In baseball, the dugout is a team's bench and is located in foul territory between home plate and either first or third base. There are one for the home team and one for the visiting team. In general, the dugout is occupied by all players not prescribed to be on the field at that particular time, as well as coaches and other personnel authorized by the league; the players' equipment are stored in the dugout. In baseball, the manager, with the help of his assistants, will dictate offensive strategy from the dugout by sending hand signals to the first and third base coaches. To avoid detection, the first and third base coaches will translate those hand signals into their own set of hand signals and send them on to the batter and runners; the term dugout refers to the area being depressed below field level, as is common in professional baseball. The prevailing theory of the origin of locating the dugouts below field level is that it allowed spectators seated behind the dugouts to see the field the home plate area.
Unlike most other sports, the primary action in baseball is centered on one area – home plate – and obstructing this area from fans' view if by players on the bench, would not be popular with fans. Not all dugouts are located below the field level. At the major league level, the few dugouts that are located at the field level are in multi-purpose stadiums to simplify the conversion from baseball configuration to another sports field configuration. At such ballparks, the seating area is raised such that the dugouts do not obstruct the spectators' view. Dugouts are at field level at most amateur ballparks, where locating them below field level would be cost prohibitive or otherwise not beneficial. In these cases, the term "dugout" still applies, as does "bench." In the early days of professional baseball, the seating areas were constructed high enough that the bench was at field level. Most professional and collegiate ballparks feature dugouts that are below the field level, with concrete steps along the entire length of the dugout.
Some feature a railing along "lip", while others are open. In most Major League Baseball ballparks, as well as many minor league ballparks, the dugout is directly connected to the clubhouse by a tunnel. Most high school, Little League, recreational ballparks feature dugouts that are at the field level separated from the playing field by chain-link fencing. Historic Cardines Field, home of the Newport Gulls, uniquely features both dugouts on the first base side. MLB rule 3.17 specifies that "no one except players, managers, athletic trainers and batboys shall occupy a bench during a game." The rule stipulates that players on the disabled list are allowed in the dugout, but may not enter the field of play at any time during the game. Players and coaches who have been ejected from the game may not remain in the dugout per Rule 4.07. Unlike most other sports, where a ball or puck entering a team's bench area has passed out of bounds and is thus dead before it reaches the bench, it is possible in baseball for a dugout to be a factor in play.
MLB rule 6.05 states that a fielder may reach into a dugout to catch a fly ball as long as one or both feet is on or over the playing field, does not have a foot on the ground in the dugout when making the catch. MLB universal ground rules state that the player may subsequently enter the dugout after making the catch if his momentum is carrying him that way, but if he falls in the dugout as a result, the catch is allowed but baserunners advance in accordance with Rule 7.04. A live ball entering a dugout becomes dead and the batter-runner and any baserunners advance in accordance with Rule 7.04. However, a live ball bouncing off a dugout railing, if present, is still in play. Due to the dugouts' location in foul territory, live balls entering dugouts only occur after an errant throw by the defensive team. Individual leagues at levels below MLB are free to set their own rules governing the dugouts as is appropriate for their league's ballparks and playing level. For example, the rule governing reaching into dugouts to catch fly balls would not apply in leagues where the dugouts are separated from the field by a chain-link fence, taller than the players.
Which team occupies the dugout on the first-base side or the third-base side is purely arbitrary. The Major League Baseball Rulebook is silent on the subject. There are many anecdotal reasons. In the past, the manager served as the third base coach, so occupying the third base dugout meant less walking for the manager between innings. Contrarily, the thought is that since more close plays occur at first base than third, the first base dugout is preferred. For a pre-existing facility, the home team might choose the better clubhouse and the dugout on that side of the field. Another factor can be the sun angle during day games. In ballparks where one of the dugouts faces direct sunlight for much of the game, which can be problematic on hot summer days, the home club might choose the dugout, better shaded. In both the National League and American League, more home team dugouts are on the first-base side; the two oldest parks still in use differ on this point: the Cubs sit on the third-base side at Wrigley while the Red Sox inhabit the first-base dugout at Fenway.
