Medieval literature is a broad subject, encompassing essentially all written works available in Europe and beyond during the Middle Ages. The literature of time was composed of religious writings as well as secular works. Just as in literature, it is a complex and rich field of study, from the utterly sacred to the exuberantly profane. Works of literature are often grouped by place of origin, however, in Eastern Europe, the influence of the Eastern Roman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox Church made Greek and Old Church Slavonic the dominant written languages. The common people continued to use their respective vernaculars, although the extant versions of these epics are generally considered the works of individual poets, there is no doubt that they are based on their peoples older oral traditions. Celtic traditions have survived in the lais of Marie de France, the Mabinogion, another host of vernacular literature has survived in the Old Norse literature and more specifically in the Saga literature of Iceland. A notable amount of literature is anonymous.
This is not only due to the lack of documents from a period, medieval authors often deeply respected the classical writers and the Church Fathers and tended to re-tell and embellish stories they had heard or read rather than invent new stories. And even when they did, they claimed to be handing down something from an auctor instead. From this point of view, the names of the individual authors seemed much less important, the invention of biography can be attributed to this time period. It had such ancient forebears as Plutarchs Parallel Lives and Suetoniuss Lives of the Twelve Caesars, theological works were the dominant form of literature typically found in libraries during the Middle Ages. Catholic clerics were the center of society in the Middle Ages. Countless hymns survive from time period. The liturgy itself was not in fixed form, and numerous competing missals set out individual conceptions of the order of the mass, hagiographies, or lives of the saints, were frequently written, as an encouragement to the devout and a warning to others.
The Golden Legend of Jacobus de Voragine reached such popularity that, in its time, francis of Assisi was a prolific poet, and his Franciscan followers frequently wrote poetry themselves as an expression of their piety. Dies Irae and Stabat Mater are two of the most powerful Latin poems on religious subjects, goliardic poetry was an art form used by some clerics to express dissent. The text of these plays was often controlled by local guilds, during the Middle Ages, the Jewish population of Europe produced a number of outstanding writers. Maimonides, born in Cordoba and Rashi, born in Troyes, secular literature in this period was not produced in equal quantity as religious literature, but much has survived and we possess today a rich corpus
Antonio de Nebrija
Antonio de Nebrija, known as Antonio de Lebrija, Elio Antonio de Lebrija, Antonius Nebrissensis, and Antonio of Lebrixa, was a Spanish Renaissance scholar. He was a teacher, historian and astronomer, best known for writing a grammar of the Castilian language and his grammar is often credited as the first published grammar of a Romance language and set the standard for subsequent modern Spanish language grammars. De Nebrijas given name was Antonio Martínez de Cala, in typical Renaissance humanist fashion, he latinized his name as Aelius Antonius Nebrissensis by taking Aelius from the Roman inscriptions of his native Lebrija, the Roman Nebrissa Veneria. He signed his books as Antonius Lebrixen and Antonius Nebrissen and he was born in the former Nebrissa Veneria, known today as Lebrija, in the Province of Seville, almost bordering the Province of Cádiz. His father was Antonio de Cala e Hinojosa and his mother was Catalina de Xarava y Ojo and her father was of marrano origin and his mother was Jewish converted to Catholicism.
He was the second of five children, after studying at Salamanca, Nebrija resided for ten years in Italy, having received a scholarship from the diocese of Córdoba to study theology at the Colegio de San Clemente in Bologna. He completed his education at Bologna University, on his return to Spain, he devoted himself to the advancement of classical learning among his fellow countrymen. After obtaining the professorship of poetry and grammar at Salamanca, he was transferred to the University of Alcalá de Henares, Nebrija wrote about a variety of subjects including cosmography and theology. In 1481 he published a grammar entitled, Introductiones latinae, Nebrijas services to the cause of classical literature in Spain have been compared with those rendered by Valla and Scidaeus to Italy, the Netherlands, and France, respectively. In 1492, he published the first grammar of the Spanish language and he dedicated this book to Isabella I of Castile, the catholic queen. When the book was presented to her, she asked, “Why would I want a work like this.
