Expo Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Expo Line is a 15.2 mi light rail line that runs between Downtown Los Angeles and Santa Monica. The line is named after Exposition Boulevard, it is one of the six lines in the Metro Rail system, is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Expo Line follows the right-of-way of the former Pacific Electric Santa Monica Air Line. Passenger service ended in 1953. Several Expo Line stations are built in the same location as Air Line stations, although no original station structures have been reused; when the Regional Connector is complete in 2021, the current Expo Line will be joined with the Eastside portion of the Gold Line, the new line will be named E Line. The color will be changed from aqua to gold on maps. An independent agency, the Exposition Metro Line Construction Authority, was given the authority to plan and construct the line by state law in 2003. After construction was completed, the line was handed over on January 15, 2016, to the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority for testing and operation.
The line was built in two phases. Construction began in early 2006 and most stations opened to the public on April 28, 2012; the Culver City and Farmdale stations opened on June 20, 2012. Design and construction on the 6.6-mile portion between Culver City and Santa Monica started in September 2011. Testing along the phase 2 segment began on April 6, 2015, the segment opened on May 20, 2016; the Expo Line operates from 4:30 a.m. to 2:00 a.m. on weekdays and until 2:30 a.m. on Fridays and Saturdays. As of December 2016, trains run every 6 minutes during peak hours, every 12 minutes during middays, every 10 minutes during the evening, every 20 minutes after midnight. Maximum speed on the route is 55 mph: speeds within the city of Los Angeles are reduced; the Expo Line follows right of way used by the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad steam railroad, built in 1875, converted by Pacific Electric to electric traction and operated as the Santa Monica Air Line by 1920, providing both freight and passenger service between Los Angeles and Santa Monica.
Passenger service stopped in 1953 and diesel-powered freight deliveries ended in 1988. Local advocacy groups including Friends 4 Expo Transit supported the successful passage of Proposition C in 1990, which allowed the purchase of the entire right-of-way from Southern Pacific by Metro. Metro released a Major Investment Study in 2000 which compared bus rapid transit and light rail transit options along what was now known as the "Mid-City/Exposition Corridor"; the Culver City and Farmdale stations opened on June 20, 2012. Design and construction of the 6.6-mile portion between Culver City and Santa Monica started in September 2011. Testing along the phase 2 segment began on April 6, 2015, the segment opened on May 20, 2016; the Regional Connector is an under-construction light-rail subway corridor through Downtown Los Angeles, to connect the current Blue and Expo Lines to the current Gold Line, to allow a seamless one-seat ride between the Blue and Expo lines' current 7th Street/Metro Center terminus and Union Station.
Once the Regional Connector is completed, the Blue and Gold Lines will be simplified into two rail lines: a north-south line connecting Long Beach and Azusa, an east-west line connecting Santa Monica and East Los Angeles. Beginning in 2019, Metro will commence using a renaming system where each rail and bus rapid transit line will receive a letter and color; as a result, the Santa Monica-East L. A. line will be designated as E Line, retaining the "E" from the Expo gold coloring. The groundbreaking for the construction of the Regional Connector took place on September 30, 2014, the alignment is expected to be in public service by late 2021. By the summer of 2019, the northern half of the Metro Blue Line will be closed; the Expo Line will terminate at 23rd Street. The following is the complete list of stations from Downtown Los Angeles traveling west; the light rail vehicles used on the Expo Line were maintained at the division 11 yard in Long Beach, the same maintenance facility, used by the Blue Line.
However, the new division 14 yard, located east of Stewart Street and north of Exposition Boulevard in the vicinity of the 26th Street/Bergamot station in Santa Monica, was opened with the completion of Phase 2. Compatible with the rest of Metro's light-rail network, the Expo Line shares standard Metro light rail vehicles with the Blue Line. Metro estimates that it has 47 light rail cars to provide service on the Expo Line under the peak-hour assumption of 3-car trains running at 6-minute headways. Upon completion of Phase 2, it is expected that new P3010 light rail vehicles from Kinki Sharyo, that were ordered by the L. A. Metro board of directors in 2012, will begin operation, replacing the current LRVs in operation on the Expo Line; the Expo Line Bikeway parallels the route of the light rail line, includes a mixture of bike lanes on Exposition Boulevard and off-street paths alongside the rail tracks. On March 28, 2015, an Expo Line train collided with an automobile at an intersection causing the train to derail, injuring 12.
