Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, and—the largest and most populated—A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC, in a region coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia; this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and cliffs; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. The population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: Galician and Spanish. Galician is a Romance language related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, Spanish, sometimes referred to as Castilian, used throughout the country. Spanish is spoken fluently by all in Galicia, in 2013 it was reported that 51% of the Galician population used more Galician on a day-to-day, 48% used more Spanish.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'. In any case, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, means'the land of the Galicians'; the most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo afte
First Ladies and Gentlemen of Argentina
The First Lady or First Gentleman of Argentina is the unofficial and protocol title of the spouse of the sitting President of Argentina. The first lady or first gentleman is not an elected position, carries no official duties and brings no salary. Nonetheless, he or she participates in charitable work. Furthermore, many have taken an active role in campaigning for the president with whom they are associated; some facts about the First Ladies and Gentlemen of the Argentine Nation are: Juana del Pino y Vera Mujica, whom born in Uruguay and Regina Pacini, whom born in Portugal are the only two First Ladies of Argentina who were born in a foreign country. Eva Perón, First Lady from 1946 until her death, was the most important and influential First Lady, known for her work in many charitable and feminist causes. Before her death, the Argentine Congress named her the "Spiritual Leader of the Nation". Isabel Perón was the first First Lady to become the President of Argentina in 1974. Zulema María Eva Menem, nicknamed Zulemita, was the first and only presidential daughter known to act as a first lady.
Cristina Fernández, former First Lady from 2003 to 2007 was the first woman democratically elected President of Argentina. Néstor Kirchner, former Argentine president, was the only First Gentleman of Argentina. Juliana Awada, is the first First Lady of Argentina in the history of her country of Arab descent; this list included all persons who served as First Ladies and First Gentlemen, regardless of whether they were married to the incumbent President or not, as well as persons who are considered to have acted as first lady by the official Casa Rosada website
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million. The city of Buenos Aires is the Province's capital. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province; the city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Flores. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, its citizens first elected a chief of government in 1996.
Buenos Aires is considered an'alpha city' by the study GaWC5. Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018, it is the most visited city in South America, the second-most visited city of Latin America. Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination, is known for its preserved Eclectic European architecture and rich cultural life. Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 the 2018 G20 summit. Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country; this is because in the last 150 years the city, the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.
It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira, as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city, adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea; the statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors Andalusians, venerated this image and invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be erected in Seville.
In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds", said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna de Bonaria. Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, was abandoned in 1541. For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives concluded that the name was indeed linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre. A second settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción.
Garay preserved the name chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire. The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century; the usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs. As, it is common as well to refer to it as "B. A." or "BA". While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word. Seaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516, his expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay. The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre after Our Lady of Bonaria on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza; the settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre. More attacks by the indigenous
Ángel Borlenghi was an Argentine labour leader and politician associated with the Peronist movement. Ángel Gabriel Borlenghi was born in Buenos Aires to Italian immigrants, in 1904. Becoming a retail clerk by profession, Borlenghi's socialist ideology soon led him to join the Commercial Employees' Federation, his position in the union rose after his fellow socialists advanced the 1926 formation of the Argentine Workers' Confederation, Borlenghi was named Secretary General of the FEC when the COA fused with another, leftist union to become the CGT, in 1930. Borlenghi was named director of the Interunion Committee, thus given the twin responsibilities of coordinating policy among the myriad unions in the CGT, as well as resolving conflict as it appeared; the CGT presented its first platform in 1931, drafting a program calling for a guaranteed freedom to organize, greater pay and benefits, a formal say in public policy, among other reforms. Sparing use of strike actions and intense lobbying on Borlenghi's part as the Interunion Committee head, resulted in Congressional passage of the landmark Law 11729, in 1936.
This success arrived during a period of growing divisions in the CGT, however. As head of the largest sector within the CGT at the time, Borlenghi helped separate the more socialist sectors from the rest in 1936, leaving them to reconstitute the smaller USA union. Further contention led to Borlenghi's joining municipal workers' leader Francisco Pérez Leirós into a "CGT Number 2," in 1942; the following June, conservative President Ramón Castillo was deposed in a nationalist coup d'état. The removal of the mercantilist and politically fraudulent Castillo regime elicited initial, positive reactions from both CGTs, Borlenghi engaged in policy discussions with Alberto Gilbert, the new Interior Minister. Gilbert, promptly allied the new regime with the less combative "CGT Number 1," ordering the dissolution of the CGT-2; the decision did not permanently divide the labor movement, because one of the coup's leaders, Lt. Col. Domingo Mercante, was tied through family connections to the railway workers' union.
