Suba is the 11th locality of Bogotá, capital of Colombia. It is located in the northwest of the city, bordering to the north the municipality of Chía in Cundinamarca, to the west the municipality of Cota, to the east the locality Usaquén and to the south the localities Engativá and Barrios Unidos; this district is inhabited by residents of all social classes. Suba is either derived from the Muysccubun contraction Suba, meaning "Flower of the Sun" or from the words sua and sie. Suba has certain green areas concentrated in the west of the locality, on the Suba Hills and the La Conejera Hills, as well as the plains where urbanization has developed. Suba has become a residential area with small industrial and commercial zones located in the south of the locality; the Suba Hills separate the locality into two parts. The locality borders the Bogotá River to the northwest and borders at Calle 240 the municipality of Chia. To the south, the Juan Amarillo River and Calle 100 form the boundary with the localities of Engativá and Barrios Unidos.
The eastern limit is the Autopista Norte with the locality of Usaquén and to the west, the Bogotá River forms the boundary with the municipality of Cota. Besides the Bogota and Juan Amarillo rivers the locality of Suba is covered by other streams and wetlands like the Torca and Guaymaral wetlands, La Conejera, Córdoba and the Tibabuyes wetland; the Avenida Suba is the one that connects eastern with western Suba. Other major streets include the Avenida Ciudad de Cali to the west and the Autopista Norte to the east; the Avenida Boyacá crossed Suba from north to south. Since April 29, 2006, the mass-transit system TransMilenio covers the area along the Autopista Norte with its "B Line". Other avenues like Avenida Boyacá, Avenida Ciudad de Cali, Calle 134 and Calle 170 are serviced by regular bus companies. There is an inter-municipal highway that connects the locality of Suba with the municipality of Cota in the department of Cundinamarca; the main economic activity of Suba relies on the cultivation of export quality flowers and commerce, specially of large shopping centers like Bulevar Niza, Centro Suba, Plaza Imperial and Centro Comercial Santa Fé.
Suba hosts a Regional Forest Reserve Zone, called La Conejera, located in the northwestern part of the locality and 12 Units of Zone Planning which are: La Academia, San José de Bavaria, Britalia, El Prado, La Alhambra, La Floresta, Casablanca, Suba centro, El Rincón and Tibabuyes. During the Last Glacial Maximum in the Late Pleistocene, the climate in the region of Suba gave rise to alternations of páramo and Andean forests. Since 12,000 years BP, groups of hunter-gatherers inhabited the area. Around 3500 BC, the people began to cultivate crops and create arts and crafts. By 500 BC, maize and potatoes were the predominant products cultivated and by the year 800 the Muisca inhabited the area. After the Spanish conquest of the Muisca, in 1538, the Muisca were preserved in a Resguardo, located in the area of Suba and to the north in Chía and Cota. In 1550, Antonio Días Cardoso and Hernán Camilo Monsilva founded the village of Suba. On June 22, 1850, the Resguardo of the Muisca in Suba was closed and the indigenous people forced away from the urban areas.
This process continued until the year 1877. On November 16, 1875, Suba was declared a territory free of indigenous people and became a satellite municipality of Bogotá, it became a municipality by decree during the Sovereign State of Cundinamarca. The rural area was divided into landlords and peasants. In 1954 the municipality was formally annexed to the "Special District of Bogotá" during the reign of Gustavo Rojas Pinilla while still keeping its municipality status. In 1977, a minor city hall was constructed and in 1991 Suba was elevated to a locality of the renamed Capital District. In 1990, the indigenous peoples of Suba and their towns were recognized by the government and ratified in the Colombian Constitution of 1991. In 1992 and 2001, the Cabildo Muisca of Suba and the Cabildo Muisca of Bosa were recognized in an official ceremony with the participation of the Mayor of Bogotá Antanas Mockus as stipulated in the Law 89 of 1890 and after more than a century without legal existence, it was ratified in 2005.
According to the numbers provided by the respective Cabildos, the Muisca population of Suba is estimated to 5186 people. The indigenous last names with their origin in Suba are conserved as Niviayo, Cabiativa, Nivia, Muzuzu, Yopasá, Quinche. Suba and La Conejera Hills Wetlands of Córdoba, Juan Amarillo and La Conejera Headquarters of the indigenous peoples Cabildo Central Park of Suba Viewpoint of Los Nevados The southeastern zone includes the neighborhoods of Niza, Las Floresta and Prado; the neighborhoods of Andes, La Floresta, Puente Largo, Santa Rosa, San Nicolás, Morato, La Alhambra, Malibú, Batán, Niza, Córdoba, Las Villas, Colina Campestre and Prado Veraniego. This area is inhabited by upper middle and upper class residents; the northeastern zone includes the neighborhoods of San José de Bavaria, Mazurén, Casablanca, Granada Norte, Villa del Prado, Nueva Zelandia, Mirandela
Public transport is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, that charge a posted fee for each trip. Examples of public transport include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport systems run along fixed routes with set embarkation/disembarkation points to a prearranged timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. However, most public transport trips include other modes of travel, such as passengers walking or catching bus services to access train stations. Share taxis offer on-demand services in many parts of the world, which may compete with fixed public transport lines, or compliment them, by bringing passengers to interchanges. Paratransit is sometimes used for people who need a door-to-door service.