Due to the ballpark's orientation, at Wrigley the third-base dugout faces away from the sun from noon onward, whereas the firs
Herbert Jefferis Pennock was an American professional baseball pitcher. He played in Major League Baseball from 1912 through 1933, he is best known for his time spent with the star-studded New York Yankee teams of the mid to late 1920s and early 1930s. Connie Mack signed Pennock to his Philadelphia Athletics in 1912. After using Pennock sparingly, questioning his competitive drive, Mack sold Pennock to the Boston Red Sox in 1915. After returning from military service in 1919, Pennock became a regular contributor for the Red Sox; the Yankees acquired Pennock from the Red Sox after the 1922 season, he served as a key member of the pitching staff as the Yankees won four World Series championships during his tenure with the team. After retiring as a player, Pennock served as a coach and farm system director for the Red Sox, as general manager of the Philadelphia Phillies. Pennock was regarded as one of the greatest left-handed pitchers in baseball history. Mack called his sale of Pennock to the Red Sox his greatest mistake.
Pennock died of a cerebral hemorrhage in 1948. Pennock was born on February 1894, in Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, his father, Theodore Pennock, mother Mary Louise Pennock were of Scotch-Irish and Quaker descent. His ancestors came to the United States with William Penn. Herb was the youngest of four children. Pennock attended Westtown School and Cedarcroft Boarding School, where he played for the baseball team. After struggling as a first baseman, with a weak offensive output and throwing arm that resulted in curved throws, his Cedarcroft coach converted Pennock into a pitcher. While pitching at Cedarcroft, Pennock threw a no-hitter to catcher Earle Mack, the son of Connie Mack, manager of the Philadelphia Athletics, in 1910. Pennock agreed to sign with the Athletics at a date. Mack signed Pennock in 1912 to play for his collegiate team based in Atlantic City. Pennock's father insisted that he sign under an alias in order to protect his collegiate eligibility. Pennock threw a no-hitter against a traveling Negro league baseball team, Mack promoted him to the Athletics.
Mack intended for Pennock to be one of the prospects who would replace star pitchers Eddie Plank, Chief Bender, Jack Coombs. Pennock made his major league debut with the Athletics during the 1912 season on May 14, allowing one hit in four innings pitched, he was the youngest person. Former major leaguer Mike Grady, a neighbor of Pennock's in Kennett Square, took Pennock under his wing, while Bender taught Pennock to throw a screwball. Pennock missed most of the 1913 season with an illness, but was able to rejoin the team late in the season. In the 1914 season, Pennock posted an 11–4 win–loss record with a 2.79 earned run average in 151 2⁄3 innings pitched for the Athletics, pitched three scoreless innings in the 1914 World Series, which the Athletics lost to the Boston Braves. Mack let Bender go after the season, naming Pennock his Opening Day starting pitcher in 1915. On Opening Day, Pennock threw a one-hit complete game shutout against the Boston Red Sox. However, as the Athletics struggled, Pennock's nonchalant playing style drew Mack's ire.
Concluding that Pennock "lacked ambition", Mack sold Pennock to the Red Sox for the waiver price of $2,500. Mack regarded this sale as his greatest mistake. With a deep pitching staff in place, the Red Sox loaned Pennock to the Providence Grays of the International League in August for the remainder of the 1915 season, he split the 1916 season between the Red Sox and the Buffalo Bisons in the International League. With Buffalo, Pennock pitched to a 1.67 ERA. Though the Red Sox won the 1915 and 1916 World Series, Pennock did not appear in either series. Pitching in minor league baseball, Pennock began to regain confidence. However, Boston manager Jack Barry used Pennock sparingly in the 1917 season, Pennock enlisted in the United States Navy in 1918. Pennock pitched for a team fielded by the Navy, defeating a team composed of members of the United States Army in an exhibition for George VI, the King of England, in Stamford Bridge. After the game, Ed Barrow, the new manager of the Red Sox, signed Pennock to a new contract after promising to use him during the 1919 season.
Pennock received only one start apiece in the months of April and May, as the 1919 Red Sox relied on George Dumont, Bill James, Bullet Joe Bush, leading Pennock to threaten to quit in late-May unless Barrow fulfilled his earlier promise to Pennock. Barrow continued to use Pennock after Memorial Day, Pennock finished the season with a 16–8 win-loss record and a 2.71 ERA in 219 innings pitched. He served as the team's ace pitcher in the 1920 season, but subsequently settled in as the Red Sox' third starter. After the 1922 Red Sox campaign, in which he went 10–17, had seven wild pitches, leading the AL, the New York Yankees began to negotiate with the Red Sox to acquire Pennock; the Yankees traded Norm McMillan, George Murray, Camp Skinner to the Red Sox for Pennock that offseason. Pennock pitched to a 19–6 win-loss record in the 1923 season, his first with the Yankees, leading the American League in winning percentage and finishing sixth in wins. Pitching in the 1923 World Series, Pennock defeated the New York Giants in game two, on October 11, to end their eight-game World Series winning streak.
