Motorcycle racing is the motorcycle sport of racing motorcycles. Major genres include motorcycle road racing and off-road racing, both either on circuits or open courses, track racing. Other categories include hill drag racing and land speed record trials; the FIM classifies motorcycle racing in the following four main categories. Each category has several sub categories. Road racing is a form of motorcycle racing held on a paved road surfaces; the races can be held either on a purpose-built closed circuit or on a street circuit utilizing temporarily closed public roads. "road racing" meant a course on closed public roads. This was once commonplace but only a few such circuits have survived in Europe. Races take place on public roads which have been temporarily closed to the public by legal orders from the local legislature. Two championships exist, the first is the International Road Racing Championship, the other is the Duke Road Racing Rankings; the latter accounts for the majority of road races that take place each season, with an award for the highest placed rider.
Prominent road races include the Isle of Man TT, North West 200, Ulster Grand Prix on long circuits. Ireland has many road racing circuits still in use. Other countries with road races are the Netherlands, Belgium, Great Britain, the Czech Republic, New Zealand and Macau. Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier category of motorcycle road racing, it is divided into three distinct classes: Moto3: Introduced in 2012, motorcycles in this class are 250cc with single-cylinder four-stroke engines Previously it featured 125 cc two-stroke motorcycles. This class is restricted by rider age, with an upper limit of 25 for newly signed riders and wild card entries and an absolute upper limit of 28 for all riders. Moto2: Introduced by Dorna Sports, the commercial rights holder of the competition, in 2010 as a 600 cc four-stroke class. Prior to that season, the intermediate class was 250 cc with two-stroke engines. Moto2 races in the 2010 season allowed both engine types. Beginning in 2019, Triumph Motorcycles will replace Honda as the controlled-engine supplier for Moto2.
The new engines will be based on the 2017 Triumph Street Triple RS 765. MotoGP: is the current term for the highest class of GP racing; the class was contested with prototype machines with varying displacement and engine type over the years. Contested by large displacement four stroke machines in the early years it switched to 500 cc two strokes. In 2002 990 cc four-stroke bikes were allowed to compete alongside the 500 cc two strokes and completely replaced them in 2003. 2007 saw a reduction to 800 cc four stroke engines to unsuccessfully slow things down a bit before settling on 1000 cc four strokes in 2012. Grand Prix motorcycles are prototype machines not based on any production motorcycle. Superbike racing is the category of motorcycle road racing that employs modified production motorcycles. Superbike racing motorcycles must have four stroke engines of between 800 cc and 1200 cc for twins, between 750 cc and 1000 cc for four cylinder machines; the motorcycles must maintain the same profile as their roadgoing counterparts.
The overall appearance, seen from the front and sides, must correspond to that of the bike homologated for use on public roads though the mechanical elements of the machine have been modified. Supersport racing is another category of motorcycle road racing that employs modified production motorcycles. To be eligible for Supersport racing, a motorcycle must have a four-stroke engine of between 400 and 600 cc for four-cylinder machines, between 600 and 750 cc for twins, must satisfy the FIM homologation requirements. Supersport regulations are much tighter than Superbikes. Supersport machines must remain as standard, while engine tuning is possible but regulated. Endurance racing is a category of motorcycle road racing, meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of the riders. Teams of multiple riders attempt to cover a large distance in a single event. Teams are given the ability to change riders during the race. Endurance races can be run either to cover a set distance in laps as as possible, or to cover as much distance as possible over a preset amount of time.
Reliability of the motorcycles used for endurance racing is paramount. Sidecar racing is a category of sidecar motorcycle racing. Older sidecar road racers resembled solo motorcycles with a platform attached. Sidecarcross resembles MX motorcycles with a high platform attached. In sidecar racing a rider and a passenger work together to make the machine perform optimally. Sidecar racing has many sub-categories including: Sidecarcross Sidecar trials F1/F2 road racing Historic road racing Motocross is the direct equivalent of road racing, but off-road, a number of bikes racing on a closed circuit. Motocross circuits are constructed on a variety of non-tarmac surfaces such as dirt, mud, etc. and tend to incorporate elevation changes either natural or artificial. Advances in motorcycle technology suspension, have led to the predominance of circuits with added "jumps" on which bikes can get airborne. Motocross has another noticeable difference from road racing, in that starts are done en masse, with the riders alongside each other.