Urban public transit differs distinctly among Asia, North America, Europe. In Asia, profit-driven, privately-owned and publicly traded mass transit and real estate conglomerates predominantly operate public transit systems In North America, municipal transit authorities most run mass transit operations. In Europe, both state-owned and private companies predominantly operate mass transit systems, Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger. Services can be profitable through high usership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated and subsidised from local or national tax revenue. Subsidised, free of charge services operate in some towns and cities. For geographical and economic reasons, differences exist internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. While countries in the Old World tend to have extensive and frequent systems serving their old and dense cities, many cities of the New World have more sprawl and much less comprehensive public transport.
The International Association of Public Transport is the international network for public transport authorities and operators, policy decision-makers, scientific institutes and the public transport supply and service industry. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries from all over the globe. Conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, the earliest public transport was water transport: on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades; some historical forms of public transport include the stagecoach, traveling a fixed route between coaching inns, the horse-drawn boat carrying paying passengers, a feature of European canals from their 17th-century origins. The canal itself as a form of infrastructure dates back to antiquity – ancient Egyptians used a canal for freight transportation to bypass the Aswan cataract – and the Chinese built canals for water transportation as far back as the Warring States period which began in the 5th century BCE.
Whether or not those canals were used for for-hire public transport remains unknown. The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662, although the service in question failed a few months after its founder, Blaise Pascal, died in August 1662; the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger horse-drawn railway opened in 1806: it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the first public steam railway in the world; the first successful electric streetcar was built for 12 miles of track for the Union Passenger Railway in Richmond, Virginia in 1888. Electric streetcars could carry heavier passenger loads than predecessors, which reduced fares and stimulated greater transit use. Two years after the Richmond success, over thirty two thousand electric streetcars were operating in America.
Electric streetcars paved the way for the first subway system in America. Before electric streetcars, steam powered subways were considered. However, most people believed that riders would avoid the smoke filled subway tunnels from the steam engines. In 1894, Boston built the first subway in the United States, an electric streetcar line in a 1.5 mile tunnel under Tremont Street’s retail district. Other cities such as New York followed, constructing hundreds of miles of subway in the following decades. Aerial lift Aerial tramway Funifor Chairlift Detachable chairlift Funitel Gondola lift Maritime transport Ferry Cable ferry Reaction ferry Water taxi Land transport Personal public transport Bicycle-sharing system Carsharing Personal rapid transit Rail transport Inter-city rail High-speed rail Maglev Urban rail transit Airport rail link Atmospheric railway Automated guideway transit Cable car Cable railway Commuter rail Elevated railway Funicular Inclined elevator Light rail Medium-capacity rail system Mono
Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
Portal de Suba (TransMilenio)
El Portal de Suba is one of the terminus stations of the TransMilenio mass-transit system of Bogotá, which opened in the year 2000. Portal de Suba is located in northwestern Bogotá on Avenida Suba with Avenida Ciudad de Cali. Map The station opened April 29, 2006 after several months of construction delays on the line; the largest delay was in the construction of the underpass at the intersection of Avenida Suba with NQS and Avenida Calle 80. It is one of the two termini. Nearby is the Imperial shopping center, with its anchor Carrefour and the Éxito of Suba; the station has the following feeder routes: 11.1 Avenida Suba loop 11.2 San Andrés loop 11.3 Villamaría loop 11.4 Aures loop 11.5 Avenida Cali loop 11.6 Las Mercedes loop 11.7 Pinar loop 11.8 La Gaitana loop 11.9 Lisboa loop 11.10 Bilbao loop In the outside part of the Portal of Suba there is a Satellite Transport Parabiter from where they leave intermunicipal buses with different destinies to the nearby municipalities like Cota and Chía.