He answered, “Majesty, the language is the instrument of the empire. ”Moreover, he said of his intentions, “Presently, they waste their leisure on novels and Latin have been governed by art, and thus have kept their uniformity throughout the ages. Unless the like of this be done for our language, in vain Your Majestys chroniclers and your labor will not last more than a few years, and we shall continue to feed on Castilian translations of foreign tales about our own kings. Either your feats will fade with the language or they will roam among aliens abroad and your Majesty, I want to lay the foundations for the dwelling in which your fame can settle. Now, Your Majesty, let me come to the last advantage that you gain from my grammar. For the purpose, recall the time when I presented you with a draft of this book earlier this year in Salamanca, at this time, you asked me what end such a grammar could possibly serve. Upon this, the Bishop of Avila interrupted to answer in my stead, what he said was this, Soon Your Majesty will have placed her yoke upon many barbarians who speak outlandish tongues.
By this, your victory, these people shall stand in a new need, the need for the laws the victor owes to the vanquished, and the need for the language we shall bring with us
Love is a variety of different feelings and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection to pleasure. It can refer to an emotion of an attraction and personal attachment. Love can be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion and it may describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, ones self or animals. Ancient Greeks identified four forms of love, kinship or familiarity, sexual and/or romantic desire, modern authors have distinguished further varieties of romantic love. Non-Western traditions have distinguished variants or symbioses of these states, Love has additional religious or spiritual meaning—notably in Abrahamic religions. This diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of the feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, compared to other emotional states. Love in its various forms acts as a facilitator of interpersonal relationships and. Love may be understood as a function to human beings together against menaces.
The word love can have a variety of related but distinct meanings in different contexts, cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment of a universal definition. Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, abstractly discussed love usually refers to an experience one person feels for another. Love often involves caring for, or identifying with, a person or thing, including oneself, in addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding love, ideas about love have changed greatly over time. Some historians date modern conceptions of love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages. The complex and abstract nature of love often reduces discourse of love to a thought-terminating cliché, several common proverbs regard love, from Virgils Love conquers all to The Beatles All You Need Is Love. St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as to will the good of another, bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of absolute value, as opposed to relative value.
Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is to be delighted by the happiness of another, meher Baba stated that in love there is a feeling of unity and an active appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the object of love. Biologist Jeremy Griffith defines love as unconditional selflessness, a person can be said to love an object, principle, or goal to which they are deeply committed and greatly value. People can love material objects, animals, or activities if they invest themselves in bonding or otherwise identifying with those things, if sexual passion is involved, this feeling is called paraphilia. Interpersonal love refers to love human beings
The primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spains large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism. Over half of Spains Jews had converted as a result of the persecution and pogroms which occurred in 1391. A further number of those chose to avoid expulsion as a result of the edict. In 2014, the government of Spain passed a law allowing dual citizenship to Jewish descendants who apply, beginning in the 8th century, Muslims had conquered and settled most of the Iberian Peninsula. Jews, who had lived in these regions since Roman times, were considered People of the Book and given special status, the tolerance of the Muslim Moorish rulers of al-Andalus attracted Jewish immigration, and Jewish enclaves in Muslim Iberian cities flourished as places of learning and commerce. By the 14th century, most of the Iberian Peninsula had been conquered by the Christian kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, León, Navarre, overt hostility against Jews became more pronounced, finding expression in brutal episodes of violence and oppression.