Up to 40 riders race into the first corner, sometimes there is a separate a
Province of León
León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. About one quarter of its population of 463,746 lives in León; the climate is cold in winter and hot in summer. This creates the perfect environment for wine and all types of cold meats and sausages like the leonese “Morcilla” and the “Cecina”. There are two famous Roman Catholic cathedrals in the province, the main one in León and another in Astorga; the province shares the Picos de Europa National Park with Asturias. It has 211 municipalities; the province of León was established in 1833 with the new Spanish administrative organisation of regions and provinces to replace former kingdoms. The Leonese Region was composed of the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora; until 1833, the independently administered Kingdom of León, situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula, retained the status of a kingdom, although dynastic union had brought it into the Crown of Castile. The Kingdom of León was founded in 910 A.
D. when the Christian princes of Asturias along the northern coast of the peninsula shifted their main seat from Oviedo to the city of León. The Atlantic provinces became the Kingdom of Portugal in 1139; the eastern, inland part of the kingdom was joined dynastically to the Kingdom of Castile first in 1037–1065, again 1077–1109 and 1126–1157, 1230–1296 and from 1301 onward. León retained the status of a kingdom until 1833, being composed by Adelantamientos Mayores, where Leonese Adelantamiento consisted of the territories between the Picos de Europa and the Duero River. According to UNESCO, in 1188 the Kingdom of León developed the first Parliament in Europe. In 1202 its parliament approved economic legislation to regulate trade and guilds; the Leonese language is recognized by the Statute of León. The Provincial Government of León signed accords with language associations for promoting Leonese. Leonese is taught in León city, Mansilla de las Mulas, La Bañeza, Valencia de Don Juan or Ponferrada for adult people, in sixteen schools of León city.
The City Council of León writes some of its announcements in Leonese in order to promote the language. In the western part of the El Bierzo, the westernmost region of the province, Galician language is spoken and taught at schools, it is officially recognized by the Statute of Castile and León. Embutidos Cecina de León: from beef. In the Leonese language, cecina means "meat, salted and dried by means of air, sun or smoke". Cecina de León is made of the hind legs of beef, salted and air-dried in the province of León, has PGI status. Botillo: from pig. Traditionally made in the western Leonese regions, botiellu in Leonese or botelo in Galician, is a dish of meat-stuffed pork intestine, it is a culinary specialty of the county of El Bierzo and of the region of Trás-os-Montes in Portugal. This type of embutido is a meat product made from different pieces left over from the butchering of a pig, including the ribs and bones with a little meat left on them; these are chopped. It can include the pig's tongue, shoulder blade and backbone, but never exceeding 20% of the total volume.
It is consumed cooked, covered with a sheet. It has a PGI status. Cheese Queso de Valdeón: a blue cheese produced in Posada de Valdeon, traditionally wrapped in chestnut or sycamore maple leaves before being sent to market. Wines Bierzo: in the west of the Province of León and covers about 3,000 km²; the area consists of a wide, flat plain. The Denominación de Origen covers 23 municipalities. Tierra de León: in the southeast of the Province of León. Sweets Mantecadas de Astorga Hojaldres de Astorga Lazos de San Guillermo Nicanores de Boñar List of municipalities in León El Bierzo Maragatería Tierra de Campos La Montaña La Ribera La Cabrera Tierras de La Bañeza Tierras de León Kingdom of León Leonese language Montes de León Cave of Valporquero The Official Tourism Website of the Province of Leon Leonese Provincial Government Leonese City Council
Castile and León
Castile and León (UK:, US:. It was constituted in 1983, although it existed for the first time during the First Spanish Republic in the 19th century. León first appeared as a Kingdom in 910, whilst the Kingdom of Castile gained an independent identity in 1065 and was intermittently held in personal union with León before merging with it in 1230. Though the kings of Castile and León continued to take the title King of León as the superior title, to use a lion as part of their standard, power in fact became centralized in Castile, as exemplified by the Leonese language's replacement by Spanish; the Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Castile kept different parliaments, different flags, different coin and different laws until the Modern Era, when Spain, like other European states, centralized governmental power in 1833. The autonomous community of Castile and León is the result of the union in 1983 of nine provinces: the three that, after the territorial division of 1833, were part of the Region of León and six attached to the Old Castile, except in the latter case the provinces of Santander and Logroño.