On December 10, 2015, a truck made an illegal left turn and collided with a test train in Santa Monica
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits. LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States, it attracts nearly a million visitors annually. It holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features concert series; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, founded in 1910 in Exposition Park near the University of Southern California. Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the lead donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a style similar to Lincoln Center and the Los Angeles Music Center, consisted of three buildings: the Ahmanson Building, the Bing Center, the Lytton Gallery. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the directors' recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million. Construction began in 1963, was undertaken by the Del E. Webb Corporation. Construction was completed in early 1965. At the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles; when the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, but they were filled in and covered over when tar from the adjacent La Brea Tar Pits began seeping in. Money poured into LACMA during the boom years of the 1980s, a $209 million in private donations during director Earl Powell's tenure. To house its growing collections of modern and contemporary art and to provide more space for exhibitions, the museum hired the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates to design its $35.3-million, 115,000-square-foot Robert O. Anderson Building for 20th-century art, which opened in 1986.
In the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museum's four buildings. The museum's Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, as did the B. Gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, the LACMA-adjacent park was inaugurated with a free public celebration; the $10-million renovation replaced dead trees and bare earth with picnic facilities, viewing sites for the La Brea tar pits and a 150-seat red granite amphitheater designed by artist Jackie Ferrara. In 1994, LACMA purchased the adjacent former May Company department store building, an impressive example of streamline moderne architecture designed by Albert C. Martin Sr. LACMA West increased the museum's size by 30 percent when the building opened in 1998. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved a plan for LACMA's transformation by architect Rem Koolhaas, who had proposed razing all the current buildings and constructing an new single, tent-topped structure, estimated to cost $200 million to $300 million.
Kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001: Koolhaas, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind and Thom Mayne. However, the project soon stalled. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, led by architect Renzo Piano; the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008; the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Piano's plan to unify LACMA's sprawling confusing layout of buildings; the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign. BCAM is named for Edy Broad, who gave $60 million to LACMA's campaign.
BCAM opened on February 2008, adding 58,000 square feet of exhibition space to the museum. In 2010 the Lynda and Stewart Resnick Exhibition Pavilion opened to the public, providing the largest purpose-built lit, open-plan museum space in the world; the second phase was intended to turn the May building into new offices and galleries, designed by SPF Architects. As proposed, it would have had flexible gallery space, education space, administrative offices, a new restaurant, a gift shop and a bookstore, as well as study centers for the museum's departments of costume and textiles and prints and drawings, a roof sculpture garden with two works by James Turrell. However, construction of this phase was halted in November 2010. Phase two and three were never completed. In October 2011, LACMA entered into an agreement with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences under which the Academ
Inglewood Oil Field
The Inglewood Oil Field in Los Angeles County, California, is the 18th-largest oil field in the state and the second-most productive in the Los Angeles Basin. Discovered in 1924 and in continuous production since, in 2012 it produced over 2.8 million barrels of oil from some five hundred wells. Since 1924 it has produced 400 million barrels, the California Department of Oil and Geothermal Resources has estimated that there are about 30 million barrels remaining in the field's one thousand acres, recoverable with present technology; the field is operated by Freeport McMoRan Oil & Gas, which acquired it from Plains Exploration & Production in 2013. Surrounded by Los Angeles and its suburbs, having over one million people living within five miles of its boundary, it is the largest urban oil field in the United States. Freeport has begun a vigorous program of field development through water-flooding and well stimulation to increase production, declining since the field's peak in 1925. In recent years, field expansion and revitalization have been controversial with adjacent communities, which include Culver City, Baldwin Hills, Ladera Heights.
Several organizations have formed to oppose field development, in particular the proposed use of hydraulic fracturing as a well stimulation technique. In response, to assuage the fears of the surrounding community, Freeport McMoran's consultants have published reports attempting to show that such practices are safe. Additionally, in 2008 the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors adopted a Community Standards District for Baldwin Hills to regulate development and operations in the oil field to make it compliant with community environmental standards; the Inglewood Oil Field underlies the Baldwin Hills, a range of low hills near the northern end of the Newport–Inglewood Fault Zone. The hills are cut by numerous canyons, include a central depression along the east side of, a scarp representing the surface trace of the Newport–Inglewood Fault; the hills terminate abruptly on the north and west, slope down to the south. Surface drainage from the hills is south and west, with runoff from the oil field going into six retention basins which drain into the Los Angeles County storm drainage network, into either Centinela Creek or Ballona Creek.
