The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago. It is called the Age of Reptiles and the Age of Conifers; the Mesozoic is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, preceded by the Paleozoic and succeeded by the Cenozoic. The era is subdivided into three major periods: the Triassic and Cretaceous, which are further subdivided into a number of epochs and stages; the era began in the wake of the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest well-documented mass extinction in Earth's history, ended with the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, another mass extinction whose victims included the non-avian dinosaurs. The Mesozoic was a time of significant tectonic and evolutionary activity; the era witnessed the gradual rifting of the supercontinent Pangaea into separate landmasses that would move into their current positions during the next era. The climate of the Mesozoic was varied, alternating between cooling periods. Overall, the Earth was hotter than it is today.
Dinosaurs first appeared in the Mid-Triassic, became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates in the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic, occupying this position for about 150 or 135 million years until their demise at the end of the Cretaceous. Birds first appeared in the Jurassic; the first mammals appeared during the Mesozoic, but would remain small—less than 15 kg —until the Cenozoic. The flowering plants arose in the Triassic or Jurassic and came to prominence in the late Cretaceous when they replaced the conifers and other gymnosperms as the dominant trees; the phrase "Age of Reptiles" was introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell who viewed it as dominated by diapsids such as Iguanodon, Megalosaurus and Pterodactylus. Mesozoic means "middle life", deriving from the Greek prefix meso-/μεσο- for "between" and zōon/ζῷον meaning "animal" or "living being"; the name "Mesozoic" was proposed in 1840 by the British geologist John Phillips. Following the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic extended 186 million years, from 251.902 to 66 million years ago when the Cenozoic Era began.
This time frame is separated into three geologic periods. From oldest to youngest: Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous The lower boundary of the Mesozoic is set by the Permian–Triassic extinction event, during which 90% to 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial vertebrates became extinct, it is known as the "Great Dying" because it is considered the largest mass extinction in the Earth's history. The upper boundary of the Mesozoic is set at the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, which may have been caused by an asteroid impactor that created Chicxulub Crater on the Yucatán Peninsula. Towards the Late Cretaceous, large volcanic eruptions are believed to have contributed to the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. 50% of all genera became extinct, including all of the non-avian dinosaurs. The Triassic ranges from 252 million to 201 million years ago, preceding the Jurassic Period; the period is bracketed between the Permian–Triassic extinction event and the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, two of the "big five", it is divided into three major epochs: Early and Late Triassic.
The Early Triassic, about 252 to 247 million years ago, was dominated by deserts in the interior of the Pangaea supercontinent. The Earth had just witnessed a massive die-off in which 95% of all life became extinct, the most common vertebrate life on land were lystrosaurus and euparkeria along with many other creatures that managed to survive the Permian extinction. Temnospondyls would be the dominant predator for much of the Triassic; the Middle Triassic, from 247 to 237 million years ago, featured the beginnings of the breakup of Pangaea and the opening of the Tethys Sea. Ecosystems had recovered from the Permian extinction. Algae, sponge and crustaceans all had recovered, new aquatic reptiles evolved, such as ichthyosaurs and nothosaurs. On land, pine forests flourished, as did groups of insects like mosquitoes and fruit flies. Reptiles began to get bigger and bigger, the first crocodilians and dinosaurs evolved, which sparked competition with the large amphibians that had ruled the freshwater world mammal-like reptiles on land.
Following the bloom of the Middle Triassic, the Late Triassic, from 237 to 201 million years ago, featured frequent heat spells and moderate precipitation. The recent warming led to a boom of dinosaurian evolution on land as those one began to separate from each other, as well as first pterosaurs. During the Late Triassic, some advanced cynodonts gave rise to the first Mammaliaformes. All this climatic change, resulted in a large die-out known as the Triassic-Jurassic extinction event, in which many archosaurs, most synapsids, all large amphibians became extinct, as well as 34% of marine life, in the Earth's fourth mass extinction event; the cause is debatable. The Jurassic ranges from 200 million years to 145 million years ago and features three major epochs: The Early Jurassic, the Middle Jurassic, the L
Pastrana is a medieval town and municipality in the province of Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain, 40 kilometres southeast of the provincial capital, Guadalajara. It is notable as the site of the imprisonment of the one-eyed Princess of Éboli by Philip II of Spain after a court scandal in 1573, as the home of several Flemish tapestries depicting the attack of Alfonso V of Portugal on Morocco in 1471. Pastrana is centered on a square, La Plaza de la Hora, overlooked by the Ducal Palace, the aforementioned Princess' palace and prison rolled into one. According to legend, she would be allowed to gaze out onto the square from the window of the room she was confined to for one hour a day, whence came the square's name. Fanning out from La Plaza are narrow, cobbled streets lined with houses and shops; the main street leads to the Iglesia de la Asunción, in whose museum the tapestries are kept, a painting by El Greco. Further along are Arab quarters. Important events are Semana Santa at Easter and La Fiesta in August, a week of events, such as concerts, parties and bullfights, with the town congregating in La Plaza every evening for a night of live music and dancing.