Thousands of Jews sought to escape attacks by converting to Christianity, they were commonly called conversos, New Christians. At first these conversions seemed a solution to the cultural conflict. But eventually their success made these new Catholics unpopular with some of the clergy of the Church and these suspicions on the part of Christians were only heightened by the fact that some of the coerced conversions were undoubtedly insincere. These secret practitioners are referred to as crypto-Jews or marranos. The existence of crypto-Jews was a provocation for secular and ecclesiastical leaders who were hostile toward Spains Jewry. The uncertainty over the sincerity of Jewish converts added fuel to the fire of antisemitism in 15th century Spain, from the 13th to the 16th centuries European countries expelled the Jews from their territory on at least 15 occasions. Spain was preceded by England and some German states, among many others, in 1478, Ferdinand and Isabella made formal application to Rome for a tribunal of the Inquisition in Castile to investigate these and other suspicions.
In 1487, King Ferdinand promoted the establishment of the Spanish Inquisition Tribunals in Castille, in Aragon, the independent Islamic Emirate of Granada had been a tributary state to Castile since 1238. In 1492, Ferdinand and Isabella completed the Catholic Reconquista of the Iberian Peninsula from Islamic al-Andalus by victory in the Battle of Granada, the king and queen issued the Alhambra Decree less than three months after the surrender of Granada. This was primarily a decision of Isabella, not her husband Fernando and that her confessor had just changed from the tolerant Hernando de Talavera to the very intolerant Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros suggests that Cisneros may well have had a role in Isabels decision. In it, Jews were accused of trying to subvert their holy Catholic faith and these measures were not new in Europe. Some Jews were only four months and ordered to convert to Christianity or leave the country
Courtly love was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry. Medieval literature is filled with examples of knights setting out on adventures and this kind of love is originally a literary fiction created for the entertainment of the nobility, but as time passed, these ideas about love changed and attracted a larger audience. In the high Middle Ages, a game of love developed around these ideas as a set of social practices, loving nobly was considered to be an enriching and improving practice. Courtly love began in the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine, Champagne, ducal Burgundy, the term courtly love was first popularized by Gaston Paris and has since come under a wide variety of definitions and uses. Its interpretation and influences continue to be a matter of critical debate, Paris said amour courtois was an idolization and ennobling discipline. Sexual satisfaction, Paris said, may not have been a goal or even end result, the term and Pariss definition were soon widely accepted and adopted.
In addition, other terms and phrases associated with courtliness and love are common throughout the Middle Ages and this presents a clear problem in the understanding of courtliness. The practice of love was developed in the castle life of four regions, Provence and ducal Burgundy. Eleanor of Aquitaine brought ideals of love from Aquitaine first to the court of France, to England. Her daughter Marie, Countess of Champagne brought courtly behavior to the Count of Champagnes court, Courtly love found its expression in the lyric poems written by troubadours, such as William IX, Duke of Aquitaine, one of the first troubadour poets. The troubadours model of the lady was the wife of his employer or lord. When her husband was away on Crusade or other business she dominated the household and cultural affairs, the lady was rich and powerful and the poet gave voice to the aspirations of the courtier class, for only those who were noble could engage in courtly love. This new kind of love saw nobility not based on wealth and family history, lovers in the context of courtly love need not refer to sex, but rather the act of emotional loving.
These lovers had short trysts in secret, which escalated mentally, the rules of courtly love were codified by the late 12th century in Andreas Capellanus highly influential work De Amore. De amore lists such rules as Marriage is no excuse for not loving, He who is not jealous cannot love, No one can be bound by a double love. Much of its structure and its sentiments were derived from Ovids Ars amatoria, given that practices similar to courtly love were already prevalent in Al-Andalus and elsewhere in the Islamic world, it is very likely that Islamic practices influenced the Christian Europeans. William of Aquitane, for example, was involved in the First Crusade, the notions of love for loves sake and exaltation of the beloved lady have been traced back to Arabic literature of the 9th and 10th centuries. The notion of the power of love was developed in the early 11th century by the Persian psychologist and philosopher, Ibn Sina
Hispanic Society of America
A second building, on the north side of the terrace, was added in 1930. Exterior sculpture in front of that includes work by Anna Hyatt Huntington and nine major reliefs by the Swiss-American sculptor Berthold Nebel. The Hispanic Society complex was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2012, the museum contains more than 18,000 works in every medium, ranging from prehistoric times to the 20th century. A major component of this museum is the Sorolla Room which was reinstalled in 2010 and it displays the Vision of Spain,14 massive paintings commissioned by Archer Huntington that Sorolla created from 1911 to 1919. These magnificent paintings, totaling over 200 linear feet, ring the large room, the library contains over 250,000 books,200,000 documents,175,000 photographs, and 15,000 prints. The rare books library maintains 15,000 books printed before 1700 and it holds the manuscript Black Book of Hours Horae Beatae Virginis Mariae ad usum Romanum, one of only a handful of such works, and the enormous Map of the World by Juan Vespucci.