Climate in the area is Mediterranean, with cool rainy winters and mild summers, with the heat moderated by morning fog and low clouds. The field contains both native and non-native vegetation on hillsides and in the narrow areas between drilling pads, tank farms, work areas, as the field is densely developed. Surrounding land use is residential, recreational and industrial, including high-density housing. Racial makeup of the population living within one mile of the field boundary in 2006 was 50% African-American and 15% Hispanic; the 338-acre Kenneth Hahn State Recreation Area is adjacent to the oilfield on the northeast. The oilfield is unusual in urban Los Angeles in being open to view, developed in the traditional manner of individual pumpjacks on drilling pads. Most other oil fields in the urbanized parts of Los Angeles, such as the Beverly Hills and Salt Lake fields, hide their pumping and drilling equipment, storage tanks, other operations in large windowless buildings disguised to blend in with the urban landscape.
The Inglewood Oil Field is along the Newport–Inglewood Fault, one of several major faults running through the Los Angeles Basin. Several large oil and gas fields have accumulated along the fault zone where motion along the fault has positioned impermeable rock units in the path of hydrocarbon migration, forming structural traps. Other fields along the same fault zone include the Beverly Hills Oil Field to the north, the Long Beach Oil Field to the south; the Baldwin Hills region is complexly faulted, with the primary Newport–Inglewood Fault on the northeast, another parallel fault to the southwest, a structural block between them offset downwards vertically, the entire region criss-crossed by smaller faults perpendicular to the main Newport–Inglewood zone. The field is within a layer-cake of Pliocene- and Miocene-age sediments, with multiple producing zones stacked vertically, each zone within a permeable rock layer separated from the others by impermeable layers. Above the oil field's producing zones is a layer of alluvium of Pleistocene age.
Nine pools have been identified within the oil field, given in order from top to bottom, with geologic formation, average depth below ground surface, date of discovery: Upper Investment Investment Vickers Rindge Rubel Moynier Bradna Sentous City of Inglewood Groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field was thought to exist only in perched zones not connected to the major aquifers of the Los Angeles Basin, found in canyon sediments and weathered bedrock. However, more recent modeling of regional groundwater occurrence and dynamics suggests that the Newport–Inglewood Fault is only a partial barrier to groundwater, some hydraulic communication between the groundwater in the Baldwin Hills and the surrounding aquifers exists. Since the hills are higher than the adjoining plains, groundwater would move outward from the hills and the oilfield area; the base of fresh water in the oilfield area varies from about 200 to 350 feet below groun
West Hollywood, California
West Hollywood referred to as WeHo, is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Incorporated in 1984, it is home to the Sunset Strip; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, its population was 34,399, it is considered one of the most prominent gay villages in the United States. West Hollywood is bounded by the city of Beverly Hills on the west, on other sides by neighborhoods of the city of Los Angeles: Hollywood Hills on the north, Hollywood on the east, the Fairfax District on the southeast, Beverly Grove on the southwest; the city's irregular boundary is featured in its logo. West Hollywood benefits from a dense, compact urban form with small lots, mixed land use, a walkable street grid. According to Walkscore, a website that ranks cities based on walkability, West Hollywood is the most walkable city in California with a Walkscore of 89. Commercial corridors include the nightlife and dining focused on the Sunset Strip, along Santa Monica Boulevard, the Avenues of Art and Design along Robertson and Beverly Boulevard.
Residential neighborhoods in West Hollywood include the Norma Triangle, West Hollywood North, West Hollywood West, West Hollywood East, West Hollywood Heights, all of which are only a few blocks long or wide. Major intersecting streets provide amenities within walking distance of adjacent neighborhoods. West Hollywood has a Subtropical-semi-arid climate with year-round warm weather; the record high temperature of 111 °F was recorded September 26, 1963, while the record low of 24 °F was recorded on January 4, 1949. Snow is rare in West Hollywood, with the last accumulation occurring in 1949. Rainfall is sparse, falls during the winter months. Most historical writings about West Hollywood began in the late-18th century with European colonization when the Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho arrived offshore and claimed the inhabited region for Spain. Around 5,000 of the indigenous inhabitants from the Tongva Indian tribe canoed out to greet Juan Cabrillo; the Tongva tribe was a nation of hunter-gatherers known for their reverence of courage.