He recorded a save in securing the Yankees' win in game four, pitched to the win in game six on one day of rest, clinching the Yankees' first World Series championship. Umpire Billy Evans called it "the greatest pitching performance I have see
Rogers Hornsby, Sr. nicknamed "The Rajah", was an American baseball infielder and coach who played 23 seasons in Major League Baseball. He played for the St. Louis Cardinals, New York Giants, Boston Braves, Chicago Cubs, St. Louis Browns, he was named the National League's Most Valuable Player twice, was a member of one World Series championship team. Born and raised in Winters, Hornsby played for several semi-professional and minor league teams. In 1915, he began his major league career with the St. Louis Cardinals and remained with the team for 12 seasons. During this period, Hornsby won his first MVP Award and the Cardinals won the 1926 World Series. After that season, he spent one season with the New York Giants and another with the Boston Braves before being traded to the Chicago Cubs, he played with the Cubs for four years and won his second MVP Award before the team released him in 1932. Hornsby re-signed with the Cardinals in 1933, but was released partway through the season and was picked up by the St. Louis Browns.
He remained there until his final season in 1937. From 1925 to 1937, Hornsby was intermittently his own manager. After retiring as a player, he managed the Browns in 1952 and the Cincinnati Reds from 1952 to 1953. Hornsby is regarded as one of the best hitters of all time, he had 301 home runs in his career. He won two Triple Crowns and batted.400 or more three times during his career. He is the only player to hit bat.400 in the same year. His batting average for the 1924 season was a mark that no player has matched since, he was elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1942 and the St. Louis Cardinals Hall of Fame in 2014. Hornsby married three times, in 1918, 1924, 1957, had two children. Known as someone, difficult to get along with, he was not well liked by his fellow players, he never smoked, drank, or went to the movies, but gambled on horse races during his career. Hornsby was born in Winters, the last of Ed and Mary Hornsby's six children; when Hornsby was two years old, his father died of unknown causes.
Four years the surviving Hornsbys moved to Fort Worth, Texas, so Hornsby's brothers could get jobs in the meat packing industry to support the family. Hornsby started playing baseball at a young age, he took a job with the Swift and Company meat industry plant as a messenger boy when he was 10 years old, he served as a substitute infielder on its baseball team. By the age of 15, Hornsby was playing for several semi-professional teams, he played baseball for North Side High School until 10th grade, when he dropped out to take a full-time job at Swift and Company. While he was in high school, Hornsby played on the football team, alongside future College Football Hall of Famer Bo McMillin. In 1914, Hornsby's older brother Everett, a minor league baseball player for many years, arranged for Rogers to get a tryout with the Texas League's Dallas Steers, he did not play in any games for the Steers. Following his dismissal, he signed with the Hugo Scouts of the Class D Texas–Oklahoma League as their shortstop for $75 per month.
The Scouts went out of business a third of the way through the season, Hornsby's contract was sold to the Denison Champions of the same league for $125. With both teams in 1914, Hornsby committed 45 errors in 113 games; the Denison team changed its name to the Denison Railroaders and joined the Western Association in 1915. They raised Hornsby's salary to $90 per month. Hornsby's average improved that season to.277 in 119 games. Nonetheless, his contributions helped. At the end of the season, a writer from The Sporting News said that Hornsby was one of about a dozen Western Association players to show any major league potential. Hornsby came to the attention of the St. Louis Cardinals during an exhibition series between that team and the Railroaders in spring training in 1915. Cardinals' manager Miller Huggins told his only scout, Bob Connery, to look for minor league players to fill the roster of their financially struggling team. In September, the Cardinals purchased Hornsby's contract from Denison and added him to their major league roster, although his only professional baseball experience had been in Class D. Hornsby's first game came on September 10, when he relieved Art Butler at shortstop in a 7–1 loss to the Cincinnati Reds.