It is the largest autonomous community in Spain and the third largest region of the European Union, covering an area of 94,223 square kilometres with an official population of around 2.5 million. From the beginning of the federalist debate in Spain in the 19th century during the First Spanish Republic there were projects of autonomy for a Castile and León region, as the project of Castilian Mancomunity, Bases de Segovia, Castilian Provincial League or Castilian Federal Pact, but including current Cantabria and La Rioja. Same project that continued to exist during the Second Spanish Republic and, carried out after the Constitution of 1978, but without Cantabria and La Rioja that, although it was considered to include them formed uniprovincial autonomies, its Statute of Autonomy declares in its preamble: The Autonomous Community of Castile and León arises from the modern union of the historical territories that composed and gave name to the old crowns of León and Castile. Eleven hundred years ago, the Kingdom of León was constituted, from which that of Castile and Galicia were dislodged as kingdoms throughout the 9th century, and, in 1143, that of Portugal.
During these two centuries the monarchs who held the government of these lands attained the dignity of emperors, as attested by the terms of Alfonso VI and Alfonso VII. In Castile and León, more than 60% of all of Spain's heritage sites are found. All of which translate into: 8 World Heritage sites 1800 classified cultural heritage assets, 112 historic sites, 400 museums, more than 500 castles, of which 16 are considered of high historical value, 12 cathedrals, 1 concathedral, the largest concentration of Romanesque art in the world. With 8 World Heritage sites, Castile and León is the region of the world with more cultural assets distinguished by the highest protection figure granted by UNESCO, ahead of the Italian regions of Tuscany and Lombardy, both with 6 sites; the Montes de Valsaín mountains and the Béjar and Francia mountain ranges, in the Sistema Central, the valleys of Laciana, Omaña y Luna and the Picos de Europa and Los Ancares, in the Cantabrian Mountains, the Iberian Plateau, in the border area with Portugal, have been declared biosphere reserve by UNESCO, which recognizes the geopark of La Lora with this figure of protection.
In addition, Castile and León is related to two of the records of the Memory of the World Programme of UNESCO which are the Decreta of the Cortes of León of 1188, curia regia considered the birthplace of worldwide parliamentarism by the institution itself, the Treaty of Tordesillas. The Index of development of social services reflects that the community has one of the best social services in the country, positioning itself as the third autonomy that offers the best benefits to its citizens, after the Basque Country and Navarre, its education, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment report of 2015, leads the scores in reading and sciences with a score comparable to that of the ten best countries in the study.23 April is designated Castile and León Day, commemorating the defeat of the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar during the Revolt of the Comuneros, in 1521. The Statute of Autonomy of Castile and León, reformed for the last time in 2007, establishes in the sixth article of its preliminary title the symbols of the community's exclusive identity.
These are: the coat of the flag, the banner and the anthem. Its legal protection is the same as that corresponding to the symbols of the State -whose outrages are classified as crime in article 543 of the Penal Code-. In the articulated statuary, the coat of arms is defined as follows: The coat of arms of Castile and León is a stamped shield by open royal crown, barracked in cross; the first and fourth quartering: in the field of gules, a merloned golden castle of three merlons, drafted of sable and rinse of azure. The second and third quartering: in a silver field, a rampant lion of purple, lingued and armed with gules, crowned with gold; the flag is described as follows: The flag of Castile and León is quartered and contains the symbols of Castile and León, as described in the previous section. The flag will fly in all the centres and official acts of the Community, to the right of the Spanish flag. Following the same wording, the banner is constituted by the shield quartered on a traditional crimson background.
