Pinus contorta, with the common names lodgepole pine and shore pine, and known as twisted pine, and contorta pine, is a common tree in western North America. It is common near the shore and in dry montane forests to the subalpine. Like all pines, it is an evergreen conifer, there are four subspecies of Pinus contorta, and one of them is sometimes considered to have two varieties. The subspecies are sometimes treated at the rank of variety, Bolanders beach pine, Bolander pine, endemic to NW California Coast, Near Threatened by fires and development Pinus contorta subsp. Contorta, Shore pine, Pacific Coast, southern Alaska to northern California. Pinus contorta subsp, contorta var. contorta, Shore pine, Pacific Coast, Northwest California through Alaska. Murrayana, Tamarack pine, or Sierra lodgepole pine, Cascade Range from Washington into Northern California, the Sierra Nevada, Lodgepole pine, Rocky Mountains, Colorado to Yukon and Saskatchewan, Aspen parkland and boreal forests. Depending on subspecies, Pinus contorta grows as a shrub or tree.
The shrub form is krummholz and is approximately 1 to 3 m high, the thin and narrow-crowned tree is 40 to 50 m high and can achieve up to 2 m in diameter at chest height. The murrayana subspecies is the tallest, the crown is rounded and the top of the tree is flattened. In dense forests, the tree has a slim, conical crown, the formation of twin trees is common in some populations in British Columbia. The elastic branches stand upright or overhang and are difficult to break, the branches are covered with short shoots that are easy to remove. The species name is contorta because of the twisted, bent pines found at coastal areas, Pinus contorta is occasionally known under several English names, black pine, scrub pine, and coast pine. Latifolia will hybridise with the closely related Jack pine, the egg-shaped growth buds are reddish-brown and between 20 and 30 mm long. They are short pointed, slightly rotated, and very resinous, spring growth starts in beginning of April and the annual growth is completed by early July.
The dark and mostly shiny needles are pointed and 4 to 8 cm long and 0.9 to 2 mm wide, the needle edge is weak to clearly serrated. The needles are in pairs on short shoots and rotated about the shoots longitudinal axes, in Alberta above 2,000 m,1 to 5 needles occur per short shoot. A population with a proportion of three-needled short shoots occurs in the Yukon. Needles live an average of four to six years, with a maximum of 13 years, the cones are 3–7 centimetres long
Shasta County, California
Shasta County, officially the County of Shasta, is a county located in the northern portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 177,223, Shasta County comprises the Redding, California Metropolitan Statistical Area. The county occupies the northern reaches of the Sacramento Valley, with portions extending into the reaches of the Cascade Range. Points of interest in Shasta County include Shasta Lake, Lassen Peak, Shasta County was one of the original counties of California, created in 1850 at the time of statehood. Parts of the territory were given to Siskiyou County in 1852. The county was named after Mount Shasta, the name Shasta is derived from the English equivalent for the name of an Indian tribe that lived in the area. The name of the tribe was spelled in various ways until the present version was used when the county was established, originally Mt. Shasta was within the county, but it is now part of Siskiyou County, to the north. Its 14, 179-foot peak is visible throughout most of Shasta County, according to the U. S.
Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 3,847 square miles, of which 3,775 square miles is land and 72 square miles is water. Mountains line the county on the east and west, the Sacramento River flows out of the mountains to the north, through the center of the county, and toward the Sacramento Valley to the south. According to Willis Linn Jepson the biota of Shasta County were not explored in a scientific manner until just before the year 1900, Shasta County has extensive forests, which cover over one half the land area with commercially productive forest systems. Common forest alliances include mixed oak woodland and mixed conifer-oak woodland as well as douglas fir forest, common trees found include White-bark pine, California Black Oak and California Buckeye. In more recent times it is a strongly Republican county in Presidential and congressional elections, the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Jimmy Carter in 1976. In the United States House of Representatives, Shasta County is in Californias 1st congressional district, in the California State Legislature, Shasta County is in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Ted Gaines, and the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle.