By 1771, these native people had been ravaged by diseases brought in by the Europeans from across wide oceans. The Spanish mission system changed the tribal name to "Gabrielinos", in reference to the Mission de San Gabriel. Early in 1770 Gaspar de Portola's Mexican expeditionary force stopped just south of the Santa Monica Mountains near what would become West Hollywood to draw pitch from tar pits to waterproof their belongings and to say mass; the Gabrielinos are believed to have burned the pitch for fuel. By 1780, what became the "Sunset Strip" was the major connecting road for El Pueblo de Los Angeles, all ranches westward to the Pacific Ocean; this land passed through the hands of various owners during the next one hundred years, it was called names such as "La Brea" and "Plummer" that are listed in historical records. Most of this area was part of the Rancho La Brea, it came to be owned by the Henry Hancock family. During the final decade years of the nineteenth century, the first large land development in what would become West Hollywood—the town of "Sherman"—was established by Moses Sherman and his partners of the Los Angeles Pacific Railroad, an interurban railroad line which became part of the Pacific Electric Railway system.
Sherman became the location of the railroad's main shops, railroad yards, "car barns". Many working-class employees of the railroad settled in this town, it was during this time that the city began to earn its reputation as a loosely regulated, liquor-friendly place for eccentric people wary of government interference. Despite several annexation attempts, the town elected not to become part of the City of Los Angeles. In a controversial decision, in 1925 Sherman adopted "West Hollywood", "...a moniker pioneered earlier in the decade by the West Hollywood Realty Board" as its informal name, though it remained under the governance of Los Angeles County. For many years, the area, now the city of West Hollywood was an unincorporated area in the midst of Los Angeles; because gambling was illegal in the city of Los Angeles, but still legal in Los Angeles County, the 1920s saw the proliferation of many casinos, night clubs, etc. along Sunset Boulevard. These businesses were immune from the sometimes heavy-handed law-enforcement of the L.
A. Police Department; some people connected with movie-making were attracted to this less-restricted area of the County, a number of architecturally distinctive apartment buildings and apartment hotels were built. Many interior designers, decorators and "to the trade" furnishing showrooms located in West Hollywood date back to the middle of the century; the area and its extravagant nightclubs fell out of favor. However, the Sunset Strip and its restaurants and nightclubs continued to be an attraction for out-of-town tourists. During the late 1960s, the Sunset Strip was transformed again during the hippie movement which brought a thriving music publishing industry coupled with "hippie" culture; some young people from all over the country flocked to West Hollywood. The most recent migration to West Hollywood came about after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, when thousands of Russian Jews immigrated to the city. A majority of the 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Jews settled in two major immigration waves, 1978–79 and 1988–92.
Other than New York, West Hollywood's Russian-speaking community is the most concentrated single Russian-speaking region in United States. In 1984, resid
Ballona Creek is an 8.8-mile-long waterway in southwestern Los Angeles County, whose watershed drains the Los Angeles basin, from the Santa Monica Mountains on the north, the Harbor Freeway on the east, the Baldwin Hills on the south. It heads in the historical Rancho Las Cienegas and flows through Culver City and the Del Rey district before emptying into Santa Monica Bay between Marina del Rey and the Playa del Rey district. During the Pre-Columbian era, Tongva people existed as hunters and gatherers in small villages throughout the Ballona Creek watershed and other parts of the Los Angeles basin. Native American culture and land management practice was disrupted by the arrival of Spanish explorers. In 1769, the Tongva met their first Europeans. Continuing west after crossing the Los Angeles River, diarist Fray Juan Crespi noted that the party "came across a grove of large alders...from which flows a stream of water... The water flowed afterwards in a deep channel towards the southwest". Researchers identified the place as the headwaters of Ballona Creek.
The explorers made camp nearby on August 3. Around 1820, a mestizo rancher named Augustine Machado began grazing his cattle on the Ballona wetlands and claimed a fourteen-thousand acre Mexican land grant that stretched from modern-day Culver City to Pico Boulevard in Santa Monica, California. Ballona Creek and Lagoon are named for the Ballona or Paseo de las Carretas land grant, dated November 27, 1839; the Machado and Talamantes families, co-grantees of the rancho, heralded from Baiona in northern Spain. After the land grant claims were lost, the area experienced rapid growth, with open land being transformed into agricultural use; the Ballona Creek watershed totals about 130 square miles. Its land use consists of 64% residential, 8% commercial, 4% industrial, 17% open space; the major tributaries to the Ballona Creek and Estuary include Centinela Creek, Sepulveda Canyon Channel and Benedict Canyon Channel. At the time of Spanish settlement, the Los Angeles River turned to the west just south of present-day Bunker Hill, joining Ballona Creek just to the west of its current channel.
