It describes 18 elements comprising the initial simple design of HTML. Except for the hyperlink tag, these were influenced by SGMLguid, an in-house Standard Generalized Markup Language -based documentation format at CERN. Eleven of these elements still exist in HTML 4. HTML is a markup language that web browsers use to interpret and compose text and other material into visual or audible web pages. Default characteristics for every item of HTML markup are defined in the browser, these characteristics can be altered or enhanced by the web page designer's additional use of CSS. Many of the text elements are found in the 1988 ISO technical report TR 9537 Techniques for using SGML, which in turn covers the features of early text formatting languages such as that used by the RUNOFF command developed in the early 1960s for the CTSS operating system: these formatting commands were derived from the commands used by typesetters to manually format documents. However, the SGML concept of generalized markup is based on elements rather than print effects, with the separation of structure and markup.
Berners-Lee considered HTML to be an application of SGML. It was formally defined as such by the Internet Engineering Task Force with the mid-1993 publication of the first proposal for an HTML specification, the "Hypertext Markup Language" Internet Draft by Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly, which included an SGML Document type definition to define the grammar; the draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes. Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms. After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based. Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests.
Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium. However, in 2000, HTML became an international standard. HTML 4.01 was published in late 1999, with further errata published through 2001. In 2004, development began on HTML5 in the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, which became a joint deliverable with the W3C in 2008, completed and standardized on 28 October 2014. November 24, 1995 HTML 2.0 was published as RFC 1866. Supplemental RFCs added capabilities: November 25, 1995: RFC 1867 May 1996: RFC 1942 August 1996: RFC 1980 January 1997: RFC 2070 January 14, 1997 HTML 3.2 was published as a W3C Recommendation. It was the first version developed and standardized by the W3C, as the IETF had closed its HTML Working Group on September 12, 1996. Code-named "Wilbur", HTML 3.2 dropped math formulas reconciled overlap among various proprietary extensions and adopted most of Netscape's visual markup tags.
Netscape's blink element and Microsoft's marquee element were omitted due to a mutual agreement between the two companies. A markup for mathematical formu
A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type, as opposed to a ligature, two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today synonymous with its trademark or brand. Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, including cylinder seals, trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, silver hallmarks, the development of printing technology; as the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.
Typography itself was undergoing a revolution of form and expression that expanded beyond the modest, serif typefaces used in books, to bold, ornamental typefaces used on broadsheet posters. The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. Consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were organizing. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the lithographic company, as opposed to the individual artists who performed less important jobs. Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic process—such as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, Jules Chéret of France in the 1870s—developed an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors. Playful children’s books, authoritative newspapers, conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences.
As printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts led to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. The Arts and Crafts Movement of late-19th century in response to the excesses of Victorian typography, aimed to restore an honest sense of craftsmanship to the mass-produced goods of the era. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks. By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avant-garde artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States and elsewhere; the visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism as an artistic movement formed a powerful toolset for a new generation of graphic designers whose logos embodied Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s dictum, "Less is more." Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, digital innovations.
The current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. As of 2014, many corporations, brands, services and other entities use an ideogram or an emblem or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo; as a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms in circulation are recognizable without a name. An effective logo may consist of both an ideogram and the company name to emphasize the name over the graphic, employ a unique design via the use of letters and additional graphic elements. Ideograms and symbols may be more effective than written names for logos translated into many alphabets in globalized markets. For instance, a name written in Arabic script might have little resonance in most European markets. By contrast, ideograms keep the general proprietary nature of a product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross exemplifies a well-known emblem that does not need an accompanying name; the red cross and red crescent are among the best-recognized symbols in the world.
National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and their Federation as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross include these symbols in their logos. Branding can aim to facilitate cross-language marketing. Consumers and potential consumers can identify the Coca-Cola name written in different alphabets because of the standard color and "ribbon wave" design of its logo; the text was written in Spencerian Script, a popular writing style when the Coca Cola Logo was being designed. Since a logo is the visual entity signifying an organization, logo design is an important area of graphic design. A logo is the central element of a complex identification system that must be functionally extended to all communications of an organization. Therefore, the design of logos and their incorporation in a visual identity system is one of the most difficult and important areas of graphic design. Logos fall into three classifications. Ideographs, such as Chase Bank, are abstr
Donald Ervin Knuth is an American computer scientist and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming, he contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, the Computer Modern family of typefaces; as a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures. Knuth opposes granting software patents, having expressed his opinion to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation. Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to German-Americans Ervin Henry Knuth and Louise Marie Bohning.
