College football national championships in NCAA Division I FBS
A national championship in the highest level of college football in the United States the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, is a designation awarded annually by various organizations to their selection of the best college football team. Division I FBS football is the only National Collegiate Athletic Association sport for which the NCAA does not sanction a yearly championship event; as such, it is sometimes unofficially referred to as a "mythical national championship". Due to the lack of an official NCAA title, determining the nation's top college football team has engendered controversy. A championship team is independently declared by multiple individuals and organizations referred to as "selectors"; these choices are not always unanimous. In 1969 the President of the United States Richard Nixon declared a national champion by announcing, ahead of the season-ending game between #1 Texas and #2 Arkansas, that the winner of that game would receive a plaque from the President himself, commemorating that team as the year's national champion.
Texas went on to win that game, 15–14. While the NCAA has never endorsed a championship team, it has documented the choices of some selectors in its official NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision Records publication. In addition, various analysts have independently published their own choices for each season; these opinions can diverge with others as well as individual schools' claims to national titles, which may or may not correlate to the selections published elsewhere. Two of the most recognized national champion selectors are the Associated Press, which conducts a poll of sportswriters, the Coaches Poll, a survey of active members of the American Football Coaches Association. Since 1992, various consortia of major bowl games have aimed to invite the top two teams at the end of the regular season to compete in what is intended to be the de facto national championship game; the current iteration of this practice, the College Football Playoff, selects four teams to participate in national semi-finals hosted by two of six partner bowl games, with their winners advancing to the College Football Playoff National Championship.
The concept of a national championship in college football dates to the early years of the sport in the late 19th century, the earliest contemporaneous polls can be traced to Caspar Whitney, Charles Patterson, The Sun in 1901. Therefore, the concept of polls and national champions predated mathematical ranking systems, but it was Frank Dickinson's math system, one of the first to be popularized, his system named 10–0 Stanford the national champion of 1926, prior to their tie with Alabama in the Rose Bowl. A curious Knute Rockne coach of Notre Dame, had Dickinson backdate two seasons, which produced Notre Dame as the 1924 national champion and Dartmouth in 1925. A number of other mathematical systems were born in the 1920s and 1930s and were the only organized methods selecting national champions until the Associated Press began polling sportswriters in 1936 to obtain rankings. Alan J. Gould, the creator of the AP Poll, named Minnesota, SMU co-champions in 1935, polled writers the following year, which resulted in a national championship for Minnesota.
The AP's main competition, United Press, created the first Coaches Poll in 1950. For that year and the next three, the AP and UP agreed on the national champion; the first "split" championship occurred in 1954, when the writers selected Ohio State and the coaches chose UCLA. The two polls disagreed in 1957, 1965, 1970, 1973, 1974, 1978, 1990, 1991, 1997, 2003; the Coaches Poll would stay with United Press when they merged with International News Service to form United Press International but was acquired by USA Today and CNN in 1991. The poll was in the hands of USA Today and ESPN from 1997 to 2005 before moving to sole ownership by USA Today. Beginning in 2014, Amway became a joint sponsor with USA Today. Though some of the math systems selected champions after the bowl games, both of the major polls released their rankings after the end of the regular season until the AP polled writers after the bowls in 1965, resulting in what was perceived at the time as a better championship selection than UPI's.
After 1965, the AP again voted before the bowls for two years, before permanently returning to a post-bowl vote in 1968. The coaches did not conduct a vote after the bowls until 1974, in the wake of awarding their 1973 championship to Alabama, who lost to the AP champion, undefeated Notre Dame, in the Sugar Bowl; the AP and Coaches polls remain the major rankings to this day. The Bowl Championship Series, famous for its use of math, was the successor of the Bowl Alliance, itself the successor of the Bowl Coalition. Besides the many adjustments it underwent during its tenure, including a large overhaul following the 2004 season that included the replacement of the AP Poll with the Harris poll, the BCS remained a mixture of math and human polls since its inception in 1998, with the goal of matching the best two teams in the nation in a national championship bowl game which rotated yearly between the Sugar, Fiesta and Orange Bowls from 1998 to 2005, a standalone game titled the BCS National Championship Game.