However, during a major flood in 1825, the Los Angeles River's course changed to its present channel, Ballona Creek became a distinct waterway. Much of the above-ground section of the creek was lined with concrete as part of the flood-control project undertaken by the United States Army Corps of Engineers following the Los Angeles Flood of 1938. Ballona Creek Watershed climate can be characterized as Mediterranean with average annual rainfall of 15 inches per year over most of the developed portions of the watershed; the flow rate in the Creek varies from a trickle flow of about 14 cubic feet per second during dry weather to 71,400 cubic feet per second during a 50-year storm event. Ballona Wetlands and Del Rey Lagoon are connected to the Ballona Estuary through tide gates. From northern source to southern mouth: Begins at South Cochran Avenue South Burnside Avenue Hauser Boulevard Thurman Avenue South Fairfax Avenue Interstate 10 La Cienega Boulevard Washington Boulevard National Boulevard north Expo Line National Boulevard south Higuera Street Duquesne Avenue Overland Avenue Westwood Boulevard Sepulveda Boulevard Sawtelle Boulevard Interstate 405 - San Diego Freeway Sepulveda Channel enters Inglewood Boulevard South Centinela Avenue State Route 90 Centinela Creek enters Lincoln Boulevard/State Route 1 Culver Boulevard Pacific Avenue The historic wetland complex at the mouth of Ballona Creek occupied about 2000 acres.
Although much of it was drained and developed, a portion remains protected. The State of California owns 600 acres of the former wetlands. Much of these preserved lands are designated as the Ballona Wetlands Ecological Reserve and despite historic degradation, conditions are improving. Wetland flora includes pickleweed, marsh heather, saltgrass and glasswort, a variety of upland and exotic species including brome, iceplant and ryegrass. Bird species of special interest observed in the reserve include nesting pairs of Belding's Savannah sparrow and foraging use by California least terns; the urbanization of the watershed, associated with it the pollution of urban runoff and stormwater, has degraded the water quality in Ballona Creek and its Estuary. Ballona Creek is listed by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board impaired for fecal coliform, heavy metals, pesticides. Dry weather urban runoff and storm water, both conveyed by storm drains, are the primary sources of pollutions in the Creek.
Many national, historical and cultural landmarks, tourist attractions, educational institutions and industries exist in Ballona Creek Watershed. With year-round Mediterranean climate, the area attracts immigrants and visitors from all over the world making Ballona Creek Watershed a vibrant melting pot of culture. A bike path that extends seven miles from National Boulevard in Culver City to the end of Ballona Creek Estuary provides oppo
Jim Henson Company Lot
The Jim Henson Company Lot is a studio property located just south of the southeast corner of North La Brea Avenue and Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. It was built in 1917 by film star Charlie Chaplin. After being sold by Chaplin in 1953, the property went through several changes in ownership and has served at various times as Kling Studios, the Red Skelton Studios, the shooting location for the Adventures of Superman and Perry Mason television series, as the headquarters for A&M Records and The Jim Henson Company. In 1969, it was designated as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument. In October 1917, Charlie Chaplin announced plans to build his own film studio at the southeast corner of La Brea and Sunset Boulevard. In his autobiography, Chaplin described the decision as follows: At the end of the Mutual contract, I was anxious to get started with First National, but we had no studio. I decided to build one; the site was the corner of Sunset and La Brea and had a fine ten-room house and five acres of lemon and peach trees.
We built a perfect unit, complete with developing plant, cutting room, offices. Chaplin purchased the site from R. S. McClellan, who lived on the site and had a large grove of orange trees on the property; the lot had 300 feet of 600 feet on La Brea, extending south to De Longpre. Chaplin announced he would make his home on the northern part of the property, build his own motion picture plant on the south part of the property, cornering at La Brea and De Longpre. Chaplin's plans for six English-style buildings, "arranged as to give the effect of a picturesque English village street," were published in the Los Angeles Times in October 1917; the plans were prepared by the Milwaukee Building Company, the total investment was estimated to be in the region of $100,000. The layout of the buildings was described by the Los Angeles Times in 2002 as a "fairy-tale cottage complex." Another writer has described the style as "eccentric Peter Pan architecture."The location was at that time a residential neighborhood, Chaplin's application for a building permit was opposed by area residents, some of whom complained that it was too near the Hollywood High School.