Interstate 5 State Route 36 State Route 44 State Route 89 State Route 151 State Route 273 State Route 299 Redding Area Bus Authority provides service in, one route operates to Burney via State Route 299. Greyhound buses and Amtrak trains both serve Redding, Redding Municipal Airport has scheduled passenger flights. Other airports within the county include Benton Field, Fall River Mills Airport, the following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense. The 2010 United States Census reported that Shasta County had a population of 177,223. The racial makeup of Shasta County was 153,726 White,1,548 African American,4,950 Native American,4,391 Asian,271 Pacific Islander,4,501 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14,878 persons
Calocedrus is a genus of coniferous trees in the cypress family Cupressaceae first described as a genus in 1873. It is native to eastern Asia and western North America, the generic name means beautiful cedar. The genus is related to the Thuja, and has similar overlapping scale-leaves, Calocedrus decurrens, California incense cedar, is native to western North America. It is a tree, typically reaching heights of 40–60 m and a trunk diameter of up to 3 m. The leaves are green on both sides of the shoots, and the cones 2–2.5 cm long. It is by far the most widely known species in the genus, Calocedrus formosana, Taiwan incense cedar, is endemic to Taiwan. It is very similar to C. macrolepis, and some treat it as a variety of that. It is a tree, growing to 25–30 m tall. The leaves are green on the upper side of the shoots. The cones are 1. 5–2 cm long, carried on a 1–1.5 cm stem, †Calocedrus huashanensis is an extinct species which was described in 2012. It is known from fossils found in the Oligocene age Ningming Formation of southern China.
Calocedrus huashanensis is known from branches and leaves and it is a medium-size tree to 25–30 m tall, and like C. formosana, is rare in the wild. The leaves and cones are similar to C. formosana, differing most obviously in the shorter cone stem, Calocedrus rupestris, the most recently discovered living species of Calocedrus, was identified in Vietnam and first described in 2004. It occurs exclusively on limestone terrain, a habitat that has a very high level of endemism. The close proximity of these populations to the Chinese and Laotian borders indicates that the species may occur in countries as well. It is an evergreen, monoecious tree up to 25 m tall with a rounded crown. †Calocedrus suleticensis is a species known from fossils found in the Early Oligocene of Probostov in the volcanic complex of the Ceske stredohori Mts. Boehmia. Calocedrus suleticensis is known from a cone, the wood of Calocedrus is soft, moderately decay-resistant, and with a strong spicy-resinous fragrance
It is the most widely distributed pine species in North America. It grows in various forms from British Columbia southward and eastward through 16 western U. S. states and has been successfully introduced in temperate regions of Europe. It was first documented into modern science in 1826 in eastern Washington near present-day Spokane, on that occasion, David Douglas misidentified it as Pinus resinosa. In 1829, Douglas concluded that he had a new pine among his specimens, in 1836, it was formally named and described by Charles Lawson, a Scottish nurseryman. It is the state tree of Montana. Pinus ponderosa is a large pine tree. The bark helps to distinguish it from other species, mature to over-mature individuals have yellow to orange-red bark in broad to very broad plates with black crevices. Younger trees have blackish-brown bark, referred to as blackjacks by early loggers, ponderosa pines five subspecies, as classified by some botanists, can be identified by their characteristically bright, green needles.
The Pacific subspecies has the longest—19.8 cm or 7.8 in—and most flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Columbia ponderosa pine has long—12. 0–20.5 cm or 4. 7–8.1 in—and relatively flexible needles in fascicles of three. The Rocky Mountains subspecies has shorter—9. 2–14.4 cm or 3. 6–5.7 in—and stout needles growing in scopulate fascicles of two or three. The southwestern subspecies has 11. 2–19.8 cm or 4. 4–7.8 in, needles are widest and fewest for the species. Sources differ on the scent of P. ponderosa, but it is more or less of turpentine, some state that it has no distinctive scent. The National Register of Big Trees lists a ponderosa pine that is 235 ft tall and 324 in in circumference, in January 2011, a Pacific ponderosa pine in the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon was measured with a laser to be 268.35 ft high. The measurement was performed by Michael Taylor and Mario Vaden, a professional arborist from Oregon, the tree was climbed on October 13,2011, by Ascending The Giants and directly measured with tape-line at 268.29 ft high.