The Statute expresses: "The anthem and the other sym
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain. Its city population of 127,817 makes it the largest municipality in the province, accounting for more than one quarter of the province's population. Including the metropolitan area, the population is estimated at 202,793. Founded as the military encampment of the Legio VI Victrix around 29 BC, its standing as an encampment city was consolidated with the definitive settlement of the Legio VII Gemina from 74 AD. Following its partial depopulation due to the Umayyad conquest of the peninsula, León was revived by its incorporation into the Kingdom of Asturias. 910 saw the beginning of one its most prominent historical periods, when it became the capital of the Kingdom of León, which took active part in the Reconquista against the Moors, came to be one of the fundamental kingdoms of medieval Spain. In 1188, the city hosted the first Parliament in European history under the reign of Alfonso IX, due to which it was named in 2010, by the professor John Keane, the King of Spain and the Junta of Castile and León, as the cradle of Parliamentarism, the Decreta of León were included in the Memory of the World register by UNESCO in 2013.
The city's prominence began to decline in the early Middle Ages due to the loss of independence after the union of the Leonese kingdom with the Crown of Castile, consolidated in 1301. After a period of stagnation during the early modern age, it was one of the first cities to hold an uprising in the Spanish War of Independence, some years in 1833 acquired the status of provincial capital; the end of the 19th and the 20th century saw a significant acceleration in the rate of urban expansion, when the city became an important communications hub of the northwest due to the rise of the coal mining industry and the arrival of the railroad. León's historical and architectural heritage, as well as the numerous festivals hosted throughout the year and its location on the French Way of the Camino de Santiago, ranked as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, make it a destination of both domestic and international tourism; some of the city's most prominent historical buildings are the Cathedral, one of the finest examples of French-style classic Gothic architecture in Spain, the Basilica of San Isidoro, one of the most important Romanesque churches in Spain and resting place of León's medieval monarchs, the Monastery of San Marcos, an example of plateresque and Renaissance Spanish architecture, the Casa Botines, a Modernist creation of the architect Antoni Gaudí.
An example of modern architecture is the city's Museum of Contemporary Art or MUSAC. León was founded in the 1st century BC by the Roman legion Legio VI Victrix, which served under Caesar Augustus during the Cantabrian Wars, the final stage of the Roman conquest of Hispania. In the year 74 AD, the Legio VII Gemina —recruited from the Hispanics by Galba in 69 AD— settled in a permanent military camp, the origin of the city, its modern name, León, is derived from the city's Latin name Legio. The Romans established the site of the city to protect the conquered territories of northwestern Hispania from the Astures and Cantabri, to secure the transport of gold extracted in the province —especially in the huge nearby mines of Las Médulas—, taken to Rome through Asturica Augusta. Tacitus calls the legion Galbiana, to distinguish it from the old Legio VII Claudia, but this appellation is not found on any inscriptions, it appears to have received the appellation of Gemina on account of its amalgamation by Vespasian with one of the German legions the Legio I Germanica.
Its full name was Legio VII Gemina Felix. After serving in Pannonia, in the civil wars, it was settled by Vespasian in Hispania Tarraconensis, to supply the place of the Legio VI Victrix and Legio X Gemina, two of the three legions ordinarily stationed in the province, but, withdrawn to Germany; that its regular winter quarters, under emperors, were at León, we learn from the Itinerary and the Notitiae Imperii, as well as from a few inscriptions. The post-Roman history of the city is the history of the Kingdom of León; the station of the legion in the territory of the Astures grew into an important city, which resisted the attacks of the Visigoths until AD 586, when it was taken by Leovigild. During the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, in 715 Tariq advanced from the area of La Rioja towards Astorga and León; the same fortress, which the Romans had built to protect the plain from the incursions of the mountaineers, became the advanced post which covered the mountain, as the last refuge of Cisastur Tribes.