The winner of the BCS Championship Game was awarded the national championship of the Coaches Poll thus winning the AFCA National Championship Trophy. The BCS winner received the MacArthur Bowl from the National Football Foundation. Neither the AP Poll, nor other current selectors, had contractual obligations to select the BCS champion as th
A quarterback, colloquially known as the "signal caller", is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive line up directly behind the offensive line. In modern American football, the quarterback is considered the leader of the offensive team, is responsible for calling the play in the huddle; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, is the offensive player that always throws forward passes. In modern American football, the quarterback is the leader of the offense; the quarterback touches the ball on every offensive play, his successes and failures can have a significant impact on the fortunes of his team. Accordingly, the quarterback is among the most glorified and highest-paid positions in team sports. Prior to each play, the quarterback will tell the rest of his team which play the team will run. After the team is lined up, the center will pass the ball back to the quarterback. On a running play, the quarterback will hand or pitch the ball backwards to a halfback or fullback.
On a passing play, the quarterback is always the player responsible for trying to throw the ball downfield to an eligible receiver. Additionally, the quarterback will run with the football himself, which could be part of a designed play like the option run or quarterback sneak, or it could be an effort to avoid being sacked by the defense. Depending on the offensive scheme by his team, the quarterback's role can vary. In systems like the triple option the quarterback will only pass the ball a few times per game, if at all, while the pass-heavy spread offense as run by schools like Texas Tech requires quarterbacks to throw the ball in most plays; the passing game is emphasized in the Canadian Football League, where there are only three downs as opposed to the four downs used in American football, a larger field of play and an extra eligible receiver. Different skillsets are required of the quarterback in each system - quarterbacks that perform well in a pass-heavy spread offensive system, a popular offensive scheme in the NCAA and NFHS perform well in the National Football League, as the fundamentals of the pro-style offense used in the NFL are different from those in the spread system.
While quarterbacks in Canadian football need to be able to throw the ball and accurately. In general, quarterbacks need to have physical skills such as arm strength and quick throwing motion, in addition to intangibles such as competitiveness, leadership and downfield vision. In the NFL, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 19. In the National Collegiate Athletic Association and National Federation of State High School Associations, quarterbacks are required to wear a uniform number between 1 and 49. In the CFL, the quarterback can wear any number from 0 to 49 and 70 to 99; because of their numbering, quarterbacks are eligible receivers in the NCAA, NFHS, CFL. Compared to captains of other team sports, before the implementation of NFL team captains in 2007, the starting quarterback is the de facto team leader and well-respected player on and off the field. Since 2007, when the NFL allowed teams to designate several captains to serve as on-field leaders, the starting quarterback has been one of the team captains as the leader of the team's offense.
In the NFL, while the starting quarterback has no other responsibility or authority, he may, depending on the league or individual team, have various informal duties, such as participation in pre-game ceremonies, the coin toss, or other events outside the game. For instance the starting quarterback is the first player to be presented with the Lamar Hunt Trophy/George Halas Trophy and the Vince Lombardi Trophy; the starting quarterback of the victorious Super Bowl team is chosen for the "I'm going to Disney World!" campaign, whether they are the Super Bowl MVP or not. Dilfer was chosen though teammate Ray Lewis was the MVP of Super Bowl XXXV, due to the bad publicity from Lewis' murder trial the prior year. Being able to rely on a quarterback is vital to team morale. San Diego Chargers safety Rodney Harrison called the 1998 season a "nightmare" because of poor play by Ryan Leaf and Craig Whelihan and, from the rookie Leaf, obnoxious behavior toward teammates. Although their 1999 season replacements Jim Harbaugh and Erik Kramer were not stars, linebacker Junior Seau said "you can't imagine the security we feel as teammates knowing we have two quarterbacks who have performed in this league and know how to handle themselves as players and as leaders".