Its leader, José Domenech, was the Secretary General of the CGT-1. The Railway Union's chief counsel, Juan Atilio Bramuglia, seized this opening to create a close alliance with the government, was joined in these talks by Borlenghi and Pérez Leirós; the negotiations were soon joined by the Secretary of Labor and personal friend of Mercante's: Col. Juan Perón. Union representatives found in Perón a sympathetic and charismatic voice through whom they could be a strong influence in government policy. Only around 10 percent of Argentina's labor force was unionized at the time, many union leaders saw a unique opportunity in Perón, who obtained their support for his request to the president that the Labor Secretariat by made into a cabinet-level ministry. Others supported the idea of backing Perón in a Labor Party ticket, outright. Borlenghi was opposed to such a mutually-binding endorsement, though by 1945, the Labor Minister's record had won him over, as well as much of the now-reunified CGT. Perón rise to prominence fed rivalries within the regime, which had him resign as Vice President and arrested on October 9.
Convinced that he had been permanently sidelined, a meeting of 24 union leaders resolved to create their Labor Party, to proceed with or without Perón. There were two abstentions, however: telecommunications workers' leader Luis Gay and Borlenghi, they joined Perón's mistress, Eva Duarte, in organizing mass demonstrations for his release and by October 17, they had obtained most other unions' support for the measure. The successful mobilization led to the charter of the Labor Party on October 24 - with Perón as its candidate. Borlenghi, still affiliated to the Socialist Party of Argentina, resigned his membership in it when the party joined an opposition alliance, the Democratic Union. Handily elected in February 1946, Perón rewarded Borlenghi's tested support and organizational skill with an appointment as Interior and Justice Ministry; the post would give him purview over the courts, law enforcement and vetting power over most political strategy. He moved to advance the president's agenda by organizing a Labor Party convention for the purpose of re-chartering it as the Peronist Party, in 1947, ordered the purchase of a majority stake in Haynes Publishing, from which El Laborista, Mundo Peronista and an array of other magazines were published as government mouthpieces.
Through his control of the nation's largest police department, the 25,000-man "Policía Federal," Borlenghi had numerous opposition figures jailed. Some of the most intransigent were taken to a basement in the newly expanded Ramos Mejía Hospital, where torture became routine; the president's confidence in Borlenghi was buttressed by the creation of the Federal Security Council in 1951, which included transferring the National Gendarmery and the Naval Prefecture from military control. Faced with such measures, some among the opposition began making conciliatory overtures to the powerful Interior Minister. Others soon followed, though the Peronists' main opposition, the centrist UCR, refused this approach, leading Borlenghi to publicly blame them for the continuation of the state of siege declared in
Manuel Gregorio Argerich or Manuel Argerich was an Argentine philosopher, lawyer, politician and medical doctor. Manuel Gregorio Argerich was born in Buenos Aires in 1835, his brother, Juan Antonio, was born in 1840 and was, like Manuel, a key figure during the cholera and yellow fever epidemics. He helped organize the commission to organize a plan to manage the epidemic with José Roque Pérez, he was a professor of director of an orphan's home. They were descendants of Dr. Cosme Argerich. Argerich had children. Under the command of Argentine caudillo Juan Manuel de Rosas governor of Buenos Aires, he cared for the wounded and injured soldiers during the Battle of Caseros in which Rosas' authoritarian regime was defeated. Following the battle, which led to flight of Rosas to Great Britain, Argerich was documented to have stayed in the field voluntarily after Rosas' defeat, treating not only wounded soldiers and fellow officers under Rosas' command, but Urquiza's soldiers stricken by smallpox, with complete indifference as to which uniform his patients wore.
A year after Urquiza was assassinated, Argerich treated the victims of Buenos Aires' epidemics of Cholera in 1867 and Yellow Fever in 1871. Argerich was identified as one of the "ministering angels", not part of the mass exodus from the city, but stayed behind at his peril to tend to the sick who remained in Buenos Aires, he is depicted treating a patient alongside Dr. Roque Perez in Juan Manuel Blanes' iconic 1871 portrait, Yellow Fever of the great Buenos Aires epidemic of 1871. Although he was committed to his responsibilities as a physician, he was conflicted, he said to José Manuel Estrada 3 days before he died: "My Children! My Wife! Have I the right to defy death and risk abandoning them forever?" He is remembered as a pioneer of the Spanish theatrical genre known as the Zarzuela. Argerich wrote the lyrics for Los Consejos de Don Javier, or The Advice of Don Javier, was put to music in 1892 by Felice Lebano, it was first played at the Buenos Aires' Apollo Theater on September 1, 1892. In anticipation of the premier, La Nación issued a review on July 14, 1892 stating that the music by Lebano, in particular, made the work innovative, Zarzuela music.