Beginning January 1,2017, the museum is closed for renovations until the fall of 2019. The $15 million project will replace the roof and lighting. While the museum is closed, many of its works will be lent to other institutions, about 200 of the societys most important works will be displayed from April through September 2017 at the Museo del Prado in Madrid. List of Books Printed Before 1601 in the Library of the Hispanic Society of America – via HathiTrust, official website A Collection in Context, The Hispanic Society of America by the Media Center for Art History, Columbia University
Kingdom of Navarre
The medieval Kingdom of Pamplona was formed when the native chieftain Íñigo Arista was elected or declared King in Pamplona, and led a revolt against the regional Frankish authority. The southern part of the kingdom was conquered by the Crown of Castile in 1512, the monarchs of this unified state took the title King of France and Navarre until its fall in 1792, and again during the Bourbon Restoration from 1814 until 1830. There are similar earlier toponyms but the first documentation of Latin navarros appears in Eginhards chronicle of the feats of Charles the Great, other Royal Frankish Annals give nabarros. Basque naba/Castilian nava + Basque herri, the linguist Joan Coromines consider naba as not clearly Basque in origin but as part of a wider pre-Roman substrate. The area was conquered by the Romans by 74 BC. It was first part of the Roman province of Citerior, of the Tarraconensis province, after that it was part of the conventus Caesaraugustanus. The Roman empire influenced the area in urbanization, infrastructure, after the decline of the Western Roman Empire, neither the Visigoths nor the Arabs succeeded in permanently occupying the western Pyrenees.
The western Pyrenees passages were the only ones allowing good transit through the mountains and that made the region strategically important from early in its history. The Franks under Charlemagne extended their influence and control towards the south, occupying several regions of the north and it is not clear how solid the Frankish control over Pamplona was. In response, the Cordoban Emirate launched a campaign to place the region under their firm control and it placed a muwallad governor, Mutarrif ibn Musa, in Pamplona. The same year the Basque leader, Jimeno the Strong, submitted to the Emir, in 799, Mutarrif ibn Musa was killed by a pro-Frankish faction whose leader Velasco gained control of the region. In 806 and 812 Pamplona fell into the Franks hands, due to difficulties at home, the Frankish rulers could not give full attention to the outlying borderlands, and the country gradually withdrew entirely from their allegiance. In 816, Louis the Pious removed Seguin as Duke of Vasconia, the rebel Garcia Jiménez arose in his place, and was killed in turn in 818.
Louis son Pepin, King of Aquitaine, stamped out the Vasconic revolt in Gascony and he next hunted the chieftains who had taken refuge in southern Vasconia, i. e. Pamplona and Navarre, no longer controlled by the Franks. He sent an army led by the counts Aeblus and Aznar-Sanchez, on the way back, they were ambushed and defeated in Roncesvaux by a probable joint Vasconic-Banu Qasi force. Out of this pattern of resistance against both Frankish and Cordoban interests, the Basque chieftain Íñigo Arista took power, tradition tells he was elected as king of Pamplona in 824, giving rise to a dynasty of kings in Pamplona that would last for eighty years. Pamplona and Navarre are cited as separate entities in a Frankish Carolingian chronicle, Pamplona is cited in 778 by another Frankish account as a Navarrese stronghold, while this may be put down to their vague knowledge of the Basque territory. They distinguished Navarre and its main town in 806 though, while the Chronicle of Fontenelle quotes Induonis et Mitionis, Arab chroniclers make no such distinctions, and just talk of the Baskunisi, a transliteration of Vascones, since a big majority of the population was Basque
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a flexible, sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened, following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, and are much more durable than paperbacks. Hardcover books are more costly to manufacture. If brisk sales are anticipated, an edition of a book is typically released first. Some publishers publish paperback originals if slow hardback sales are anticipated, for very popular books these sales cycles may be extended, and followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper. In the past the release of an edition was one year after the hardback. It is very unusual for a book that was first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback, an example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, and in hardcover.
Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Hardcovers typically consist of a block, two boards, and a cloth or heavy paper covering. The pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, and it too is covered by the cloth, a paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is usually put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is generally a blurb, the back flap is where the biography of the author can be found. Reviews are often placed on the back of the jacket, bookbinding Paperback How to make a simple Hardcover book
Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual. Individualism is often defined in contrast to totalitarianism, authoritarianism, Individualism makes the individual its focus and so starts with the fundamental premise that the human individual is of primary importance in the struggle for liberation. Classical liberalism and anarchism are examples of movements that take the individual as a central unit of analysis. Individualism thus involves the right of the individual to freedom and self-realization and it has been used as a term denoting The quality of being an individual, individuality related to possessing An individual characteristic, a quirk. A more positive use of the term in Britain came to be used with the writings of James Elishama Smith, who was a millenarian and a Christian Israelite. Although an early Owenite socialist, he rejected its collective idea of property. Without individualism, Smith argued, individuals cannot amass property to increase ones happiness, an individual is a person or any specific object in a collection.
From the 17th century on, individual indicates separateness, as in individualism, individuality is the state or quality of being an individual, a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs and desires. The individualist does not follow one particular philosophy, rather creates an amalgamation of elements of many, on a societal level, the individualist participates on a personally structured political and moral ground. Independent thinking and opinion is a trait of an individualist. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, claims that his concept of general will in the contract is not the simple collection of individual wills. Societies and groups can differ in the extent to which they are based upon predominantly self-regarding behaviors, the principle of individuation, or principium individuationis, describes the manner in which a thing is identified as distinguished from other things. For Carl Jung, individuation is a process of transformation, whereby the personal and it is a completely natural process necessary for the integration of the psyche to take place.
Jung considered individuation to be the process of human development. Thus, the atom is replaced by a never-ending ontological process of individuation. Individuation is an incomplete process, always leaving a pre-individual left-over. The philosophy of Bernard Stiegler draws upon and modifies the work of Gilbert Simondon on individuation and upon similar ideas in Friedrich Nietzsche, for Stiegler the I, as a psychic individual, can only be thought in relationship to we, which is a collective individual. The I is constituted in adopting a collective tradition, which it inherits, methodological individualism is the view that phenomena can only be understood by examining how they result from the motivations and actions of individual agents
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
As a literary device, an allegory is a metaphor whose vehicle may be a character, place or event, representing real-world issues and occurrences. Many ancient religions are based on astrological allegories, that is, allegories of the movement of the sun, in classical literature two of the best-known allegories are the Cave in Platos Republic and the story of the stomach and its members in the speech of Menenius Agrippa. One of the examples of allegory, Platos Allegory of the Cave. In this allegory, Plato describes a group of people who have lived chained in an all of their lives. The people watch shadows projected on the wall by things passing in front of a fire behind them and begin to ascribe forms to these shadows, using language to identify their world. He tries to tell the people in the cave of his discovery, allegorical is Ezekiel 16 and 17, wherein the capture of that same vine by the mighty Eagle represents Israels exile to Rome. Allegory has an ability to freeze the temporality of a story, Mediaeval thinking accepted allegory as having a reality underlying any rhetorical or fictional uses.