TransMilenio Bogotá TransMilenio List of TransMilenio Stations
Suba Transversal 91 (TransMilenio)
The simple station Suba-Transversal 91, or Suba - Tv.91 by its abbreviation, is part of the TransMilenio mass-transit system of Bogotá, which opened in the year 2000. The station is located in northwestern Bogotá on Avenida Suba between Carreras 91 and 94C, it is the nearest station to the center of the old village of Suba, now incorporated into the city of Bogotá. It serves the Provenza, Suba-Centro, La Trinidad neighborhoods. In 2006, phase two of the TransMilenio system was completed, including the Avenida Suba line, on which this station is located; the station is named Suba - Tv.91 due to its proximity to that intersection. This station does not have connections to feeder routes; this station does not have inter-city service. Bogotá TransMilenio List of TransMilenio Stations TransMilenio
Avenida Suba is a major road in northern Bogotá, connecting the locality of Suba with the rest of the capital. Avenida Suba is named after the locality Suba. Suba is either derived from the Chibcha contraction Suba, meaning "Flower of the Sun" or from the words sua and sie, it is known as Troncal Suba due to being one of the main lines in the TransMilenio system. Its southern end begins at the intersection of Avenida NQS with Calle 80 in the locality of Barrios Unidos, it runs north entering Suba at Calle 100. At the shopping center Centro Suba it splits into two, turning into Avenida Transversal de Suba and Antigua Avenida de Suba; the Portal de Suba of the TransMilenio system Iserra 100 shopping center Bulevar Niza shopping center Centro Suba shopping center The Colina Campestre neighborhood
Bogotá Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D. C. and known as Santafé/Santa Fé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although erroneously thought of as part of Cundinamarca. Bogotá is a territorial entity of the first order, with the same administrative status as the departments of Colombia, it is the political, economic and industrial center of the country. Bogotá was founded as the capital of the New Kingdom of Granada on August 6, 1538, by Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada after a harsh expedition into the Andes conquering the Muisca; the Muisca were the indigenous inhabitants of the region and called the settlement where Bogotá was founded Bacatá, which in the Chibcha language means "The Lady of the Andes." Further, the word'Andes' in the Aymara language means "shining mountain," thus rendering the full lexical signification of Bogotá as "The Lady of the shining mountain." After the Battle of Boyacá on August 7, 1819, Bogotá became the capital of the independent nation of Gran Colombia.
Since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire and during the formation of present-day Colombia, Bogotá has remained the capital of this territory. The city is located in the center of Colombia, on a high plateau known as the Bogotá savanna, part of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense located in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes, it is the third-highest capital in South America and in the world after Quito and La Paz, at an average of 2,640 metres above sea level. Subdivided into 20 localities, Bogotá has an area of 1,587 square kilometres and a cool climate, constant through the year; the city is home to central offices of the executive branch, the legislative branch and the judicial branch of the Colombian government. Bogotá stands out for its economic strength and associated financial maturity, its attractiveness to global companies and the quality of human capital, it is the financial and commercial heart of Colombia, with the most business activity of any city in the country.
The capital hosts the main financial market in Colombia and the Andean natural region, is the leading destination for new foreign direct investment projects coming into Latin America and Colombia. It has the highest nominal GDP in the country, responsible for a quarter of the nation's total; the city's airport, El Dorado International Airport, named after the mythical El Dorado, handles the largest cargo volume in Latin America, is third in number of people. Bogotá is home to the largest number of universities and research centers in the country, is an important cultural center, with many theaters and museums, of which the Museo del Oro is the most important. Bogotá ranks 52nd on the Global Cities Index 2014, is considered a global city type "Alpha −" by GaWC; the area of modern Bogotá was first populated by groups of indigenous people who migrated south based on the relation with the other Chibcha languages. The civilisation built by the Muisca, who settled in the valleys and fertile highlands of and surrounding the Altiplano Cundiboyacense, was one of the four great civilisations in the Americas.
The name Muisca Confederation has been given to a loose egalitarian society of various chiefs who lived in small settlements of maximum 100 bohíos. The agriculture and salt-based society of the people was rich in goldworking and mummification; the religion of the Muisca consisted of various gods related to natural phenomena as the Sun and his wife, the Moon. Their complex luni-solar calendar, deciphered by Manuel Izquierdo based on work by Duquesne, followed three different sets of years, where the sidereal and synodic months were represented, their astronomical knowledge is represented in one of the few extant landmarks of the architecture of the Muisca in El Infiernito outside Villa de Leyva to the north of Bogotá. The first populations inhabiting the present-day Metropolitan Area of Bogotá, were hunter-gatherer people in the late Pleistocene; the oldest dated evidence thus far has been discovered in El Abra, north of Zipaquirá. Dated excavations in a rock shelter southwest of the city in Soacha provided ages of ~11,000 BP.
Since around 0 AD, the Muisca domesticated part of their meat diet. The people inhabiting the Bogotá savanna in the late 15th century were the Muisca, speaking Muysccubun, a member of the Chibcha language family. Muisca means "person", making "Muisca people", how they are called, a tautology. At the arrival of the conquerors, the population was estimated to be half a million indigenous people on the Bogotá savanna of up to two million in the Muisca Confederation, they occupied the highland and mild climate flanks between the Sumapaz Mountains to the southwest and Cocuy's snowy peak to the northeast, covering an approximate area of 25,000 km2, comprising Bogotá's high plain, the current Boyacá department portion and a small Santander region. Trade was the most important activity of the Muisca with other Chibcha-speaking neighbours, such as the Guane, Lache and U'wa and with Cariban groups as the Muzo or "Emerald People", their knowledge of salt pro