His father had two jobs: running a small printing company and teaching bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School. Donald, a student at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, received academic accolades there because of the ingenious ways that he thought of solving problems. For example, in eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar" could be rearranged to create. Although the judges only had 2,500 words on their list, Donald found 4,500 words, winning the contest; as prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat. In 1956, Knuth received a scholarship to the Case Institute of Technology in Ohio, he joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity. While studying physics at the Case Institute of Technology, Knuth was introduced to the IBM 650, one of the early mainframes. After reading the computer's manual, Knuth decided to rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his school, because he believed he could do it better.
In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his school's basketball team win their games. He assigned "values" to players in order to gauge their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek and CBS Evening News reported on. Knuth was one of the founding editors of the Engineering and Science Review, which won a national award as best technical magazine in 1959, he switched from physics to mathematics, in 1960 he received his bachelor of science degree being given a master of science degree by a special award of the faculty who considered his work exceptionally outstanding. In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser, he earned a PhD in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology. After receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltech's faculty as an assistant professor, he accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming language compilers. While working on this project, Knuth decided that he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of Computer Programming.
He planned to publish this as a single book. As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded that he required six volumes, seven, to cover the subject, he published the first volume in 1968. Just before publishing the first volume of The Art of Computer Programming, Knuth left Caltech to accept employment with the Institute for Defense Analyses' Communications Research Division situated on the Princeton University campus, performing mathematical research in cryptography to support the National Security Agency. Knuth left this position to join the Stanford University faculty, where he is now Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus. Knuth is a writer, as well as a computer scientist. Knuth has been called the "father of the analysis of algorithms". In the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as "a new field with no real identity, and the standard of available publications was not that high. A lot of the papers coming out were quite wrong.... So one of my motivations was to put straight a story, badly told."
By 2011, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of his series had been published. Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science 2nd ed. which originated with an expansion of the mathematical preliminaries section of Volume 1 of TAoCP, has been published. Bill Gates has praised the difficulty of the subject matter in The Art of Computer Programming, stating, "If you think you're a good programmer... You should send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing." Knuth is the author of Surreal Numbers, a mathematical novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate system of numbers. Instead of explaining the subject, the book seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the book to prepare students for doing creative research. In 1995, Knuth wrote the foreword to the book A=B by Marko Petkovšek, Herbert Wilf and Doron Zeilberger. Knuth is an occasional contributor of language puzzles to Word Ways: The Journal of Recreational Linguistics. Knuth has delved into recreational mathematics.
He contributed articles to the Journal of Recreational Mathematics beginning in the 1960s, was acknowledged as a major contributor in Joseph Madachy's Mathematics on Vacation. Knuth has appeared in a number of Numberphile and Computerphile videos on YouTube where he has discussed topics f
Loch is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet. It is cognate with the Manx lough, Cornish logh, one of the Welsh words for lake, llwch. In English English and Hiberno-English, the anglicised spelling lough is found in place names; some lochs could be called firths, estuaries, straits or bays. Sea-inlet lochs are called sea lochs or sea loughs. Many loughs are connected to stories of lake-bursts; this name for a body of water is Insular Celtic in origin and is applied to most lakes in Scotland and to many sea inlets in the west and north of Scotland. The word is Indo-European in origin. Lowland Scots orthography, like Scottish Gaelic and Irish, represents /x/ with ch, so the word was borrowed with identical spelling. English borrowed the word separately from a number of loughs in the previous Cumbric language areas of Northumbria and Cumbria. Earlier forms of English included the sound /x/ as gh. However, by the time Scotland and England joined under a single parliament, English had lost the /x/ sound.
This form was therefore used. The Scots convention of using ch remained, hence the modern Scottish English loch. In the Insular Celtic languages, the representation of, is lu in Old Welsh and llw in Middle Welsh such as in today's Welsh placenames Llanllwchaiarn, Llyn Cwm Llwch, Maesllwch; the Goidelic lo being taken into Scottish Gaelic by the gradual replacement of much Brittonic orthography with Goidelic orthography in Scotland. Many of the loughs in Northern England have previously been called "meres" such as the Black Lough in Northumberland. However, reference to the latter as loughs, rather than as lakes, inlets and so on, is unusual; some lochs in Southern Scotland have a Brythonic rather than Goidelic etymology, such as Loch Ryan where the Gaelic loch has replaced a Cumbric equivalent of Welsh llwch. The same is the case for water bodies in Northern England named with'Low' or'Lough' or otherwise it represents a borrowing of the Brythonic word into the Northumbrian dialect of Old English.