Three days he started a game, he got his first hit the next day against Rube Marquard of the Brooklyn Robins. Hornsby finished the season with a.246 average in 57 at-bats while the Cardinals finished in sixth place in the National League. At only 19 years old, Hornsby was the fourth-youngest player in the NL that year; the Cardinals picked up Roy Corhan from the San Francisco Seals of the Pacific Coast League to play at shortstop in 1916, making Hornsby one of three candidates for the position. Hornsby's great performance in spring training, a shoulder injury to Corhan, poor hitting by Butler meant Hornsby was the starting shortstop on Opening Day, he had both runs batted in in the Cardinals' 2–1 victory over the Pittsburgh Pirates that day. On May 14, he hit his first major league home run against Jeff Pfeffer of Brooklyn, he rotated among infield positions before settling in at third base for much of the second half of the year. Late in the
George Herman "Babe" Ruth Jr. was an American professional baseball player whose career in Major League Baseball spanned 22 seasons, from 1914 through 1935. Nicknamed "The Bambino" and "The Sultan of Swat", he began his MLB career as a stellar left-handed pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, but achieved his greatest fame as a slugging outfielder for the New York Yankees. Ruth established many MLB batting records, including career home runs, runs batted in, bases on balls, slugging percentage, on-base plus slugging. Ruth is regarded as one of the greatest sports heroes in American culture and is considered by many to be the greatest baseball player of all time. In 1936, Ruth was elected into the Baseball Hall of Fame as one of its "first five" inaugural members. At age 7, Ruth was sent to St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, a reformatory where he learned life lessons and baseball skills from Brother Matthias Boutlier of the Xaverian Brothers, the school's disciplinarian and a capable baseball player.
In 1914, Ruth was signed to play minor-league baseball for the Baltimore Orioles but was soon sold to the Red Sox. By 1916, he had built a reputation as an outstanding pitcher who sometimes hit long home runs, a feat unusual for any player in the pre-1920 dead-ball era. Although Ruth twice won 23 games in a season as a pitcher and was a member of three World Series championship teams with the Red Sox, he wanted to play every day and was allowed to convert to an outfielder. With regular playing time, he broke the MLB single-season home run record in 1919. After that season, Red Sox owner Harry Frazee sold Ruth to the Yankees amid controversy; the trade fueled Boston's subsequent 86 year championship drought and popularized the "Curse of the Bambino" superstition. In his 15 years with the Yankees, Ruth helped the team win seven American League pennants and four World Series championships, his big swing led to escalating home run totals that not only drew fans to the ballpark and boosted the sport's popularity but helped usher in baseball's live-ball era, which evolved from a low-scoring game of strategy to a sport where the home run was a major factor.
As part of the Yankees' vaunted "Murderers' Row" lineup of 1927, Ruth hit 60 home runs, which extended his MLB single-season record by a single home run. Ruth's last season with the Yankees was 1934. During his career, Ruth led the AL in home runs during a season 12 times. Ruth's legendary power and charismatic personality made him a larger-than-life figure during the Roaring Twenties. During his career, he was the target of intense press and public attention for his baseball exploits and off-field penchants for drinking and womanizing, his reckless lifestyle was tempered by his willingness to do good by visiting children at hospitals and orphanages. After his retirement as a player, he was denied the opportunity to manage a major league club, most due to poor behavior during parts of his playing career. In his final years, Ruth made many public appearances in support of American efforts in World War II. In 1946, he died from it two years later. Ruth remains a part of American culture and in 2018, President Donald Trump posthumously awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom.
George Herman Ruth Jr. was born in 1895 at 216 Emory Street in the Pigtown section of Baltimore, Maryland. Ruth's parents and George Herman Ruth Sr. were both of German ancestry. According to the 1880 census, his parents were born in Maryland, his paternal grandparents were from Hanover. Ruth Sr. worked a series of jobs that included streetcar operator. The elder Ruth became a counterman in a family-owned combination grocery and saloon business on Frederick Street. George Ruth Jr. was born in the house of his maternal grandfather, Pius Schamberger, a German immigrant and trade unionist. Only one of young George's seven siblings, his younger sister Mamie, survived infancy. Many details of Ruth's childhood are unknown, including the date of his parents' marriage; as a child, Ruth spoke German. When young George was a toddler, the family moved to 339 South Woodyear Street, not far from the rail yards. Details are scanty about why young George was sent at the age of 7 to St. Mary's Industrial School for Boys, a reformatory and orphanage.