Commentators have noted the "disproportionate importance" of the quarterback, describing it as the "most glorified -- and scrutinized -- position" in team sports. It is believed that "there is no other position in sports that'dictates the terms' of a game the way quarterback does, whether that impact is positive or negative, as "Everybody feeds off of what the quarterback can and cannot do... Defensively, everybody reacts to what threats or non-threats the quarterback has. Everything else is secondary". "An argument can be made that quarterback is the most influential position in team sport
University of Utah
The University of Utah is a public research university in Salt Lake City, United States. As the state's flagship university, the university offers more than 100 undergraduate majors and more than 92 graduate degree programs; the university is classified among "R-1: Doctoral Universities – Highest Research Activity" with "selective" admissions. Graduate studies include the S. J. Quinney College of Law and the School of Medicine, Utah's first medical school; as of Fall 2015, there are 23,909 undergraduate students and 7,764 graduate students, for an enrollment total of 31,673. The university was established in 1850 as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, making it Utah's oldest institution of higher education, it received its current name in 1892, four years before Utah attained statehood, moved to its current location in 1900. The university ranks among the top 50 U. S. universities by total research expenditures with over $518 million spent in 2015.
22 Rhodes Scholars, four Nobel Prize winners, two Turing Award winners, eight MacArthur Fellows, various Pulitzer Prize winners, two astronauts, Gates Cambridge Scholars, Churchill Scholars have been affiliated with the university as students, researchers, or faculty members in its history. In addition, the university's Honors College has been reviewed among 50 leading national Honors Colleges in the U. S; the university has been ranked the 12th most ideologically diverse university in the country. The university's athletic teams, the Utes, participate in NCAA Division I athletics as a member of the Pac-12 Conference, its football team has received national attention for winning the 2005 Fiesta Bowl and the 2009 Sugar Bowl. Soon after the Mormon Pioneers arrived in the Salt Lake valley in 1847, Brigham Young began organizing a Board of Regents to establish a university; the university was established on February 28, 1850, as the University of Deseret by the General Assembly of the provisional State of Deseret, Orson Spencer was appointed as the first chancellor of the university.
Early classes were held in private homes. The university closed in 1853 due to lack of funds and lack of feeder schools. Following years of intermittent classes in the Salt Lake City Council House, the university began to be re-established in 1867 under the direction of David O. Calder, followed by John R. Park in 1869; the university moved out of the council house into the Union Academy building in 1876 and into Union Square in 1884. In 1892, the school's name was changed to the University of Utah, John R. Park began arranging to obtain land belonging to the U. S. Army's Fort Douglas on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, where the university moved permanently in 1900. Additional Fort Douglas land has been granted to the university over the years, the fort was closed on October 26, 1991. Upon his death in 1900, Dr. John R. Park bequeathed his entire fortune to the university; the university grew in the early 20th century but was involved in an academic freedom controversy in 1915 when Joseph T. Kingsbury recommended that five faculty members be dismissed after a graduation speaker made a speech critical of Utah governor William Spry.
One third of the faculty resigned in protest of these dismissals. Some felt that the dismissals were a result of the LDS Church's influence on the university, while others felt that they reflected a more general pattern of repressing religious and political expression that might be deemed offensive; the controversy was resolved when Kingsbury resigned in 1916, but university operations were again interrupted by World War I, The Great Depression and World War II. Student enrollment dropped to a low of 3,418 during the last year of World War II, but A. Ray Olpin made substantial additions to campus following the war, enrollment reached 12,000 by the time he retired in 1964. Growth continued in the following decades as the university developed into a research center for fields such as computer science and medicine. During the 2002 Winter Olympics, the university hosted the Olympic Village, a housing complex for the Olympic and Paralympic athletes, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Prior to the events, the university received a facelift that included extensive renovations to the Rice-Eccles Stadium, a light rail track leading to downtown Salt Lake City, a new student center known as the Heritage Center, an array of new student housing, what is now a 180-room campus hotel and conference center.