Although there is no strict size definition, a small loch is known as a lochan. The most famous Scottish loch is Loch Ness, although there are other large examples such as Loch Awe, Loch Lomond and Loch Tay. Examples of sea lochs in Scotland include Loch Long, Loch Fyne, Loch Linnhe, Loch Eriboll; some new reservoirs for hydroelectric schemes have been given names faithful to the names for natural bodies of water – for example, the Loch Sloy scheme, Lochs Laggan and Treig. Other expanses are called reservoirs, e.g. Blackwater Reservoir above Kinlochleven. Scotland has few bodies of water called lakes; the Lake of Menteith, an Anglicisation of the Scots Laich o Menteith meaning a "low-lying bit of land in Menteith", is applied to the loch there because of the similarity of the sounds of the words laich and lake. Until the 19th century the body of water was known as the Loch of Menteith; the Lake of the Hirsel, Pressmennan Lake and Lake Louise are man-made bodies of water in Scotland known as lakes.
The word "loch" is sometimes used as a shibboleth to identify natives of England, because the fricative sound is used in Scotland whereas most English people pronounce the word like "lock". As "loch" is a common Gaelic word, it is found as the root of several Manx place names; the United States naval port of Pearl Harbor, on the south coast of the main Hawaiian island of Oahu, is one of a complex of sea inlets. Several are named as lochs, including South East Loch, Merry Loch, East Loch, Middle Loch and West Loch. Loch Raven Reservoir is a reservoir in Maryland. Brenton Loch in the Falkland Islands is a sea loch, near East Falkland. In the Scottish settlement of Glengarry County in present-day Eastern Ontario, there is a lake called Loch Garry. Loch Garry was named by those who settled in the area, Clan MacDonell of Glengarry, after the well-known loch their clan is from, Loch Garry in Scotland. Lakes named Loch Broom, Big Loch, Greendale Loch, Loch Lomond can be found in Nova Scotia, along with Loch Leven in Newfoundland, Loch Leven in Saskatchewan.
List of lochs of Scotland List of loughs of Ireland List of English loughs Ria Lake-burst
Macro (computer science)
A macro in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence should be mapped to a replacement output sequence according to a defined procedure. The mapping process that instantiates a macro use into a specific sequence is known as macro expansion. A facility for writing macros may be provided as part of a software application or as a part of a programming language. In the former case, macros are used to make tasks using the application less repetitive. In the latter case, they are a tool that allows a programmer to enable code reuse or to design domain-specific languages. Macros are used to make a sequence of computing instructions available to the programmer as a single program statement, making the programming task less tedious and less error-prone. Macros allow positional or keyword parameters that dictate what the conditional assembler program generates and have been used to create entire programs or program suites according to such variables as operating system, platform or other factors.
The term derives from "macro instruction", such expansions were used in generating assembly language code. Keyboard macros and mouse macros allow short sequences of keystrokes and mouse actions to transform into other more time-consuming, sequences of keystrokes and mouse actions. In this way used or repetitive sequences of keystrokes and mouse movements can be automated. Separate programs for creating these macros are called macro recorders. During the 1980s, macro programs – SmartKey SuperKey, KeyWorks, Prokey – were popular, first as a means to automatically format screenplays for a variety of user input tasks; these programs were based on the TSR mode of operation and applied to all keyboard input, no matter in which context it occurred. They have to some extent fallen into obsolescence following the advent of mouse-driven user interface and the availability of keyboard and mouse macros in applications such as word processors and spreadsheets, making it possible to create application-sensitive keyboard macros.
Keyboard macros have in more recent times come to life as a method of exploiting the economy of massively multiplayer online role-playing games. By tirelessly performing a boring, but low risk action, a player running a macro can earn a large amount of the game's currency or resources; this effect is larger when a macro-using player operates multiple accounts or operates the accounts for a large amount of time each day. As this money is generated without human intervention, it can upset the economy of the game. For this reason, use of macros is a violation of the TOS or EULA of most MMORPGs, administrators of MMORPGs fight a continual war to identify and punish macro users. Keyboard and mouse macros that are created using an application's built-in macro features are sometimes called application macros, they are created by letting the application record the actions. An underlying macro programming language, most a scripting language, with direct access to the features of the application may exist.
The programmers' text editor, follows this idea to a conclusion. In effect, most of the editor is made of macros. Emacs was devised as a set of macros in the editing language TECO. Another programmers' text editor, Vim has full implementation of macros, it can record into a register what a person types on the keyboard and it can be replayed or edited just like VBA macros for Microsoft Office. Vim has a scripting language called Vimscript to create macros. Visual Basic for Applications is a programming language included in Microsoft Office from Office 97 through Office 2019. However, its function has evolved from and replaced the macro languages that were included in some of these applications. VBA executes when documents are opened; this makes it easy to write computer viruses in VBA known as macro viruses. In the mid-to-late 1990s, this became one of the most common types of computer virus. However, during the late 1990s and to date, Microsoft has been updating their programs. In addition, current anti-virus programs counteract such attacks.