The allegory was as true as the facts of surface appearances, if, the Greeks or others say that they were not committed to the care of Peter and his successors, they necessarily confess that they are not of the sheep of Christ. This text demonstrates the frequent use of allegory in religious texts during the Mediaeval Period, following the tradition, since meaningful stories are nearly always applicable to larger issues, allegories may be read into many stories which the author may not have recognised. This is allegoresis, or the act of reading a story as an allegory. S, lewis and A Kingdom Far and Clear, The Complete Swan Lake Trilogy by Mark Helprin. The story of the apple falling onto Isaac Newtons head is another famous allegory and it simplified the idea of gravity by depicting a simple way it was supposedly discovered. It made the scientific revelation well known by condensing the theory into a short tale. According to Henry Littlefields 1964 article, L. Yet, George MacDonald emphasised in 1893 that, A fairy tale is not an allegory, I much prefer history – true or feigned– with its varied applicability to the thought and experience of readers. I think that many confuse applicability with allegory, but the one resides in the freedom of the reader, and this further reinforces the idea of forced allegoresis, as allegory is often a matter of interpretation and only sometimes of original artistic intention.
Like allegorical stories, allegorical poetry has two meanings – a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning, some unique specimens of allegory can be found in the following works, Edmund Spenser – The Faerie Queene, The several knights in the poem actually stand for several virtues. Nathaniel Hawthorne – Young Goodman Brown, The Devils Staff symbolises defiance of God, the characters names, such as Goodman and Faith, ironically serve as paradox in the conclusion of the story. Nathaniel Hawthorne – The Scarlet Letter, The scarlet letter symbolises many things, the characters, while developed with interiority, are allegorical in that they represent ways of seeing the world. George Orwell – Animal Farm, The pigs stand for political figures of the Russian Revolution, lászló Krasznahorkai - The Melancholy of Resistance and the film Werckmeister Harmonies, It uses a circus to describe an occupying dysfunctional government
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that pleasure and happiness are the primary or most important intrinsic goods and the proper aim of human life. A hedonist strives to maximize net pleasure, but when finally gained of that pleasure, either through intrinsic or extrinsic goods, ethical hedonism is the idea that all people have the right to do everything in their power to achieve the greatest amount of pleasure possible to them. It is the idea that every persons pleasure should far surpass their amount of pain, ethical hedonism is said to have been started by Aristippus of Cyrene, a student of Socrates. He held the idea that pleasure is the highest good, Hedonism is a sub philosophy of utilitarianism, which says to act in a way that maximizes utility. Hedonists equate pleasure with utility and believe that pleasure is the master of all humankind, the name derives from the Greek word for delight. An extremely strong aversion to hedonism is hedonophobia, in the original Old Babylonian version of the Epic of Gilgamesh, which was written soon after the invention of writing, Siduri gave the following advice Fill your belly.
Dance and make music day and night These things alone are the concern of men, the following is a song attributed to the reign of one of the Pharoahs around the time of the 12th dynasty, and the text was used in the eighteenth and nineteenth dynasties. The school was so called after Cyrene, the birthplace of Aristippus and it was one of the earliest Socratic schools. The Cyrenaics taught that the only good is pleasure, which meant not just the absence of pain. Of these, momentary pleasures, especially physical ones, are stronger than those of anticipation or memory and they did, recognize the value of social obligation, and that pleasure could be gained from altruism. Theodorus the Atheist was an exponent of hedonism who was a disciple of younger Aristippus. The school died out within a century, and was replaced by Epicureanism, the Cyrenaics were known for their skeptical theory of knowledge. They reduced logic to a doctrine concerning the criterion of truth. They thought that we can know with certainty our immediate sense-experiences and they denied that we can have knowledge of what the experiences of other people are like.
These sensations are motions which are subjective, and are painful, indifferent or pleasant, according as they are violent. Further they are individual, and can in no way be described as constituting absolute objective knowledge. Feeling, therefore, is the only criterion of knowledge. Our ways of being affected are alone knowable, thus the sole aim for everyone should be pleasure