The University of Utah Asia Campus opened as an international branch campus in the Incheon Global Campus in Songdo, South Korea in 2014. Three other European and American universities are participating; the Asia Campus was funded by the South Korean government. Campus takes up 1,534 acres, including the Health Sciences complex, Research Park, Fort Douglas, it is located on the east bench of the Salt Lake Valley, close to the Wasatch Range and 2 miles east of downtown Salt Lake City. Most courses take place on the west side of campus, known as lower campus due to its lower elevation. Presidents Circle is a loop of buildings named after past university presidents with a courtyard in the center. Major libraries on lower campus include the J. Willard Marriott Library and the S. J. Quinney Law Library; the primary student activity center is the A. Ray Olpin University Union, campus fitness centers include the Health, Physical Education, Recreation Complex and the Nielsen Fieldhouse. Lower campus is home to most public venues, such as the Rice-Eccles Stadium, the Jon M. Huntsman Center, the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, a museum with rot
Texas Longhorns football
The Texas Longhorns football program is the intercollegiate team representing the University of Texas at Austin in the sport of American football. The Longhorns compete in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision as a member of the Big 12 Conference; the team is coached by Tom Herman since 2017, home games are played at Darrell K Royal–Texas Memorial Stadium in Austin, Texas. Beginning in 1893, the Texas Longhorns football program is one of the most regarded and historic programs of all time. From 1937 to 1946 the team was led by Hall of Fame coach Dana X. Bible, from 1957 to 1976 the team was led by Hall of Fame coach Darrell K Royal, who won three national championships; the first championship was in 1963 and the second was in 1969. In 2012, the football program was valued at $805 million, more than the calculated value of several NFL teams. In 2008, ESPN ranked Texas as the seventh-most prestigious college football program since 1936; as of the end of the 2018 season, Texas' all-time record is 908–370–33, which ranks as the second-most wins in NCAA Division I FBS history.
Texas is known for their post-season appearances, ranking second in number of bowl game appearances, fourth in bowl game victories, most Southwest Conference football championships, most Cotton Bowl Classic appearances and victories. Other NCAA records include 108 winning seasons out of 122 total seasons, 24 seasons with 10 or more wins, 9 undefeated seasons, 26 seasons with at most one loss or tie. From 1936 to 2012, the Longhorns football teams have been in the AP or coaches' rankings 66 out of 76 seasons, finishing those seasons ranked in the top twenty-five 48 times and the top ten 28 times. Texas claims 32 conference championships. A total of 129 Texas players have been named to College Football All-America Teams, while two Longhorn players, Earl Campbell and Ricky Williams, have won the Heisman Trophy, college football's most prestigious individual honor. Seventeen Longhorns have been inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, while four are enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame.
Texas has been affiliated with four conferences and twice been an independent. Independent Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association Independent Texas Intercollegiate Athletic Association Southwest Conference Big 12 Conference Texas has been selected national champion in nine seasons from NCAA-designated major selectors; the 1963, 1969, 1970, 2005 championships are claimed by the school, while the remainder are not claimed. Claimed national championships Texas has won 32 conference championships, 26 outright and six shared, spanning three conferences, the Texas Intercollegiate Athletic Association, the Southwest Conference, their current conference, the Big 12 Conference. † Co-champions Texas has won a share of 7 Big 12 South titles, 5 of which resulted in an appearance in the Big 12 Championship Game. Texas is 3–2 in those appearances; as of 2011, the new ten team Big 12 Conference ceased to have divisions and conference championship games. † Co-champions At the end of the 2018 season, Texas is tied for second in all time bowl appearances in the NCAA FBS at 55, matching Georgia and trailing Alabama's 69 appearances.
