Linear video editing
Linear video editing is a video editing post-production process of selecting and modifying images and sound in a predetermined, ordered sequence. Regardless of whether it was captured by a video camera, tapeless camcorder, or recorded in a television studio on a video tape recorder the content must be accessed sequentially. For the most part video editing software has replaced linear editing. In the past, film editing was done in linear fashion, where film reels were cut into long strips divided by takes and scenes, glued or taped back together to create a logical sequence of film. Linear video editing is more time consuming and specialised and tedious work. Still, it is relevant today because of these reasons: The method is simple and inexpensive. Mandatory for some jobs: for example if only two sections of video clips are to be joined together in sequence it is the quickest and easiest way. If video editors learn linear editing skills it increases their knowledge as well as versatility. According to many professional editors who learn linear editing skills first they tend to become proficient all-round editors.
Until the advent of computer-based random access non-linear editing systems in the early 1990s, linear video editing was called video editing. Live television is still produced in the same manner as it was in the 1950s, although transformed by modern technical advances. Before videotape, the only way of airing the same shows again was by filming shows using a kinescope a video monitor paired with a movie camera. However, kinescopes suffered from various sorts of picture degradation, from image distortion and apparent scan lines to artifacts in contrast and loss of detail. Kinescopes had to be processed and printed in a film laboratory, making them unreliable for broadcasts delayed for different time zones; the primary motivation for the development of video tape was as a short or long-term archival medium. Only after a series of technical advances spanning decades did video tape editing become a viable production tool, up to par with film editing; the first accepted video tape in the United States was two-inch quadruplex videotape and traveled at 15 inches per second.
To gain enough head-to-tape speed, four video recording and playback heads were spun on a head wheel across most of the two-inch width of the tape. This system was known as "quad" recording; the resulting video tracks were less than a ninety-degree angle. Video was edited by visualizing the recorded track with ferrofluid and cutting it with a razor blade or guillotine cutter and splicing with video tape, in a manner similar to film editing; this was an arduous process and avoided. When it was used, the two pieces of tape to be joined were painted with a solution of fine iron filings suspended in carbon tetrachloride, a toxic and carcinogenic compound; this "developed" the magnetic tracks, making them visible when viewed through a microscope so that they could be aligned in a splicer designed for this task. The tracks had to be cut during a vertical retrace, without disturbing the odd-field/even-field ordering; the cut had to be at the same angle that the video tracks were laid down on the tape.
Since the video and audio read heads were several inches apart it was not possible to make a physical edit that would function in both video and audio. The cut was made for video and a portion of audio re-copied into the correct relationship, the same technique as for editing 16mm film with a combined magnetic audio track; the disadvantages of physically editing tapes were many. Some broadcasters decreed that edited tapes could not be reused, in an era when the high cost of the machines and tapes was balanced by the savings involved in being able to wipe and reuse the media. Others, such as the BBC, allowed reuse of spliced tape in certain circumstances as long as it conformed to strict criteria about the number of splices in a given duration a maximum of five splices for every half hour; the process required great skill, resulted in edits that would roll and each edit required several minutes to perform, although this was initially true of the electronic editing that came later. In the United States, the 1961-62 Ernie Kovacs ABC specials and Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In were the only TV shows to make extensive use of splice editing of videotape.