This is the second tallest known pine after the sugar pine and this species is grown as an ornamental plant in parks and large gardens. The trees were burned and blown over. Pinus ponderosa is a dominant tree in the Kuchler plant association, like most western pines, the ponderosa generally is associated with mountainous topography
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Lassen National Forest
Lassen National Forest is a United States national forest of 1,700 square miles in northeastern California. It is named after pioneer Peter Lassen, who mined and promoted the area to emigrant parties in the 1850s, Lassen National Forest is located about 80 miles east of Red Bluff, California. It is generally bounded by Sierra Nevada mountain range to the south, the forest is in parts of Lassen, Tehama and Butte counties. Forest headquarters is located in Susanville, there are local ranger district offices in Chester, Fall River Mills, and Susanville. The forest was formed in 1905 when it was named one of the National Forest Reserves, the forest was first named the Lassen Peak Forest Reserve because of Lassen Peak, a volcano which is in the southernmost portion of the Cascade Range volcanoes. Mt. Lassen erupted with explosive force in 1915, the forest surrounds Lassen Volcanic National Park. The forest has two river systems as well as many lakes, cinder cones and lava flows. Surveys estimate the forest contains 92,000 acres of old growth, Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forests, Jeffrey Pine forests, Red Fir forests, and Lodgepole Pine forests are the most common types.
It is a source of lumber products. There are three designated wilderness areas within Lassen National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. A small portion of one extends onto land that is managed by the Bureau of Land Management, Lassen was the first eruption to be witnessed and photographed in the history of the continental United States. On Labor Day 1911, a Native American was discovered outside the slaughterhouse in Oroville, Ishi, as he came to be known, became a celebrity. He lived his remaining years at the University of Californias Anthropology Museum on Parnassus Heights in San Francisco, the university had no protocol for keeping a living museum exhibit, so Kroeber arranged for Ishis employment as assistant janitor. Ishi was Yahi, the southern-most division of the Yana and had spent the majority of his life in hiding in the rugged Deer Creek territory north of Oroville, after his discovery, he would not disclose his name. Ishi, the name given by Kroeber, was the Yahi word for man, Kroeber believed that cultural etiquette prevented Ishi from disclosing his name.
In 1908, a utility company crew surprised the band of survivors in their camp. Ishi and the three others fled, when Ishi was discovered outside the slaughterhouse, he was alone, his hair burned short in mourning. Ishi died in Berkeley in 1916 of tuberculosis, in 1984 Congress established the 41, 100-acre Ishi Wilderness in the dry, volcanic terrain, where the last band of Southern Yanas had sought refuge
Pinus lambertiana is the tallest and most massive pine tree, and has the longest cones of any conifer. The species name lambertiana was given by the British botanist David Douglas and it is native to the mountains of the Pacific coast of North America, from Oregon through California to Baja California. The sugar pine is the tallest and largest Pinus species, commonly growing to 40–60 meters tall, exceptionally to 82 m tall, with a diameter of 1. 5–2.5 m. The tallest recorded specimen is 83.45 metres tall, is located in Yosemite National Park, the second tallest recorded was Yosemite Giant, an 82.05 m tall specimen in Yosemite National Park, which died from a bark beetle attack in 2007. The tallest, living specimens today grow in southern Oregon and Yosemite National Park, one in Umpqua National Forest is 77.7 m tall and another in Siskiyou National Forest is 77.2 m tall. Yosemite National Park has the third tallest, measured to 80.5 m tall as of June 2013, the Rim Fire affected this specimen, but it survived.