^ The 2006 Rose Bowl was both the Rose Bowl Game and the sanctioned BCS National Championship Game, after that season the BCS NCG became a separate game unaffiliated with the major bowl games. † The Bluebonnet Bowl in Houston was discontinued in 1988, but was replaced by the Houston Bowl and the Texas Bowl. ‡ The Freedom Bowl merged with the Holiday Bowl in 1995. New Year's Six bowls and Bowl Championship Series gamesTexas has played in four Bowl Championship Series games and one New Year's Six bowl. Texas played in two Bowl Alliance games: the 1995 Sugar Bowl and the 1997 Fiesta Bowl. There have been 30 head coaches since the inaugural team in 1893, with Tom Herman being the current head coach; the Longhorns have played their home games in Darrell K Royal–Texas Memorial Stadium on Joe Jamail Field since 1924. The stadium is located on the campus of The University of Texas in Texas; the current official stadium capacity is 100,119, making it the second largest football venue in the state of Texas, the largest in the Big 12 Conference, the fifth largest on-campus stadium in the NCAA, the seventh largest non-racing stadium in the world.
The stadium has been expanded several times since its original opening, now includes 100,119 permanent seats, the nation's first high definition video display in a collegiate facility nicknamed "Godzillatron," and a newly renovated Joe Jamail Field with FieldTurf. The current DKR-Texas Memorial Stadium and Big 12 attendance record was set on September 15, 2018 against USC with 103,507 spectators; the final planned phase of the stadium's expansion includes the construction of permanent seating and an upper deck in the south end zone enclosing the playing field. The stadium's seating capacity is expected to reach 112,000 once the south end zone is enclosed, which would mean DKR-Texas Memorial Stadium would surpass Michigan Stadium as the largest football stadium in North America. However, the date of the final construction phase to enclose the south end zone has not been set nor
Brigham Young University
Brigham Young University is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, United States owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System. 99 percent of the students are members of the LDS Church and one-third of its U. S. students are from Utah. The university's primary focus is on undergraduate education, but it has 68 master's and 25 doctoral degree programs. Students attending BYU agree to follow an honor code, which mandates behavior in line with LDS teachings such as academic honesty, adherence to dress and grooming standards, abstinence from extramarital sex and from the consumption of drugs and alcohol; the university curriculum includes religious education, with required courses in, the Bible, LDS scripture and history, the university sponsors weekly devotional assemblies with most speakers addressing religious topics. Many students either delay enrollment or take a hiatus from their studies to serve as LDS missionaries.
An education at BYU is less expensive than at similar private universities, since "a significant portion" of the cost of operating the university is subsidized by the church's tithing funds. BYU offers a variety of academic programs, including liberal arts, agriculture, management and mathematical sciences and law; the university is broadly organized into 11 colleges or schools at its main Provo campus, with certain colleges and divisions defining their own admission standards. The university administers two satellite campuses, one in Jerusalem and one in Salt Lake City, while its parent organization, the Church Educational System, sponsors sister schools in Hawaii and Idaho. BYU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the BYU Cougars, their college football team is an NCAA Division I Independent, while their other sports teams compete in either the West Coast Conference or Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. BYU's sports teams have won a total of fourteen national championships.
Brigham Young University's origin can be traced back to 1862 when a man named Warren Dusenberry started a Provo school in Cluff Hall, a prominent adobe building in the northeast corner of 200 East and 200 North. After some financial difficulties the school was recreated in the Kinsey and Lewis buildings on Center street in Provo, after gaining some recognition for its quality, was adopted to become the Timpanogos branch of the University of Deseret; when financial difficulty forced another closure, on October 16, 1875, Brigham Young president of the LDS Church, deeded the property to trustees to create Brigham Young Academy after earlier hinting a school would be built in Draper, Utah, in 1867. Hence, October 16, 1875, is held as BYU's founding date. Brigham Young had been envisioning for several years the concept of a church university. Said Young about his vision: "I hope to see an Academy established in Provo... at which the children of the Latter-day Saints can receive a good education unmixed with the pernicious atheistic influences that are found in so many of the higher schools of the country."