A system for editing Quad tape "by hand" was developed by the 1960s. It was just a means of synchronizing the playback of two machines so that the signal of the new shot could be "punched in" with a reasonable chance at success. One problem with this and early computer-controlled systems was that the audio track was prone to suffer artifacts because the video of the newly recorded shot would record into the side of the audio track. A commercial solution known as "Buzz Off" was used to minimize this effect. For more than a decade, computer-controlled Quad editing systems were the standard post-production tool for television. Quad tape involved expensive hardware, time-consuming setup long rollback times for each edit and showed misalignment as disagreeable "banding" in the video. However, it should be mentioned that Quad tape has a better bandwidth than any smaller-format analogue tape, properly handled could produce a picture indistinguishable from that of a live camera; when helical scan video recorders became the standard it was no longer possible
A jump cut is a cut in film editing in which two sequential shots of the same subject are taken from camera positions that vary only if at all. This type of edit gives the effect of jumping forwards in time, it is a manipulation of temporal space using the duration of a single shot, fracturing the duration to move the audience ahead. This kind of cut abruptly communicates the passing of time as opposed to the more seamless dissolve used in films predating Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless, when jump cuts were first used extensively. For this reason, jump cuts, while not seen as inherently bad, are considered a violation of classical continuity editing, which aims to give the appearance of continuous time and space in the story-world by de-emphasizing editing. Jump cuts, in contrast, draw attention to the constructed nature of the film. Continuity editing uses; the 30 degree rule advises that for consecutive shots to appear seamless, the camera position must vary at least 30 degrees from its previous position.
Some schools would call for a change in framing as well. If the camera position changes less than 30 degrees, the difference between the two shots will not be substantial enough, the viewer will experience the edit as a jump in the position of the subject, jarring, draws attention to itself. Although jump cuts can be created through the editing together of two shots filmed non-continuously, they can be created by removing a middle section of one continuously filmed shot. Jump cuts can add a sense of speed to the sequence of events. Georges Méliès is known as the father of the jump cut as a result of having discovered it accidentally, using it to simulate magical tricks. Dziga Vertof's avant-garde Russian film Man With a Movie Camera is entirely composed of jump cuts. Contemporary use of the jump cut stems from its appearance in the work of Jean-Luc Godard and other filmmakers of the French New Wave of the late 1950s and 1960s. In Godard's ground-breaking Breathless, for example, he cut together shots of Jean Seberg riding in a convertible in such a way that the discontinuity between shots is emphasized and its jarring effect deliberate.
In the screen shots to the right, the first image comes from the end of one shot and the second is the beginning of the next shot—thus emphasizing the gap in action between the two. The jump cut has been used in films like Snatch, by Guy Ritchie, Run Lola Run, by Tom Tykwer, it is used in TV editing, in documentaries produced by Discovery Channel and National Geographic Channel, for example. It is noticeable in Universal Monsters films and music videos; the jump cut has sometimes served a political use in film. It has been used as an alienating Brechtian technique that makes the audience aware of the unreality of the film experience, in order to focus the audience's attention on the political message of a film rather than the drama or emotion of the narrative—as may be observed in some segments of Sergei Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, it was used in Alexander Dovzhenko's Arsenal, where a close-up shot of a character's face cuts closer and closer a total of nine times. Mark Cousins comments that this "fragmentation captured his indecision... and confusion", adding that "Although the effect jars, the idea of visual conflict was central to Soviet montage cinema of that time".
Jump cuts are sometimes used to show a nervous searching scene, as is done in the 2009 science fiction film Moon in which the protagonist, Sam Bell, is looking for a secret room on a moon base, District 9 in which the protagonist, searches for illegal objects in the house of Christopher's friend. In television, Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In editor Arthur Schneider won an Emmy Award in 1968 for his pioneering use of the jump cut. Jump cutting remained an uncommon TV technique until shows like Homicide: Life on the Street popularized it on the small screen in the 1990s; the well-remembered music video for "Everybody Have Fun Tonight" has a jump cut for every frame. Other uses of the jump cuts include Vincent Gallo's short "Flying Christ" in which various shots of "Christ" jumping are cut together as he is in mid jump, creating the illusion of flight, in many vlogs online, as popularized by the show with zefrank. British comedian Russell Kane has produced a series of comic, satirical videos, named "Kaneings", in response to current events.