Pinus lambertiana is a member of the white group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, like all members of that group. They are 6–11 cm ch) long, Sugar pine is notable for having the longest cones of any conifer, mostly 25–50 cm long, exceptionally to 66 cm long, although the cones of the Coulter pine are more massive. The seeds are 10–12 mm long, with a 2–3-centimeter long wing that aids their dispersal by wind, the seeds of the sugar pine are a type of edible pine nut. The sugar pine has been affected by the white pine blister rust. A high proportion of sugar pines has been killed by the blister rust, the rust has destroyed much of the western white pine and whitebark pine throughout their ranges. The U. S. Forest Service has a program for developing rust-resistant sugar pine, seedlings of these trees have been introduced into the wild. However, blister rust is less common in California, and Sugar, Western White. Naturalist John Muir considered sugar pine to be the king of the conifers, the common name comes from the sweet resin, which Native Americans used as a sweetener.
John Muir found it preferable to maple sugar and it is known as the great sugar pine. The scientific name was assigned by David Douglas in honor of Aylmer Bourke Lambert, in the Achomawi creation myth, the creator, makes one of the First People by intentionally dropping a sugar pine seed in a place where it can grow. One of the descendants in this ancestry is Sugarpine-Cone man, who has a son named Ahsoballache. After Ahsoballache marries the daughter of Tokis the Chipmunk-woman, his grandfather insists that the new couple have a child
Quercus kelloggii, the California black oak, known as simply black oak, or Kellogg oak, is an oak in the red oak section, native to western North America. It is a relative of the black oak found in eastern. California black oak is a tree growing in mixed evergreen forests, oak woodlands. California black oak is distributed along foothills and lower mountains of California and it is found from Lane County, south through the Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, and the Coast and Peninsular ranges to San Diego County and into Baja California. The tree occurs in pure or mixed stands, pure stands usually indicate sites unfavorable to conifer growth or recurring disturbance such as fire or logging activities. The tree can grow in many types of soils, but it is important that the soil be well-drained, Quercus kelloggii typically grows from 9–25 m in height and from 0. 3–1.4 m in diameter. Large trees may exceed 36 m in height and 1.6 m diameter, the species grows in shrubby scrub-oak form on poor sites.
In open areas the crown is broad and rounded, with lower branches nearly touching the ground or forming a browse line, in closed stands, the crown is narrow and slender in young trees and irregularly broad in old trees. Trunks are usually free of branches on the lower 6–12 m in closed stands, trunks are often forked, and usually decayed and hollow in older trees. The bark is thin and smooth in young trees, becoming thick and this oak grows from one to several vertical roots which penetrate to bedrock, with large, laterally spreading roots extending off from vertical ones. It has a number of surface roots, acorns are relatively large in this species, from 2. 5–3 cm long and 1. 5–1.8 cm wide. The deeply lobed leaves are typically 10–20 cm long, while individual trees generally have a lifespan between 100 and 200 years, California black oak can live up to 500 years of age. The tree reproduces when its acorns sprout to form seedlings and it reproduces vegetatively with new growth sprouting from the root crown after the tree is top-killed by wildfire, frost, or other events.
The California black oak, Quercus kelloggii, is a species for wildlife. Livestock make use of this species for food and cover. Cavities in the trees provide den or nest sites for owls, various woodpeckers, tree squirrels, trees provide valuable shade for livestock and wildlife during the hot summer months. California black oak forest types are used for spring, summer. It is browsed by deer and livestock
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Burney is an unincorporated town and census-designated place in Shasta County, United States. The population was 3,154 at the 2010 census, down from 3,217 at the 2000 census, Burney is located on State Route 299, about 4 miles west of its junction with State Route 89. Burney has several areas for fly fishing, with brown and native rainbow trout in many nearby rivers and streams. Other attractions in the area include McArthur-Burney Falls Memorial State Park, Burney was named after Samuel Burney, a settler in the area in the 1850s. Burney was found dead in the valley in 1857, which came to be called the valley where Burney died, the town of Burney sits at the base of an extinct volcano called Burney Mountain. The peak is 7,863 ft tall, the 2010 United States Census reported that Burney had a population of 3,154. The population density was 606.5 people per square mile, the racial makeup of Burney was 2,685 White,13 African American,233 Native American,7 Asian,2 Pacific Islander,61 from other races, and 153 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 265 persons, the Census reported that 3,035 people lived in households,119 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 were institutionalized. There were 74 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 5 same-sex married couples or partnerships,344 households were made up of individuals and 150 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40, there were 863 families, the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 42.5 years, for every 100 females there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males, there were 1,446 housing units at an average density of 278.0 per square mile, of which 797 were owner-occupied, and 465 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2. 2%, the vacancy rate was 7. 4%. 1,833 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,202 people lived in housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,217 people,1,311 households, the population density was 622.4 people per square mile.