Brigham Young Academy classes commenced on January 3, 1876. Warren Dusenberry served as interim principal for several months until April 1876 when Brigham Young's choice for principal arrived—a German immigrant named Karl Maeser. Under Maeser's direction, the school educated many luminaries including future U. S. Supreme Court Justice George Sutherland and future U. S. Senator Reed Smoot; the school, did not become a university until the end of Benjamin Cluff's term at the helm of the institution. At that time, the school was still supported by members of the community and was not absorbed and sponsored by the LDS Church until July 18, 1896. A series of odd managerial decisions by Cluff led to his demotion; the suggestion received a large amount of opposition, with many members of the Board saying the school wasn't large enough to be a university, but the decision passed. One opponent to the decision, Anthon H. Lund said, "I hope their head will grow big enough for their hat."In 1903 Brigham Young Academy was dissolved, was replaced by two institutions: Brigham Young High School, Brigham Young University.
The BY High School class of 1907 was responsible for the famous giant "Y", to this day embedded on a mountain near campus. The Board elected George H. Brimhall as the new President of BYU, he had not received a high school education. He was an excellent orator and organizer. Under his tenure in 1904 the new Brigham Young University bought 17 acres of land from Provo called "Temple Hill". After some controversy among locals over BYU's purchase of this property, construction began in 1909 on the first building on the current campus, the Karl G. Maeser Memorial. Brimhall presided over the University during a brief crisis involving the theory of evolution; the religious nature of the school seemed at the time to collide with this scientific theory. Joseph F. Smith, LDS Church president, settled the question for a time by asking that evolution not be taught at the school. A few have described the school at this time as nothing more than a "religious seminary". However, many of its graduates at this time would go on to great success and become well renowned in their fields.
Franklin S. Harris was appointed the university's president in 1921, he was the first BYU president to have a doctoral degree. Harris made several
Penn State Nittany Lions football
The Penn State Nittany Lions team represents the Pennsylvania State University in college football. The Nittany Lions compete in the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision as a member of the Big Ten Conference, which they joined in 1993 after playing as an Independent from their founding through 1992. Established in 1887, the Nittany Lions have achieved numerous on-field successes, the most notable of which include two consensus national championships, four Big Ten Conference Championships, 48 appearances in college bowl games, with a postseason bowl record of 29–17–2; the team is #8 in all-time total wins, one game behind Oklahoma and Alabama. The Nittany Lions play their home games at Beaver Stadium, located on-campus in University Park, Pennsylvania. With an official seating capacity of 106,572, Beaver Stadium is the second-largest stadium in the western hemisphere, behind only Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor, Michigan; the team is coached by James Franklin. The first recorded game in Penn State football history occurred on November 12, 1881, when Penn State traveled to Lewisburg, Pennsylvania to play Bucknell, known until 1886 as the University of Lewisburg.
Penn State won 9–0, nine goals to none. At the time, this was a game of "American rugby." The father of American football, Walter Camp, did not develop the "scrimmage", the "first down" and the "gridiron" until 1882. Although this game was reported in two State College newspapers and the Mirror, Bucknell denies that this game happened. Penn State did not field teams from 1882 through 1886. Penn State played its first season in 1887, but had no head coach for their first five years, from 1887–1891; the teams played its home games on the Old Main lawn on campus in Pennsylvania. They compiled a 12–8–1 record in these seasons, playing as an independent from 1887–1890. In 1891, the Pennsylvania Intercollegiate Football Association was formed, it consisted of Bucknell, Franklin & Marshall, Penn State and Swarthmore. Lafayette and Lehigh were excluded. Penn State won the championship with a 4–1–0 record. Bucknell's record was 3–1–1; the Association was dissolved prior to the 1892 season. In 1894, the Penn State football team played the Pennsylvania high school team.
