, built by Peto and Grissell, was opened between Forest Gate Junction on the Eastern Counties Railway line and Tilbury, via Barking and Grays on 13 April 1854. Services ran from Fenchurch Street and Bishopsgate stations over existing lines to Stratford and Forest Gate Junction. Further extensions opened in late 1854 to Horndon, to Leigh-on-Sea on 1 July 1855 and to Southend on 1 March 1856.
In 1858 a more direct route from Barking to London was constructed through Bromley and East Ham, connecting with the London and Blackwall Extension Railway at Bow, the service from Bishopsgate was withdrawn. Under the management of civil engineer Arthur Lewis Stride, the line was extended from Southend to Shoeburyness in 1884. A more direct route from Barking to Pitsea via Upminster was built between 1885 and 1888, completing the current main route. A single-track branch was constructed between Romford and Grays via Upminster in 1892-93. In 1902 the Whitechapel and Bow Railway was constructed as a joint venture with the District Railway, connecting the London and Southend Railway at Bow with the District Railway at Whitechapel; the connection allowed through-running of District Railway trains from the tunnels under central London to provide local services to Upminster from 2 June 1902. When the Metropolitan and Whitechapel & Bow Railway lines were electrified, an additional pair of tracks was installed between Bow and East Ham and the service was cut back to there from 30 September 1905.
The electrified tracks were extended to Barking and that section opened on 1 April 1908. Delayed by World War I, the electric tracks were extended to Upminster and District line services started to and from there on 12 September 1932; the London Plan Working Party Report of 1949 envisaged as its Route G the LTSR electrified and diverted away from Fenchurch Street to Bank and onward through the Waterloo & City line tunnels to Waterloo and its suburban lines. Of course, the Waterloo & City tunnels would have had to be bored out to main-line size for this proposal to succeed. However, electrification went ahead from 1961 to 1962 under British Railways and direct passenger services from Bromley, Upton Park, East Ham, Becontree and Hornchurch to Fenchurch Street were withdrawn; the line was re-signalled between 1958 and 1961, starting in the Barking area in April 1958 and completed in August 1961 with the section between Purfleet and West Thurrock junction. Semaphore signals were replaced with 3- and 4-aspect searchlight signals.
In 1972 the British Railways Board proposed to construct a 1-mile freight-only spur line from the railway at Bowers Gifford between Pitsea and Benfleet to East Haven creek and thence to the proposed oil refineries on Canvey Island, to allow petroleum products to be exported from the refineries. Once the layout of the proposed refineries had been established, in early 1974 the BRB sought powers to extend the spur line a further mile from the creek to the site of the refineries through the British Railways Bill 1974; the Bill was subject to considerable opposition in parliament, furthermore a public inquiry proposed to revoke planning permission for one of the refineries. The proposal was abandoned and the BRB removed the spur line proposal from the 1974 Bill. In 1974 a station was opened to serve the new town of Basildon and in 1995 a station was built at Chafford Hundred to serve the new community there as well as Lakeside Shopping Centre. Platforms were re-established and opened at West Ham in 1999 to provide interchange with the extended Jubilee line.
The following stations were once served by the London and Southend Railway, its predecessors and successors. Electrification of the line and the connecting branches, under various system of traction current, took place in stages as follows: November 1949 Fenchurch