There were 1,420 housing units at a density of 274.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 87. 97% White,0. 09% African American,6. 87% Native American,0. 65% Asian,0. 06% Pacific Islander,2. 14% from other races, and 2. 21% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5. 97% of the population,26. 2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13. 7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older
Redding, officially the City of Redding, is the county seat of Shasta County, California, in the northern part of the state. It lies along the Sacramento River, which provided transportation and power in its early years, Interstate 5 bisects the entire city, which has a population of 89,861, from the south to north before it approaches Shasta Lake, located about 15 miles north of downtown. Redding is the largest city in the Shasta Cascade region, and it is the fourth-largest city in the Sacramento Valley, behind Sacramento, Elk Grove, the site of Redding was settled by Native Americans of the Wintu tribe around the year 1000. The original county seat was Shasta, located approximately 6 miles west on 299W, Redding became the county seat after the railroad was built. Situated along the Siskiyou Trail, Redding became a stop on a trade and travel route connecting Californias Central Valley, during the early 19th century, Hudsons Bay Company trappers and numerous European-American settlers passed through the site while traveling along the Siskiyou Trail.
The first European-American settler in the area was Pierson B and he was an admirer of John Sutter. In 1844, Reading received the Rancho Buena Ventura Mexican land grant for the occupied by todays Redding and Cottonwood, California. At the time it was the northernmost nonnative settlement in California, the railroad routed the tracks through an area known as Poverty Flats, stimulating the development of the European-American town of Redding. The railroad stop was named by the Southern Pacific for railroad man Benjamin B, in 1874 town residents changed the spelling of the name to Reading, to honor local pioneer Pierson B. But the railroad did not officially recognize the change and the town restored its original spelling, Redding was incorporated on October 4,1887 with a population of 600 people. By 1910, Redding had a population of 3,572 supported by a significant mineral extraction industry, with the decline of these industries, which had produced significant amounts of pollution damaging to local agriculture, the population dropped to 2,962 in 1920.
By 1930 the population had recovered to 4,188 and boomed during the 1930s with the construction of nearby Shasta Dam, in 1892 brothers John and Charles Ruggles thought that they could make some easy money by robbing a stagecoach. On May 10,1892, the brothers robbed the Weaverville stage, later, on May 12, the brothers stopped the stage again but Charles was hit with buckshot fired by a guard riding inside the coach. On July 24,1892, a lynch mob wearing masks entered the jail, in what became known as the lynching of the Ruggles brothers, the two men were hanged together from a derrick. The city did not grow markedly until the 1950s, stimulated by postwar expansion of the industry to satisfy pent-up demand for new housing across the country. In addition, construction of the Whiskeytown and Keswick dams brought many workers to the area, completion of Interstate 5 in the late 1960s brought a higher level of traffic and added to development. By 1970, Redding had grown to 16,659 people, in the 1970s, Redding annexed the town of Enterprise, located on the eastern bank of the Sacramento River.
The city acquired other county areas, increasing the population to around 35,000, Enterprise residents voted to support the annexation primarily to acquire less expensive electricity via Reddings municipal utility, which receives power from the dam