These make extensive use of jump cut-style editing. Vernacular use of the term jump cut can describe any noticeable edit in a film. However, many such over-broad usages are incorrect. In particular, a cut between two different subjects is not a true jump cut, no matter how jarring. A match cut may be abrupt, but the viewer is meant to see the similarity between two scenes with disparate subjects rather than experience the discontinuity between the two shots. A well-known example is found at the end of the "Dawn of Man" sequence in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. A primitive hominid throws it into the air; when the bone reaches its highest point, the shot cuts to that of a shaped space station in orbit above the earth. This edit has been described as a jump cut by those unfamiliar with film editing terminology, but it is properly termed a graphic match or a match cut. Jump cuts are distinguishab
A film transition is a technique used in the post-production process of film editing and video editing by which scenes or shots are combined. Most this is through a normal cut to the next shot. Most films will include selective use of other transitions to convey a tone or mood, suggest the passage of time, or separate parts of the story; these other transitions may include dissolves, L cuts, match cuts, wipes. Every film today, whether it be live-action, computer generated, or traditional hand-drawn animation is made up of hundreds of individual shots that are all placed together during editing to form the single film, viewed by the audience; the shot transition is the way. Principally a literary term denoting a rhythmical break in a line of verse. In poetry, the caesura thereby enrich accentual verse; the term first gained significance in motion-picture art through the editing experiments of Sergei Eisenstein. In applying his concept of montage as the "collision of shots", Eisenstein included caesuras – rhythmical breaks – in his films.
The acts of The Battleship Potemkin are separated by caesuras that provide a rhythmical contrast to the preceding action. The intense, frenetic action of the mutiny, for example, is followed by the lyrical journey of a dinghy to the shore; the three Burt Bacharach musical sequences in Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid provide contrasting caesuras that separate the major actions of the film. Several intense action sequences in Master and Commander, including a raging sea storm and fight scenes, are followed by caesuras – quiet, scenic interludes that are accompanied by melodic cello music; the continuity is the development and structuring of film segments and ideas so that the intended meaning is clear, the transitions employed to connect the film parts. In a more specific meaning, "continuity" refers to the matching of individual scenic elements from shot to shot so that details and actions, filmed at different times, will edit together without error; this process is referred to as "continuity editing".
To maintain continuity within sequences, the editor will cut on character action so that the scene flows together without noticeable jump-cuts. Lapses in the flow of action can be avoided by cutaways devices. Music and sound are utilized to provide a sense of continuity to a scene or sequences that may contain a variety of unmatched shots taken in different locations. For example, in Rocky, the song "Getting High" served as a continuity device during the fragmentary sequence showing Rocky in the various training preparations for his title fight; the song connected the numerous brief shots so that they appeared as a single and complete unit within the film. The most basic type of shot transition, the cut is the most common way to join two shots. In essence it is the continuation of two different shots within the same space, it is. While watching the movie, this is where one image on screen is replaced with another in the form of a camera angle change. Though simple in construction, the subject matter on each side of the cut can have far-reaching implications in a film.
Shot A abruptly ends and Shot B abruptly begins. A shot edited into a scene that presents information, not a part of the first shot; the cutaway shot is followed by a return to the original shot, is used to condense time in a scene by eliminating undesired action or to cover a loss of continuity in the action. For example, a series of shots of a woman smoking a cigarette may not match in editing because of the varied lengths of cigarette ash from shot to shot. A cutaway to a mantel clock, ticking away the time, would provide enough distraction to cover the loss of continuity. Or the cutaway of the clock could be inserted between a shot of the woman smoking a cigarette and one of the woman reading a book; the cutaway would permit the editor to advance the action in time. A shot that presents material in a scene in greater detail through a close-up shot. A cut-in isolates and emphasizes an element of the mise-en-scène for dramatic or informational value; each progressive movement through the shot sequence, from long shot to close-up, constitutes a form of cut-in.