As an adult, Babe Ruth reminisced that as a youth he had been running the streets and attending school, as well was drinking beer when his father was not looking. Some accounts say that following a violent incident at his father's saloon, the city authorities decided that this environment was unsuitable for a small child. George, Jr. entered St. Mary's on June 13, 1902, he was spent much of the next 12 years there. Although St. Mary's boys received an education, students were expected to learn work skills and help operate the school once the boys turned 12. Ruth became a shirtmaker and was proficient as a carpenter, he would adjust his own shirt collars, rather than having a tailor do so during his well-paid baseball career. The boys, aged 5 to 21, did most work around the facility, from cooking to shoemaking, renovated St. Mary's in 1912; the food was simple, the Xaverian Brothers who ran the school insisted on strict discipline. Ruth's nickname there was "Niggerlips", as he had large facial features and was darker than most boys at the all-whi
Brooks Calbert Robinson Jr. is an American former professional baseball player. He played his entire 23-year major league career for the Baltimore Orioles, which still stands as the record for the longest career spent with a single team in major league history, he threw right-handed, though he was a natural left-hander. Nicknamed "The Human Vacuum Cleaner" or "Mr. Hoover", he is considered one of the greatest defensive third basemen in major league history, he won 16 consecutive Gold Glove Awards during his career, tied with pitcher Jim Kaat for the second-most all-time for any player at any position. Robinson was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1983. Robinson was born in Arkansas, to Brooks Calbert and Ethel Mae Robinson, his father worked for Colonial Bakery in Little Rock and became a captain with the Little Rock Fire Department. His mother worked for Sears Roebuck & Company and in the controller's office at the state capitol, his father played second base for a semi-pro team. Young Brooks Robinson Jr. delivered the Arkansas Gazette on his bicycle and operated the scoreboard and sold soft drinks at Lamar Porter Field.
After he graduated from Little Rock High School on May 27, 1955, where he was scouted for the Arkansas Razorbacks baseball program in Fayetteville, he played in South America in 1955 and in Cuba in 1957. In the offseason of 1956–1957, again in 1958, he attended two winter semesters at Little Rock University, majoring in business, he went into the army in 1959, joining the Arkansas National Guard right before he was to be drafted into the United States Army. Robinson was signed by the Orioles as an amateur free agent in 1955, he made his first appearance on September 17, 1955 at Memorial Stadium against the Washington Senators, batting 6th in the lineup. He went 2-for-4 with an RBI, singling in the 4th off Chuck Stobbs for his first hit while driving in a run on a single in the eighth inning in the 3-1 win. In 1964, Robinson had his best season offensively, hitting for a.318 batting average with 28 home runs and led the league with 118 runs batted in, winning the American League Most Valuable Player Award.
In the American League MVP voting, he received 18 of the 20 first-place votes, with Mickey Mantle finishing second. In 1966, he was voted the All-Star Game Most Valuable Player, finished second to teammate Frank Robinson in the American League Most Valuable Player Award voting, as the Orioles went on to win the 1966 World Series against the Los Angeles Dodgers. In the 1970 post-season, Robinson hit for a.583 batting average in the 1970 American League Championship Series against the Minnesota Twins. In the 1970 World Series against the Cincinnati Reds, Robinson had a.429 batting average with 2 home runs. His performance won him the World Series MVP Award presented by SPORT, as well as the Hickok Belt as top professional athlete of the year. After the 1970 World Series, Cincinnati Reds manager Sparky Anderson quipped, "I'm beginning to see Brooks in my sleep. If I dropped this paper plate, he'd pick it up on one hop and throw me out at first."In his playing career, Robinson was selected for the All-Star team in 15 consecutive years and played in four World Series.