It was one of the first popular works of Zarzuela theater in Argentina. During the great yellow fever epidemic of 1871, tirelessly continued his care of the sick until succumbing to the disease on May 25, 1871, the 61st anniversary of the Argentine Revolution, he was one of the 13,614 victims of the Buenos Aires Yellow Fever epidemic. Three days at his funeral, his contemporary Jose Manuel Estrada, Argentine writer, eulogized him, a portion of, translated from Spanish: In the sweet love of his home life, in the severe labour of scientific inquiry, he searched for a moderation of his overflowing passions - which he always felt were delayed and out of harmony with the pace by which they had defined his nature in the heat of his youth. Susceptible to all the turbulent agitations of the people, it was impossible for him to be indifferent to their bad fortune and desolation; this man of charity revealed himself with complete furor. Manuel Argerich contributed to a renaissance by serving the poor - sign with which the Divine Master makes known to the people the coming of his Redemption.
Argerich is buried in Buenos Aires at the La Chacarita Cemetery. His gravesite was declared a National Monument in 1970 and is a highlight of prominent graves in a tour of that cemetery
Ovidio Cátulo González Castillo was an Argentine poet and tango music composer. He was the author of many famous works, such as Organito de la tarde, El aguacero, Tinta roja and Caserón de tejas, María and La última curda, El último café; the tango La calesita, which he composed with Mariano Mores, inspired the film of the same name directed in 1962 by Hugo del Carril. His father, José González Castillo, an anarchist, wanted to list himself in the civil registry as Descanso Dominical González Castillo, but was convinced by his friends not to, kept his other name; as an infant, Cátulo lived in Chile. He returned to Argentina in 1913. Cátulo affiliated with the Communist Party. Cátulo composed Organito de la tarde, his first tango, at the age of 17, he was a boxer becoming the featherweight champion in Argentina and was pre-selected for the Paris Olympics, attending as part of his country's delegation, but not competing. In 1926, he traveled to Europe, where he would conduct his own orchestra. During the 30's, he obtained one of the cathedras of the Municipal Conservatory of Manuel de Falla in Buenos Aires.
In 1950, he would become the director of that conservatory. During the 40's and 50's, when tango was at its peak, he dedicated himself to poetry and wrote with distinguished composers: Mores, Pugliese, Sebastián Piana, his main collaborator after 1945: Aníbal Troilo, he wrote for many journals, published the book Danzas Argentinas in 1953, composed songs for different films, wrote the lyrical sainete El Patio de la Morocha, was both secretary and president of SADAIC in different years. In 1953, he became president of the National Commission of Culture of the Nation. Two years the military government, the so-called Revolución Libertadora, stripped him of everything he had achieved, his wife, Amanda Pelufo, recalls those times: Because of persecution by Pedro Eugenio Aramburu's government, he had to abandon his profession. Included on blacklists with dozens of other tangueros like Hugo de Carril, Nelly Omar, Héctor Mauré, Anita Palmero, Chola Luna, among others, he was persecuted for his political ideas, did not return to work until the regime's fall.
With the political thaw in the 60's, Cátulo returned to his former activity. He continued composing, writing radical screenplays, working in SADAIC, he published un hombre, which became a film directed by Hugo del Carril. He published Prostibulario, on his correspondence with Perón, in 1971. Among his most popular songs were: Maria, El último café, La última curda, La Calesita, Café de los Angelitos, Desencuentro, Y a mi qué, A Homero, Mensaje, Tinta roja, Patio mío, Caserón de tejas. In 1974, he was named Illustrious Citizen of Buenos Aires. Upon receiving the award, he told a short fable: He died 19 October 1975 from a heart attack. AuthorEl patio de la morocha La calesita Amalio Reyes, un hombre Perón, sinfonía del sentimiento MusicInternado Juan Moreira Los muchachos se divierten Arrabalera SoundtracksAyúdame a vivir Eclipse de sol Buenos Aires a la vista Vivir un instante La muerte flota en el río Últimas imágenes del naufragio TextsÉsta es mi Argentina Gobello, José. Mujeres y hombres que hicieron el tango.
Buenos Aires. Centro Editor de Cultura Argentina. ISBN 950-898-081-8. Manrupe, Raúl. Un diccionario de films argentinos. Buenos Aires: Editorial Corregidor. ISBN 950-05-0896-6. Cátulo Castillo, Todo Tango Información sobre Cátulo Castillo on the Argentine national film website
Carlos di Sarli
Carlos Di Sarli was an Argentine tango musician, orchestra leader and pianist. Carlos di Sarli was born at 511 Buenos Aires street in the city of Bahía Blanca, located in Southern Argentina, he was the eighth child of the Italian immigrant Miguel Di Sarli, the owner of a gunsmith store, Serafina Russomano, daughter of the tenor singer Tito Russomano. Baptized as Cayetano di Sarli in accordance with the solid Catholic tradition of his parents, he changed his name to Carlos. Music played an important role in the family: Carlos' older brother Domingo was a teacher at the Williams music conservatory in Bahía Blanca, another older child, became a famous baritone, Carlos' younger brother, turned into a pianist. Carlos received training in classical music in the conservatory. In 1916, working in his father's store, he suffered an accident that cost him an eye and which forced him to wear glasses for the rest of his life. Once recovered from the accident, 13-year-old Carlos joined a company of traveling musicians, touring various provinces and playing popular music including tangos.