A cut-in made from a long shot to a big close-up can have a startling effect on the viewer because of this immediate magnification. This technique is an editing method of suspense films. Related, there is the insert shot, a shot containing visual detail, inserted into a scene for informational purposes or to provide dramatic emphasis. A close-up view of printed material in a book, intercut as a character reads, is a type of informational point-of-view insert; the intercutting of a close-up view of a gun resting on a desk within a room where a violent argument is occurring constitutes a type of dramatic insert. Detail shot is another term for insert short. An editor can strategically cut to juxtapose two subjects. For instance, somebody dreaming of a beautiful field of flowers, shot A, may wake up inside a burning building, shot B; the sound would be serene and peaceful in shot A, loud and painful in shot B. This contrast between peace and chaos is intensified through the sudden transition; the dynamic cutting is an approach to film editing in which the cutting from one shot to the next is made abruptly apparent to the viewer.
In matched cutting or invisible editing, the cuts are not as obvious to the view
A point of view shot is a short film scene that shows what a character is looking at. It is established by being positioned between a shot of a character looking at something, a shot showing the character's reaction; the technique of POV is one of the foundations of film editing. A POV shot need not be the strict point-of-view of an actual single character in a film. Sometimes the point-of-view shot is taken over the shoulder of the character, who remains visible on the screen. Sometimes a POV shot is "shared", i.e. it represents the joint POV of two characters. Point-of-view, or p.o.v. Camera angles record the scene from a particular player's viewpoint; the point-of-view is an objective angle, but since it falls between the objective and subjective angle, it should be placed in a separate category and given special consideration. A point-of-view shot is as close as an objective shot can approach a subjective shot—and still remain objective; the camera is positioned at the side of a subjective player—whose viewpoint is being depicted—so that the audience is given the impression they are standing cheek-to-cheek with the off-screen player.
The viewer does not see the event through the player's eyes, as in a subjective shot in which the camera trades places with the screen player. He sees the event from the player's viewpoint, as if standing alongside him. Thus, the camera angle remains objective, since it is an unseen observer not involved in the action." —Joseph V. Mascelli, The Five C's of Cinematography Supporting narrative elements are required to indicate the shot to the viewer as a POV shot; these may include sound effects, visual effects and acting. When the leading actor is the subject of the POV it is known as the subjective viewpoint; the audience sees events through the leading actor's eyes, as if they were experiencing the events themselves. Some films are or shot using this technique, for example the 1947 film noir Lady in the Lake, shot through the subjective POV of its central character in an attempt to replicate the first-person narrative style of the Raymond Chandler novel upon which the film is based. POV footage has existed since the first cameras were mounted in early airplanes and cars, anywhere a film’s creator intended to take viewers inside the action with the psychological purpose of giving viewers a feel of "What he or she is going through", he or she being a participant in the subject matter.
Cameras were introduced into more difficult experiences. Dick Barrymore, an early action filmmaker akin to Warren Miller, experimented with film cameras and counter weights mounted to a helmet. Barrymore could ski unencumbered while capturing footage of scenery and other skiers. Though the unit was heavy relative to its manner of use, it was considered hands-free, worked. Numerous companies have developed successful POV designs, from laparoscopic video equipment used inside the body during medical procedures, to high tech film and digital cameras mounted to jets and employed during flight. On professional levels, the equipment is well defined and requires intensive training and support; however the race for hands-free POV cameras for use on a consumer level has always faced problems. The technology has had issues with usability, combining lenses with microphones with batteries with recording units. In making 1927's Napoléon, director Abel Gance wrapped a camera and much of the lens in sponge padding so that it could be punched by other actors to portray the leading character's point of view during a fist fight, part of a larger snowball fight between schoolboys including young Napoleon.