He compiled a.267 career batting average with 2,848 hits, 268 home runs and 1357 runs batted in. Robinson led the American League in fielding percentage a record 11 times, at the time of his retirement, his.971 career fielding average was the highest for a third baseman. His totals of 2870 games played at third base, 2697 career putouts, 6205 career assists, 8902 career total chances and 618 double plays were records for third basemen at the time of his retirement. Robinson's 23 seasons with one team set a new major league record. Only Yastrzemski, Hank Aaron and Stan Musial played more games for one franchise. Robinson, a slow baserunner hit into four triple plays during his career, a major league record, he commented, "I wouldn't mind seeing someone erase my record of hitting into four triple plays." He is the first player to start two triple plays in one season, as he did in 1973. Robinson made his final batting appearance on August 5, 1977 at Anaheim Stadium, pinch hitting for Mark Belanger in the top of the eighth inning.
He lined out in his one appearance before being replaced by Kiko Garcia. Robinson made his last appearance in the majors eight days at Memorial Stadium against the Oakland Athletics, he entered as a pinch hitter for Al Bumbry. When the Orioles started their team Hall of Fame and Frank Robinson were the first two men inducted. Following his retirement as a player, Brooks began a successful career as a color commentator for the Orioles' television broadcasts. In 1982, local television WMAR's on-air news team in Baltimore, Maryland went on strike and picketed the WMAR headquarters for the two months approaching the baseball season; when Robinson refused to cross the picket line, WMAR management reopened the negotiations and the strike ended the next day. At the conclusion of his final season in 1977, his jersey number 5 was retired by the Orioles. Robinson was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1983, one of only 16 players to have been honored on the first ballot. Considered among the greatest all-time Orioles and the man considered the greatest Baltimore Colts football player, Johnny Unitas, had plaques in their honor in the lobby of Baltimore's Memorial Stadium.
When the Orioles playe
Leo Ernest Durocher, nicknamed Leo the Lip and Lippy, was an American professional baseball player and coach. He played in Major League Baseball as an infielder. Upon his retirement, he ranked fifth all-time among managers with 2,009 career victories, second only to John McGraw in National League history. Durocher still ranks tenth in career wins by a manager. A controversial and outspoken character, Durocher had a stormy career dogged by clashes with authority, the baseball commissioner and the press. Durocher was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1994. Leo Durocher was born in West Springfield, Massachusetts, on July 27, 1905, the youngest of four sons born to French Canadian parents, he was educated locally and became a prominent semi-professional athlete, with several employers competing to have him play on their company teams. After being scouted by the New York Yankees, Durocher broke into professional baseball with the Hartford Senators of the Eastern League in 1925, he was played in two games.
Durocher spent two more seasons in the minors, playing for the Atlanta Crackers of the Southern Association in 1926 and St. Paul Saints of the American Association in 1927. Durocher rejoined the Yankees in 1928. A regular player, he was nicknamed "The All-American Out" by Babe Ruth. Durocher was a favorite of Yankee manager Miller Huggins, who saw in him the seeds of a great manager — the competitiveness, the passion, the ego, the facility for remembering situations. Durocher's outspokenness did not endear him to Yankee ownership and his habit of passing bad checks to finance his expensive tastes in clothes and nightlife annoyed Yankee general manager Ed Barrow. Durocher helped the team win their second consecutive World Series title in 1928 demanded a raise and was sold to the Cincinnati Reds on February 5, 1930. Durocher spent the remainder of his professional career in the National League. After playing three seasons with the Reds, Durocher was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals in mid-1933.
Upon joining the Cardinals he was assigned uniform number 2, which he wore for the rest of his career, as player and manager. That team, whose famous nickname "Gashouse Gang" was inspired by Durocher, were a far more appropriate match for him. Durocher remained with the Cardinals through the 1937 season, captaining the team and winning the 1934 World Series before being traded to the Brooklyn Dodgers. A shortstop, Durocher played through 1945, though his last year as a regular was 1939, he was known as a solid fielder but a poor hitter. In 5,350 career at bats, he hit 24 home runs and had 567 runs batted in. Durocher was named to the NL's All-Star team three times, once with St. Louis and twice with the Dodgers. In the 1938 game in Cincinnati, Durocher hit the only Little League Home Run in All-Star Game history. In 1938, Durocher made history of a sort by making the final out in Johnny Vander Meer's second consecutive no-hitter. After the 1938 season — Durocher's first year as Brooklyn's starting shortstop — he was appointed player-manager by the Dodgers' new president and general manager, Larry MacPhail.