List of municipalities in Guadalajara A Stranger In Spain by H. V. Morton. See Chapter III for Morton's travels through Pastrana
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Brihuega is a municipality located in the province of Guadalajara, Spain. According to the 2007 census, the municipality has a population of 2,835 inhabitants. In 1710 a hard-fought battle took place in the township between Lord Stanhope's troops and the Franco-Spanish army during the War of the Spanish Succession; the town was the scenario of violent battles during the Battle of Guadalajara in the Spanish Civil War. Altman, Ida. Transatlantic Ties in the Spanish Empire: Brihuega and Puebla, Mexico 1560-1620. Stanford: Stanford University Press 2000. García López, Juan Catalina. El fuero de Brihuega. Madrid: Manuel G. Hernández 1887. Niño Rodríguez, Antonio. Organización social y actividades productivas en una villa castellana del antiguo régimen: Brihuega. Guadalajara: caja de Ahorro Provincial de Guadalajara 1985. Pérez Moreno, Camilo. Tradiciones religiosas en España: La Virgen de la Peña de Brihuega. Madrid: Asilo de Huérfanos de de S. C. de Jesús, 1884. Rodríguez Gutiérrez, Miguel. Bosquejo histórico de Brihuega y sus pueblos.
Madrid: T. Sánchez 1981. Church of la Virgen de la Asunción Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, Modern Library, 2001, ISBN 0-375-75515-2 Antony Beevor, The Battle for Spain, Orion, 1982 revised 2006, ISBN 978-0-7538-2165-7 Brihuega Brihuega, Plaza del Coso
Jadraque is a municipality located in the province of Guadalajara, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. It is home to a large medieval castle
Community of Madrid
The Community of Madrid is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain. It is located in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula, of the Castilian Central Plateau, its capital is the city of Madrid, the capital of the country. The Community of Madrid is bounded to the south and east by Castilla–La Mancha and to the north and west by Castile and León, it was formally created in 1983, based on the limits of the province of Madrid, until conventionally included in the historical region of New Castile. The Community of Madrid is the third most populous in Spain with 6,549,979 inhabitants concentrated in the metropolitan area of Madrid, it is the most densely populated autonomous community. In absolute terms, Madrid's economy is equal in size to that of Catalonia, which remains Spain's largest. Madrid thus has the highest GDP per capita in the country. Despite the existence of a large city of 5 million people, the Community of Madrid still retains some remarkably unspoiled and diverse habitats and landscapes.
Madrid is home to mountain peaks rising above holm oak dehesas and low-lying plains. The slopes of the Guadarrama mountain range are cloaked in dense forests of Scots pine and Pyrenean oak; the Lozoya Valley supports a large black vulture colony, one of the last bastions of the Spanish imperial eagle in the world is found in the Park Regional del Suroeste in dehesa hills between the Gredos and Guadarrama ranges. The recent possible detection of the existence of Iberian lynx in the area between the Cofio and Alberche rivers is testament to the biodiversity of the area. Taking advantage of the orography, there are several reservoirs and dams in th region, with the Santillana reservoir being the largest; when looking at a map of the Province of Madrid, it can be seen that it is an equilateral triangle, in whose center would be the city. First, by the western side, the region borders the "Sistema Central", the southern border features a protrusion following the Tagus River in order to include the royal site of Aranjuez in the region.
The region includes the exclave of Dehesa de la Cepeda, a open-area geographically located between the provinces of Ávila and Segovia in the autonomous community of Castile and León. Province of Madrid occupies a surface area of 8,028 km2. More the exact position of Madrid is 3° 40´ of longitude west of Greenwich, 40° 23´ north of the equator. All of the Province is located between 600 and 1,000 m above sea level, with the highest point being Peñalara at 2,430 m and the lowest the Alberche river in Villa del Prado at 430 m. Other considerable heights, as well as being famous, are the Ball of the World mountain in Navacerrada, at a height of 2,258 m and the seven peaks in Cercedilla, at 2,138 m; the region of Madrid has a hot summer Mediterranean climate with cool winters during which temperatures sometimes drop below 0 °C. There are about two to three light snowfalls each year. Summer tends to be hot with temperatures that surpass 30 °C in July and that can reach 40 °C. Due to Madrid's high altitude and dry climate, nightly temperatures tend to be cooler, leading to a lower average in the summer months.
Average precipitation levels are below 500 mm, evenly distributed throughout the year, with peaks in autumn and spring. The territory of the Community of Madrid has been populated since the Lower Paleolithic in the valleys between the rivers of Manzanares and Henares, where several archaeological findings have been made; some notable discoveries of the region the bell-shaped vase of Ciempozuelos. During the Roman Empire, the region was part of the Citerior Tarraconese province, except for the south-west portion of it, which belonged to Lusitania, it was crossed by two important Roman roads, the via xxiv-xxix (joining Astorga to laminium and via xxv, contained some important conurbations. The city of Complutum became an important metropolis, whereas Titulcia and Miaccum were important crossroad communities. During the period of the Visigothic Kingdom, the region lost its importance; the population was scattered amongst several small towns. Alcalá de Henares was designated the bishopric seat in the 5th century by orders of Asturio, archbishop of Toledo, but this event was not enough to bring back the lost splendor of the city.
The centre of the peninsula became a strategic military post in the 11th century. The Muslim rulers created a defensive system of fortresses and towers all across the region with which they tried to stop the advance of the Christian kingdoms of the north; the fortress of Mayrit was built somewhere between 860 and 880 AD, as a walled precinct where a military and religious community lived, which constituted the foundation of the city. It soon became the most strategic fortress in defense of the city of Toledo above the fortresses of Talamanca and Qal'-at'-Abd-Al-Salam. In 1083 Alfonso VI took the city of Madrid in the context of his wider campaign to conquer Toledo. Alcalá de Henares fell in 1118 in a new period of Castilian annexation; the conquered lands by the Christian kingdoms were desegregated into several constituencies, as a consequence of a long process of repopulati