Gance wrote in the technical scenario that the camera "defends itself as if it were Bonaparte himself. It is in the fights back, it jumps down, as if it were human. A punch in the lens. Arms at the side of the camera as if the camera itself had arms. Camera K falls on the ground, gets up." In the scenario, "Camera K" refers to Gance's main photographer, Jules Kruger, who wore the camera mounted to a breastplate strapped to his chest for these shots. POV shots were used extensively by Alfred Hitchock for various narrative effects; the long running British sitcom Peep Show, is filmed in point of view shots. Enter the Void by Gaspar Noé is shot from the first-person viewpoint, although in an unusual way, since most of the movie involves an out-of-body experience. Action film Hardcore Henry consists of POV shots, presenting events from the perspective of the title character, in the style of a first-person shooter video game. Nearly the entire film Maniac, is shot from the murderer's point of view, with his face being shown only in reflections and in the third person
Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. The conductor of an orchestra keeps the orchestra synchronized or in time. Systems that operate with all parts in synchrony are said to be synchronous or in sync—and those that are not are asynchronous. Today, time synchronization can occur between systems around the world through satellite navigation signals. Time-keeping and synchronization of clocks has been a critical problem in long-distance ocean navigation. Before radio navigation and satellite-based navigation, navigators required accurate time in conjunction with astronomical observations to determine how far east or west their vessel traveled; the invention of an accurate marine chronometer revolutionized marine navigation. By the end of the 19th century, important ports provided time signals in the form of a signal gun, flag, or dropping time ball so that mariners could check their chronometers for error. Synchronization was important in the operation of 19th century railways, these being the first major means of transport fast enough for differences in local time between adjacent towns to be noticeable.
Each line handled the problem by synchronizing all its stations to headquarters as a standard railroad time. In some territories, sharing of single railroad tracks was controlled by the timetable; the need for strict timekeeping led the companies to settle on one standard, civil authorities abandoned local mean solar time in favor of that standard. In electrical engineering terms, for digital logic and data transfer, a synchronous circuit requires a clock signal. However, the use of the word "clock" in this sense is different from the typical sense of a clock as a device that keeps track of time-of-day. In a different sense, electronic systems are sometimes synchronized to make events at points far apart appear simultaneous or near-simultaneous from a certain perspective. Timekeeping technologies such as the GPS satellites and Network Time Protocol provide real-time access to a close approximation to the UTC timescale and are used for many terrestrial synchronization applications of this kind.
Synchronization is an important concept in the following fields: Computer science Cryptography Multimedia Music Neuroscience Photography Physics Synthesizers Telecommunication Synchronization of multiple interacting dynamical systems can occur when the systems are autonomous oscillators. For instance, integrate-and-fire oscillators with either two-way or one-way coupling can synchronize when the strength of the coupling is greater than the differences among the free-running natural oscillator frequencies. Poincare phase oscillators are model systems that can interact and synchronize within random or regular networks. In the case of global synchronization of phase oscillators, an abrupt transition from unsynchronized to full synchronization takes place when the coupling strength exceeds a critical threshold; this is known as the Kuramoto model phase transition. Synchronization is an emergent property that occurs in a broad range of dynamical systems, including neural signaling, the beating of the heart and the synchronization of fire-fly light waves.
Synchronization of movement is defined as similar movements between two or more people who are temporally aligned. This is different to mimicry. Muscular bonding is the idea; this sparked some of the first research into movement synchronization and its effects on human emotion. In groups, synchronization of movement has been shown to increase conformity and trust however more research on group synchronization is needed to determine its effects on the group as a whole and on individuals within a group. In dyads, groups of two people, synchronization has been demonstrated to increase affiliation, self-esteem and altruistic behaviour and increase rapport. During arguments, synchrony between the arguing pair has been noted to decrease, however it is not clear whether this is due to the change in emotion or other factors. There is evidence to show that movement synchronization requires other people to cause its beneficial effects, as the effect on affiliation does not occur when one of the dyad is synchronizing their movements to something outside the dyad.