The two were a combustible combination. MacPhail spared no expense in purchasing and trading for useful players, such as Dolph Camilli, Billy Herman and Kirby Higbe, he purchased shortstop Pee Wee Reese from the Boston Red Sox. By the end of the 1941 season, Reese impressed Durocher enough that he gave up his spot as the regular shortstop so Reese could get a chance to play, though Durocher would make "cameo" appearances in the lineup in 1943 and 1945. Other major purchases by MacPhail included another young star, Pete Reiser, when he was ruled a free agent from the Cardinals' farm system. In his first season as player-manager, Durocher came into his own; the most enduring image of Durocher is of him standing toe-to-toe with an umpire, vehemently arguing his case until his inevitable ejection from the game. Durocher's fiery temper and willingness to scrap came to epitomize the position for which he was to become most famous; as manager he valued these same traits in his players. His philosophy was best expressed in the phrase for which he is best, albeit inaccurately, remembered: "Nice guys finish last".
Durocher once said, "Look at Mel Ott over there. He's a nice guy, he finishes second. Now look at the Brat, he can't run, can't field. He's no nice guy, but all the little son-of-a-bitch can do is win." Durocher was notorious for ordering his pitchers to hit batters. Whenever he wanted a batter hit, he would yell, "Stick it in his ear!" In 1939 the Dodgers were coming off six straight losing seasons, but Durocher led a quick turnaround. In 1941, his third season as manager, he led the Dodgers to a 100–54 record and the National League pennant, their first in 21 years. In the 1941 World Series the Dodgers lost to the Yankees in five games, they bettered their record in 1942, winning 104 games but just missing out on winning a second consecutive pennant. Despite all the success of his first three years and MacPhail had a tempestuous relationship. MacPhail was a notorious drinker, he was as hot-tempered as his manager. He
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat; the objectives of the offensive team are to hit the ball into the field of play, to run the bases—having its runners advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner advances around the bases in order and touches home plate; the team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner. The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either or during teammates' turns batting; the fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play.
Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch forth between batting and fielding. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is composed of nine innings, the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are played. Baseball has no game clock. Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games being played in England by the mid-18th century; this game was brought by immigrants to North America. By the late 19th century, baseball was recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, East Asia in Japan and South Korea. In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball teams are divided into the National League and American League, each with three divisions: East and Central; the MLB champion is determined by playoffs. The top level of play is split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League.
The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world. A baseball game is played between two teams, each composed of nine players, that take turns playing offense and defense. A pair of turns, one at bat and one in the field, by each team constitutes an inning. A game consists of nine innings. One team—customarily the visiting team—bats in the top, or first half, of every inning; the other team -- customarily the home team -- bats in second half, of every inning. The goal of the game is to score more points than the other team; the players on the team at bat attempt to score runs by circling or completing a tour of the four bases set at the corners of the square-shaped baseball diamond. A player bats at home plate and must proceed counterclockwise to first base, second base, third base, back home to score a run; the team in the field attempts to prevent runs from scoring and record outs, which remove opposing players from offensive action until their turn in their team's batting order comes up again.
When three outs are recorded, the teams switch roles for the next half-inning. If the score of the game is tied after nine innings, extra innings are played to resolve the contest. Many amateur games unorganized ones, involve different numbers of players and innings; the game is played on a field whose primary boundaries, the foul lines, extend forward from home plate at 45-degree angles. The 90-degree area within the foul lines is referred to as fair territory; the part of the field enclosed by the bases and several yards beyond them is the infield. In the middle of the infield is a raised pitcher's mound, with a rectangular rubber plate at its center; the outer boundary of the outfield is demarcated by a raised fence, which may be of any material and height. The fair territory between home plate and the outfield boundary is baseball's field of play, though significant events can take place in foul territory, as well. There are three basic tools of baseball: the ball, the bat, the glove or mitt: The baseball is about the size of an adult's fist, around 9 inches in circumference.
It wound in yarn and covered in white cowhide, with red stitching. The bat is a hitting tool, traditionally made of a solid piece of wood. Other materials are now used for nonprofessional games, it is a hard round stick, about 2.5 inches in diameter at the hitting end, tapering to a narrower handle and culminating in a knob. Bats used by adults are around 34 inches long, not longer than 42 inches; the glove or mitt is a fielding tool, made of padded leather with webbing between the fingers. As an aid in catching and holding onto the ball, it takes various shapes to meet the specific needs of differ