However, there is no notice of resistance whatsoever. An attempt was made by the invaders to settle the strongholds with Berbers came in a military capacity, but the scheme was abandoned when the Berbers of northern Iberia rebelled against the Arabs and gave up their positions to join the revolt around 740. Towards the year 846, a group of Mozarabs tried to repopulate the city, but a Muslim attack prevented that initiative. In the year 856, under the Christian king Ordoño I, another attempt at repopulation was made and was successful. Alfonso III of León and García I of León made León city the capital of the Kingdom of León and the most important of the Christian cities in Iberia; the Kingdom of León started a
Fabero is a small town in the Province of León and part of the «Castilla y Leon Autonomia» in north west Spain, near Galicia, with a population of about 5000 inhabitants. The climate is continental, with dry summer that can reach 36 °C though only in the daytime. Rainy autumns and cold winters are common, it is located in an area which features the mountains and villages of the Sierra de Ancares and the valley of Fornela, other small villages scattered on the hillsides. The surrounding mountains are covered in chestnut trees and pine forests. Wolves and brown bears can be seen in the remote mountain areas, on rare occasions near the little villages; the town is near the historic city of Vilafranca, a famous stage on the Pilgrims' Way to Compostela, in the comarca of Bierzo, the wine-producing area that has become famous for the quality of its wines and vineyards. Fabero was a small farming community of subsistence farmers until the 1920s when coal mining started because of the presence of pure anthracite coal in the ground.
By the 1960s the population had risen to 10,000 people after a large influx of labour from the south of Spain and Portugal. The mines were underground and open cast from the 1980s, including the largest open cast coal mine in Spain; the town's famous statue of the barefoot miner is well known. The town thrived as a vibrant mining community until the first decade of the 21st century when the closing of most of the coal mines in Spain forced many to leave and find work elsewhere. Fabero is in the region of the province of Leon known as El Bierzo, a rich agricultural area, now well known for its wines and horticultural products such as peppers, apples and cherries. A mountainous region, it has a long tradition of quality cured meats, including excellent Serrano hams and similar preparations with cured pork meat of which the most popular is'botillo'; the town is vibrant in summer when the festive season is more intense in all the surrounding villages and towns after mid-June. The town organizes summer courses in painting and sculpture in conjunction with the Fine Arts Department of the University Complutense of Madrid, which are organized by the associate dean of the university Tomas Bañuelos Ramón.
In 2016 the most famous living Spanish painter, Antonio Lopez, was the special guest, as was the sculptor, Julio Lopez. Both were special guest speakers and they involved themselves in the five-week-long summer courses. Given the mining tradition of the area, there is a interesting Museum of the Mine; this museum traces the history of the mines in the area, the kind of equipment and tools used and the methods of extraction. From a more historical perspective, there is a monument commemorating a labour camp for Republican prisoners made to work in the coal mines after the Civil War. A Celtic settlement and Neolithic cave paintings can be seen nearby and a glacial lake called the Pozo Cheiroso is situated near the town; the Roman past of the province is visible in the area in the city of Leon, one can visit the remains of the Roman gold mines in the area of Las Medulas. This is a region with a long history dating back to the Middle Ages; the nearby Monastery of San Andres de Espinareda was started in the 12th century though the existing buildings date from the 18th century.
The surrounding hills and mountains offer great opportunities for rambling, biking and horse-riding. The town has a football ground; the local team is in the first regional division. There are leisure centres in nearby Ponferrada. Trout fishing is popular in the local rivers and mountain streams; the town's many bars offer fine wines and beers and an excellent selection of'tapas' at reasonable prices. The city is twinned with two towns in Portugal: El Bierzo Manuel Orallo
Astorga is a municipality and city of Spain located in the central area of the province of León, in the autonomous community of Castilla y León, 43 kilometres southwest of the provincial capital. It is located in the transit between the Páramo Leonés and the mountains of León and acts as the backbone of the shires of Maragatería, La Cepeda and the Ribera del Órbigo; the city is the head of one of the most extensive and oldest dioceses of Spain, whose jurisdiction covers half of the province of León and part of Ourense and Zamora. It is head of the judicial party number 5 of the province of León. Astorga lies in the area of the Maragatos, a small ethnic and cultural community with distinctive customs and architecture; the town lies at the junction of the French route, the most popular path and Vía de la Plata route, an alternative path of the Way of St. James. Saint Turibius of Astorga was bishop of the city in the 5th century; the timeline of Galician history that includes Astorga has artifactual evidence stretching back over 200,000 years, predating the Paleolithic.