He moved to Santa Rosa in the La Pampa province where a friend of his father, another Italian immigrant by the name of Mario Manara, owned a cinema and a club. He played piano there for two years, accompanying silent movies and performing early tango songs at the club. In 1919, he returned to Bahía Blanca and set up his first orchestra, playing at the Cafe Express on the corner of Zelarrayan and Buenos Aires streets, in Cafe Moka, on O'Higgins street; the orchestra did tours in the provinces La Pampa, Córdoba, San Juan and Salta. In 1923, Carlos and his younger brother Roque moved to Buenos Aires. There, with the help of Alberico Spatola, the composer of the tango El trece and the director of the Buenos Aires police orchestra, he was able to join the band of Anselmo Aieta. In early 1924, Carlos joined an orchestra directed by the violin player Juan Pedro Castillo, the trio of Alejandro Scarpino, he accompanied the actress and singer Olinda Bozán on her recordings for the Electra label and worked as part of a sextet in the cabaret Chantecler.
Thanks to a recommendation from José Pécora, a violin player, he joined Osvaldo Fresedo's orchestra in 1926 and played at the opening night of the Fénix theater in the Buenos Aires neighborhood of Flores. Fresedo became an important influence on di Sarli's music as well as a good friend; the tango Viejo milonguero, which di Sarli composed around 1927-28 was dedicated to Fresedo. It was around the same time that Juan "Pacho" Maglio and José María Rizzutti recorded the tango Meditación which di Sarli had composed around 1919 but never recorded himself. In late 1927 he started to set up his own sextet or orchestra tipica, directing it from behind the piano that he himself played. With the orchestra, di Sarli played live in clubs as well as radio shows in Radio Cultura and recorded for the label RCA Victor. In addition to instrumentals, he recorded with the vocalists Santiago Devincenzi, Ernesto Famá and Fernando Díaz; these singers were hired only to sing the short verses during the performances and were not constant members of his orchestra, unlike the musicians.
Between November 26, 1928 and August 14, 1931, he recorded 48 tracks including the tangos T. B. C. by Edgardo Donato, Maldita by Antonio Rodio and Celedonio Flores, the Eduardo Arolas compositions La guitarrita and Una noche de garufa. In 1930, during a performance in the café El Germinal, di Sarli had an argument with one of the café's owners who did not understand that he wore dark glasses on stage for medical reasons because of his accident at age 13. Di Sarli promptly moved with his orchestra to Bahía Blanca, where he performed at the La Central club. In 1932, Antonio Rodríguez Lesende joined the orchestra as a singer. In 1934, for unclear reasons, di Sarli left the orchestra and moved to Rosario in Santa Fe province where he joined a small band with the bandoneón player Juan Cambareri, the violin player Alberto Saikievich and the singer Roberto Pieri, his sextet continued to play without him changing its name to Orquesta Novel due to their performances at the club Novelty. At the request of the orchestra's members in 1935, di Sarli rejoined the band temporarily to replace the pianist Ricardo Canataro, ill at the time.
In late 1938, di Sarli in January 1939 debuted in Radio El Mundo. His orchestra consisted of Roberto Guisado, Ángel Goicoechea and Adolfo Pérez on violin, Roberto Gianitelli, Domingo Sánchez and Roberto Mititieri on bandoneón and Domingo Capurro on bass; the singer was Ignacio Murillo, soon to be replaced by Roberto Rufino, 16 years old at the time. On December 11, 1939, they recorded for RCA Victor the tangos Retirao by Carlos Posadas, he stayed with this recording label until 1949. In November 1951, he returned to the label Music Hall until April 1953 recording 84 tracks with the vocals of Mario Pomar and Oscar Serpa. From June 1954 until 1958 he returned to the RCA Victor label, leaving that year for Philips to record his last 14 tracks with Horacio Casares and Jorge Durán. Since 1958, in addition to Di Sarli on the piano, the orchestra included the violinists Roberto Guisado, Elvino Vardaro, A. Rouco, Szymsia Bajour, Carlos Arnaiz, Juan Schiaffino, C. González and A. Rossi.