This is known as interpersonal synchrony. There has been dispute regarding the true effect of synchrony in these studies. Research in this area detailing the positive effects of synchrony, have attributed this to synchrony alone. Indeed, the Reinforcement of Cooperation Model suggests that perception of synchrony leads to reinforcement that cooperation is occurring, which leads to the pro-social effects of synchrony. More research is required to separate the effect of intentionality from the beneficial effect of synchrony. Film synchronization of image and sound in sound film. Synchronization is important in fields such as digital telephony and digital audio where streams of sam
Shuffling is a procedure used to randomize a deck of playing cards to provide an element of chance in card games. Shuffling is followed by a cut, to help ensure that the shuffler has not manipulated the outcome. One of the easiest shuffles to accomplish. Johan Jonasson wrote, "The overhand shuffle... is the shuffling technique where you transfer the deck from, your right hand to your left hand by sliding off small packets from the top of the deck." In detail as performed, with the pack held in the left hand, most of the cards are grasped as a group from the bottom of the pack between the thumb and fingers of the right hand and lifted clear of the small group that remains in the left hand. Small packets are released from the right hand a packet at a time so that they drop on the top of the pack accumulating in the left hand; the process is repeated several times. The randomness of the whole shuffle is increased by the number of small packets in each shuffle and the number of repeat shuffles performed.
The overhand shuffle offers sufficient opportunity for sleight of hand techniques to be used to affect the ordering of cards, creating a stacked deck. The most common way that players cheat with the overhand shuffle is by having a card at the top or bottom of the pack that they require, slipping it to the bottom at the start of a shuffle, or leaving it as the last card in a shuffle and just dropping it on top. A common shuffling technique is called the riffle, or dovetail shuffle or leafing the cards, in which half of the deck is held in each hand with the thumbs inward cards are released by the thumbs so that they fall to the table interleaved. Many lift the cards up after a riffle, forming what is called a bridge which puts the cards back into place. While this method is more difficult, it is used in casinos because it minimizes the risk of exposing cards during the shuffle. There are two types of perfect riffle shuffles: if the top card moves to be second from the top it is an in shuffle, otherwise it is known as an out shuffle.
The Gilbert–Shannon–Reeds model provides a mathematical model of the random outcomes of riffling, shown experimentally to be a good fit to human shuffling and that forms the basis for a recommendation that card decks be riffled seven times in order to randomize them thoroughly. Known as the "Indian", "Kattar", "Kenchi" or "Kutti Shuffle"; the deck is held face down, with the middle finger on one long edge and the thumb on the other on the bottom half of the deck. The other hand draws off a packet from the top of the deck; this packet is allowed to drop into the palm. The maneuver is repeated over and over, with newly drawn packets dropping onto previous ones, until the deck is all in the second hand. Indian shuffle differs from stripping in that all the action is in the hand taking the cards, whereas in stripping, the action is performed by the hand with the original deck, giving the cards to the resulting pile; this is the most common shuffling technique in Asia and other parts of the world, while the overhand shuffle is used in Western countries.
Cards are dealt out into a number of piles the piles are stacked on top of each other. Though this is deterministic and does not randomize the cards at all, it ensures that cards that were next to each other are now separated; some variations on the pile shuffle attempt to make it random by dealing to the piles in a random order each circuit. Known as the Chemmy, scramble, beginner shuffle, schwirsheling, et al or washing the cards, this involves spreading the cards out face down, sliding them around and over each other with one's hands; the cards are moved into one pile so that they begin to intertwine and are arranged back into a stack. This method is useful for small children or if one is inept at shuffling cards. However, the beginner shuffle requires a large surface for spreading out the cards and takes longer than the other methods; the Mongean shuffle, or Monge's shuffle, is performed as follows: Start with the unshuffled deck in the left hand and transfer the top card to the right. Take the top card from the left hand and transfer it to the right, putting the second card at the top of the new deck, the third at the bottom, the fourth at the top, the fifth at the bottom, etc.
The result, if one started with cards numbered consecutively 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, …, 2 n, would be a deck with the cards in the following order: 2 n, 2 n − 2, 2 n − 4, …, 4, 2, 1, 3, …, 2 n − 3, 2 n − 1. For a deck of given size, the number of Mongean shuffles that it takes to return a deck to starting position, is known. Twelve perfect Mongean shuffles restore a 52-card deck. We