210 km away from Astorga in the Atapuerca Mountains exists a rich fossil record of the earliest humans in Spain. The scientific study of these remains provide priceless information about the appearance and the way these humans lived; the regional government of Castile and León has designated the site an Espacio cultural. Tin artifacts dated to c. 2750 BC using metallurgical diffusion chronologic dating were found in the area of Astorga. Artifacts such as tube and double ring axes were located in Astorga and are significant to an Atlantic cultural complex from the Bronze Age period c. 1300–700 BC that are included in the Castro cultures. Astorga, in the Iron Age, came under the cultural influence of the Celts. Become one of the Roman strongholds in the region they called Asturica. During Cantabrian wars, Roman legions VI Victrix and X Gemina were sent and established a castra on the Leonesian land; this castra was strategically placed between the Tuerto rivers. The castra was important because of Astures revolutions and proximity to gold mines of Las Medulas.
After the Punic Wars in 146 BC, the Romans turned their attention to conquering Hispania. The tribe of the Gallaeci 60,000 strong, according to Paulus Orosius, faced the Roman forces led by Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 137 BC in a battle at the River Douro. From this time, Gallaic fighters joined the Roman legions, to serve as far away as Dacia and Britain; the final extinction of Celtic resistance was the aim of the violent and ruthless Cantabrian Wars fought under the Emperor Augustus from 28 to 19 BC. The Roman city was founded in 14 BC, being entitled by Emperor Octavian as Asturica Augusta now known as Astorga, it became an important military centre. The Roman walls were rebuilt by Bishop Nuño around 1242 and they underwent several repairs during the Middle Ages; the city had thermal baths with hot, cold water systems, sauna's and two main sewer system still in use today. Ruins of Roman baths are still visible today. In 35 AD as mining plans developed, this Roman Hispania castra was redesigned and built with the help of the army, into a city.
A provincial capital, the meeting-place of four military roads. Vía de la PlataFrom or Ruta de la Plata is an ancient commercial and pilgrimage path that connects Astorga to Mérida, it was built as a trade route for the exploitation of gold. The Roman causeway allowed the Romans to conquer tribes such as the Callaici, the Astures, the Vacceos. Pliny the Elder in 73 AD spoke of Vía de la PlataFrom; the road stretched around 900 km and the Roman's highest importance for the gold mines of Las Medulas and the copper mines of Rio Tinto. Asturica was the main city in northwest Spain during the Roman Empire. Plinius Roman author and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander called the city Urbs magnifica; the Via Platea went from Asturica to Emerita. One of the first three bishoprics in Spain was founded in Astorga, known as the Roman Catholic Diocese of Astorga; the title of Bishop of Astorga is one of the oldest religious charges of Europe. Astorga was sacked by the Visigothic King Theodoric II sometime during time of his throne.
On 5 October 456, at the Battle at the Campus Paramus, 19 km from Astorga on the Urbicus, Theoderic II, Eighth Visigoth King from 453 to 466 AD, leads an army into Spain and defeats Rechiar, Suebic King of Galicia from 488 to 12/456. During the waves of invasion of the peninsula by the Germanic tribes, one bishop was the noted Turibio, he documented the conversion of the Suebic King Remismund to Arianism, worked to restore the churches destroyed by the Visigoths. The bishop was able to travel to Rome, from which he brought back what is believed to be a relic of the True Cross, for which he founded the Monastery of Santo Toribio de Liébana, where it is still preserved; because Romans had control of the city, Christianity became popular in this area during the early church. There is a legend that Santiago and St. Paul both preached in Astorga and there is proof that there was a bishopric around the 3rd century. At the beginning of Leo I's pontificate, in the years 444-447, the bishop of Astorga in León, sent to Rome a memorandum warning that Priscillianism was by no means dead, reporting that it numbered bishops among its supporters, asking the aid of the Roman See.
The distance was insurmountable in the 5th centur