Penn State took an early 24–0 lead, whereupon Muncy was allowed 14 players rather than the usual 11. That helped, but at half time the score was 42–0. Muncy was granted 7 downs instead of four. With 14 players, 7 downs, Penn State letting its youngest players finish out the game, the final score was only 54–0. George W. Hoskins was the first head football coach at Penn State, he posted a 17–4–4 record in his from 1892 to 1895 as head coach, his.760 winning percentage ranks highest in program history. His first team played its home game on the Old Main lawn on campus in State College, before the 500-seat Beaver Field opened in 1893, he was succeeded by Samuel B. Newton, who posted a 12–14 record in three seasons, 1896–1898. Sam Boyle compiled a 4 -- 6 -- 1 record. Pop Golden coached the Nittany Lions for three seasons from 1900–1902, tallying a record of 16–12–1. Daniel A. Reed took over for the 1903 season and went 5–3. Tom Fennell coached the Nittany Lions for five seasons from 1904–1908, posting a 33–17–1 record.
In 1907 the school adopted the Nittany Lion mascot, a mountain lion named after nearby Mount Nittany. An early mascot was a mule that hauled stone for the original Old Main. Bill Hollenback took over the Nittany Lions as head coach for the 1909 season and went undefeated at 5–0–2, but left for Missouri for 1910. Bill's older brother Jack Hollenback took over for the 1910 season and went 5–2–1, but Bill returned to Penn State from 1911 to 1914. Bill went 23–9–2 in his second tenure for a combined record of 28–9–4. In 1911 and 1912, his teams went 8–0–1 and 8–0 and were awarded retroactive national championships by the National Championship Foundation which are recognized by the NCAA. Head coach Dick Harlow brought a new form of defense, trying to go in-between or around offensive blockers rather than try to overpower them. Harlow's Nittany Lions compiled a 20–8 record in his three seasons and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach for his accomplishments. Hugo Bezdek was Penn State's head football coach for 12 seasons and was the Nittany Lions' first athletics director.
Bezdek posted a 65–30–11 record, which included two undefeated seasons and a berth in the 1922 Rose Bowl, a game they lost. Bezdek's Nittany Lions posted a losing record in only two of Bezdek's seasons, going 1–2–1 in 1918 and 3–5–1 in 1928. Bezdek retired after the 1929 season and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1954. Bob Higgins returned to his alma mater and served as Penn State's head football coach for 19 seasons, he compiled a 91–57–11 overall record, which included 11 winning seasons and only five losing seasons. Higgins' 1947 team tied SMU in the Cotton Bowl. Higgins was forced to retire due to poor health following the 1948 season, he was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1954. For one season, Joe Bedenk a Penn State alum, served as the Nittany Lions' head football coach, he was promoted from offensive line coach after the retirement of his predecessor. Bedenk posted a 5–4 record in his 1949, his lone season as head coach, before requesting to return to his previous post as offensive l
BYU Cougars football
The BYU Cougars football team is the college football program representing Brigham Young University, a private university owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and located in Provo, Utah. The Cougars began collegiate football competition in 1922, have won 23 conference championships and one national championship in 1984; the team has competed in several different athletic conferences during its history, but since July 1, 2011, they have competed as an Independent. The team plays home games at the 63,470-seat LaVell Edwards Stadium, named after legendary head coach LaVell Edwards. LaVell Edwards won 19 conference championships, seven bowl games, one national championship while coaching at BYU, is regarded as the most successful coach in BYU program history. BYU traces its football roots back to the late 19th century. Benjamin Cluff became the third principal of Brigham Young Academy in 1892 and was influenced by his collegiate studies at the University of Michigan to bring athletic competition to Brigham Young.