However, the City Council voted 8 -- 1. Chaplin built his "English cottage-style studio" in three months beginning in November 1917, at a reported cost of only $35,000; the DVD collection titled "Chaplin Collection" includes Chaplin's 1918 film How to Make Movies, which depicts the studio's construction in time-lapse photography. Construction of the studios was completed in 1919. Chaplin preserved a large existing residence on the northern end of the property, planned to live there, but never in fact did. Various studio personnel lived there including his brother Sydney Chaplin; the "English cottages" along La Brea served as the facade for offices, a screening room, a film laboratory. The grounds included a swimming pool and tennis courts; the central part of the property, an orchard, became the backlot, where large outdoor sets were constructed. The two large open-air stages used for filming were constructed on the southern end of the property, the rest of the facility consisted of dressing rooms, a garage, a carpenter's shed, a film vault.
Many of Chaplin's classic films were shot at the studios, including The Kid, The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times, The Great Dictator, Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight. Chaplin filmed many famous visitors at his studios on La Brea, including Winston Churchill, Helen Keller, Lord Mountbatten, Harry Lauder; the studios saw a number of changes over the next 20 years. The two open-air stages were converted to closed soundstages in the mid-1930s, before the filming of Modern Times, a smaller stage was built over the site of the studio swimming pool at that time. Stage 2 had been damaged by a fire during production of The Circus in 1927; the expansion of La Brea Avenue in 1928–29 forced the physical movement of the buildings adjacent to the street back 15 feet from their original locations. In 1942, Chaplin sold the northern portion of the property, the portion containing the residence, tennis courts, a portion of his backlot, to Safeway Stores; the house was demolished, a shopping center was built in its place.
In October 1943, Chaplin's studios were opened up for the first time to be used to shoot an outside production, produced by Columbia Pictures. The Los Angeles Times reported at the time that the Chaplin Studio "has been more or less sacrosanct, in the sense that outsiders were never permitted to work there." However, studio manager Alfred Reeves told the Times that the Chaplin organization was "not going into the space rental business," and that the use of the studios by Columbia would not create a precedent. In 1949, the studios were the site of Greta Garbo's last screen test. Chaplin, who had left America permanently in October 1952, sold the studio in 1953 to Webb and Knapp for $650,000; the new owner had planned to tear down the studio, but it was leased to a television production company and became known as Kling Studios. In 1955, it was used to shoot the Adventures of Superman television series starring George Reeves. Beginning in 1959, Red Skelton shot his television series at the facility, in April 1960 Skelton purchased the studio.
From behind a desk in the office once occupied by Chaplin, Skelton said: I'm not the head of the studio. I'll be president and just own the joint.... I couldn't be a studio
Metro Local is a bus service type in Los Angeles County operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. This retronym designation was placed to differentiate it from the Metro Rapid service. Metro Local buses cover both local, limited-stop, shuttle bus services. Metro Local buses are distinguished by their prominent orange color. Based on availability of equipment, units in non-Metro Local livery may be placed into service on lines that use Metro Local buses. There are bus lines that are operated under contract with MV Transportation, Southland Transit, Transdev. Metro Local buses can be found on 400-series and 500-series routes, which are Metro Express routes with different fare structures and routing. Metro buses are given line numbers; this method was devised by the SCRTD, Metro's predecessor. All service operated by Metro as of 28 June 2018. Local bus service to/from other areas; the line numbering begins at line 2 and proceeds counterclockwise around Downtown Los Angeles, ending at line 96 East/west service, not serving Downtown Los Angeles.
North/south service, not serving Downtown Los Angeles. Limited-stop versions of traditional local routes, which make fewer stops and operate during peak times. Most limited-stop routes are designated by placing a 3 before a main line number. Most limited-stop routes have been replaced by Metro Rapid routes. Shuttles, special routes and local service within one or two adjacent neighborhoods and/or jurisdictions. Former Metro Local Routes