A parameterized macro is a macro, able to insert given objects into its expansion. This gives the macro some of the power of a function; as a simple example, in the C programming language, this is a typical macro, not a parameterized macro: #define PI 3.14159 This causes the string "PI" to be replaced with "3.14159" wherever it occurs. It will always be replaced by this string, the resulting string cannot be modified in any way. An example of a parameterized macro, on the other hand, is this: #define pred What this macro expands to depends on what argument x is passed to it. Here are some possible expansions: pred → pred → pred → Parameterized macros are a useful source-level mechanism for performing in-line expansion, but in languages such as C where they use simple textual substitution, they have a number of severe disadvantages over other mechanisms for performing in-line expansion, such as inline functions; the parameterized macros used in languages such
Desktop publishing is the creation of documents using page layout skills on a personal computer for print. Desktop publishing software can generate layouts and produce typographic quality text and images comparable to traditional typography and printing; this technology allows individuals and other organizations to self-publish a wide range of printed matter. Desktop publishing is the main reference for digital typography; when used skillfully, desktop publishing allows the user to produce a wide variety of materials, from menus to magazines and books, without the expense of commercial printing. Desktop publishing combines a personal computer and WYSIWYG page layout software to create publication documents on a computer for either large scale publishing or small scale local multifunction peripheral output and distribution. Desktop publishing methods provide more control over design and typography than word processing. However, word processing software has evolved to include some, though by no means all, capabilities available only with professional printing or desktop publishing.
The same DTP skills and software used for common paper and book publishing are sometimes used to create graphics for point of sale displays, promotional items, trade show exhibits, retail package designs and outdoor signs. Although what is classified as "DTP software" is limited to print and PDF publications, DTP skills aren't limited to print; the content produced by desktop publishers may be exported and used for electronic media. The job descriptions that include "DTP", such as DTP artist require skills using software for producing e-books, web content, web pages, which may involve web design or user interface design for any graphical user interface. Desktop publishing was first developed at Xerox PARC in the 1970s. A contradictory claim states that desktop publishing began in 1983 with a program developed by James Davise at a community newspaper in Philadelphia; the program Type Processor One ran on a PC using a graphics card for a WYSIWYG display and was offered commercially by Best info in 1984.
The Macintosh computer platform was introduced by Apple with much fanfare in 1984, but at the beginning, the Mac lacked DTP capabilities. The DTP market exploded in 1985 with the introduction in January of the Apple LaserWriter printer, in July with the introduction of PageMaker software from Aldus, which became the standard software application for desktop publishing. With its advanced layout features, PageMaker relegated word processors like Microsoft Word to the mere composition and editing of purely textual documents; the term "desktop publishing" is attributed to Aldus founder Paul Brainerd, who sought a marketing catchphrase to describe the small size and relative affordability of this suite of products, in contrast to the expensive commercial phototypesetting equipment of the day. Before the advent of desktop publishing, the only option available to most people for producing typed documents was a typewriter, which offered only a handful of typefaces and one or two font sizes. Indeed, one popular desktop publishing book was entitled The Mac is not a typewriter, it had to explain how a Mac could do so much more than a typewriter.
The ability to create WYSIWYG page layouts on screen and print pages containing text and graphical elements at crisp 300 dpi resolution was revolutionary for both the typesetting industry and the personal computer industry. Early 1980s desktop publishing was a primitive affair. Users of the PageMaker-LaserWriter-Macintosh 512K system endured frequent software crashes, cramped display on the Mac's tiny 512 x 342 1-bit monochrome screen, the inability to control letter-spacing and other typographic features, discrepancies between the screen display and printed output. However, it was a revolutionary combination at the time, was received with considerable acclaim. Behind-the-scenes technologies developed by Adobe Systems set the foundation for professional desktop publishing applications; the LaserWriter and LaserWriter Plus printers included high quality, scalable Adobe PostScript fonts built into their ROM memory. The LaserWriter's PostScript capability allowed publication designers to proof files on a local printer print the same file at DTP service bureaus using optical resolution 600+ ppi PostScript printers such as those from Linotronic.
The Macintosh II was released, much more suitable for desktop publishing because of its greater expandability, support for large color multi-monitor displays, its SCSI storage interface which allowed fast high-capacity hard drives to be attached to the system. Macintosh-based systems continued to dominate the market into 1986, when the GEM-based Ventura Publisher was introduced for MS-DOS computers. PageMaker's pasteboard metaphor simulated the process of creating layouts manually, but Ventura Publisher automated the layout process through its use of tags and style sheets and automatically generated indices and other body matter; this made it suitable for other long-format documents. Desktop publishing moved into the home market in 1986 with Professional Page for the Amiga, Publishing Partner for the Atari ST, GST's Timeworks Publisher on the PC and Atari ST, Calamus for the Atari TT030. Software was published for 8-bit computers like the A