The first BYU football team in 1896 played the University of Utah, the Elks, the Crescents, the YMCA of Salt Lake City, the Wheel Club of Denver, Westminster College. In its second year of competition, the BYA football team won the championship too, but as a result of an accidental football-related death in Utah in 1900, football was banned from all LDS Church schools until 1919. After a twenty-year ban on football, the sport was brought back to BYU on an intramural basis in 1919, intercollegiate games were resumed in 1920 under coach Alvin Twitchell. BYU was admitted to the Rocky Mountain Conference in 1921 and had its first winning year in 1929 under the helm of coach G. Ott Romney, who BYU recruited from Montana State University the year before. Romney and his successor Eddie Kimball ushered in a new era in Cougar football in which the team went 65–51–12 between 1928–1942. In 1932, the Cougars posted an 8–1 record and outscored their opponents 188–50, which remains one of the school's finest seasons on record.
The university did not field a team from 1943–1945 due to World War II, in 1949 suffered its only winless season, going 0–11. The team began to rebuild in the mid-1950s, recruiting University of Rhode Island head coach Hal Kopp to lead the Cougars, whom achieved back-to-back winning seasons in 1957 and 1958, led by southpaw quarterback Jared Stephens and nose tackle Gavin Anae. In 1961, Eldon "The Phantom" Fortie became the school's first All-American, in 1962, BYU moved to the Western Athletic Conference. In 1964, Cougar Stadium was built, which included a capacity of 30,000, in 1965, head coach Tommy Hudspeth led the Cougars to their first conference championship with a record of 6–4. In 1972, assistant coach LaVell Edwards was promoted succeeding Hudspeth. Edwards and his staff installed a drop-back passing game considered to be an early implementation of the West Coast offense, resulting in Cougar Pete Van Valkenburg as the nation's leading rusher for that year; the following year, the Cougars struggled to a 5–6 finish, but this would be Edwards' only losing season during his run as BYU coach over the next three decades.
In fact, the Cougars won the conference championship every year except one from 1974 to 1985, including the national championship in 1984. However, the Cougars lost their first four bowl games, their first post-season win came in the 1980 Holiday Bowl, which has become known as the "Miracle Bowl" since BYU was trailing SMU 45–25 with four minutes left in the game and came back to win. BYU would win its 1981, 1983, 1984 bowl games as well. During this period, Young finished second for the Heisman Trophy in 1983 and McMahon finished third for the trophy in 1981. In 1984, BYU reached the pinnacle of college football; the undefeated Cougars opened the season with a 20–14 victory over Pitt, ranked No. 3 in the nation at the time and finished with a victory over the Michigan Wolverines. BYU defeated Michigan 24–17 in the Holiday Bowl, marking the only time a national champion played in a bowl game before New Year's Day, the last time the national championship was won by a team from a non-power 5 conference.
Coupled with the 11 consecutive wins to close out the 1983 season, BYU concluded the 1984 championship on a 24-game winning streak. At the end of the season, BYU was crowned as National Champion after being a unanimous number one in all four NCAA sanctioned polls AP, Coaches, NFF, FWAA. In 1985, quarterback Robbie Bosco finished third in the Heisman balloting. In 1990, the Cougars achieved their first victory over a top-ranked team when they defeated the #1 Miami Hurricanes early in the season, the season culminated with quarterback Ty Detmer becoming BYU's first and only Heisman Trophy winner. In 1996, BYU won the first WAC Championship Game in Las Vegas and earned a bid to play in the Cotton Bowl against Kansas State of the newly formed Big 12 Conference, making it BYU's first New Year's Day bowl game, which they won 19–15. BYU finished ranked No. 5 in both the Coaches and AP polls, became the first team in NCAA history to win 14 games in a season. In 1999, BYU left the WAC along with seven other teams to form the Mountain West Conference, with the Cougars winning a share of the inaugural MWC championship.