A rhinoceros, often abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species. Two of these extant species are native to Africa and three to Southern Asia and they generally eat leafy material, although their ability to ferment food in their hindgut allows them to subsist on more fibrous plant matter, if necessary. Unlike other perissodactyls, the two African species of rhinoceros lack teeth at the front of their mouths, relying instead on their lips to pluck food. Rhinoceros are killed by humans for their horns, which are bought and sold on the market. East Asia, specifically Vietnam, is the largest market for rhino horns, by weight, rhino horns cost as much as gold on the black market. People grind up the horns and consume them believing the dust has therapeutic properties, the horns are made of keratin, the same type of protein that makes up hair and fingernails. Both African species and the Sumatran rhinoceros have two horns, while the Indian and Javan rhinoceros have a single horn, the IUCN Red List identifies three of the species as critically endangered.
The word rhinoceros is derived through Latin from the Ancient Greek, ῥῑνόκερως, the plural in English is rhinoceros or rhinoceroses. The collective noun for a group of rhinoceroses is crash or herd, the name has been in use since the 14th century. The family Rhinocerotidae consists of four extant genera, Dicerorhinus. The living species fall into three categories, the two African species, the white rhinoceros and the black rhinoceros, belong to the tribe Dicerotini, which originated in the middle Miocene, about 14.2 million years ago. The species diverged during the early Pliocene, the main difference between black and white rhinos is the shape of their mouths – white rhinos have broad flat lips for grazing, whereas black rhinos have long pointed lips for eating foliage. There are two living Rhinocerotini species, the Indian rhinoceros and the Javan rhinoceros, which diverged from one another about 10 million years ago, the Sumatran rhinoceros is the only surviving representative of the most primitive group, the Dicerorhinini, which emerged in the Miocene.
A subspecific hybrid white rhino was bred at the Dvůr Králové Zoo in the Czech Republic in 1977, interspecific hybridisation of black and white rhinoceros has been confirmed. While the black rhinoceros has 84 chromosomes, all other species have 82 chromosomes. However, chromosomal polymorphism might lead to varying chromosome counts, for instance, in a study there were three northern white rhinoceroses with 81 chromosomes. There are two subspecies of rhinoceros, the southern white rhinoceros and the northern white rhinoceros. As of 2013, the subspecies has a wild population of 20,405 – making them the most abundant rhino subspecies in the world
Allassac is a French commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France. Allassac, like many surrounding communes, is part of Vézère Ardoise Country and benefits from the label French Towns and Lands of Art, the town of Allassac is located at the intersection of departmental roads D9, D25, D34 and D134. It is traversed by the Orléans–Montauban railway line with a station at Allassac and it is located, in orthodromic distances,6 kilometres east of Objat and 12 kilometres north-west of Brive-la-Gaillarde. The commune is served by departmental roads D57, D148. Four kilometres to the south-east, the A20 autoroute allows direct access to Allassac through Exit 48, apart from the town the commune has the following hamlets, Le Saillent In Latin aqua saliens meaning leaping water. The name evokes the rapids and a cascade into a deep gorge and it was called ad illo Salente in 904. Allassac is derived from the Gallo-Roman word Alaciacus, the first mention in the form Allassac was in the will of Aredius.
He called it Alaciaco in 947 and it was Allassat until the beginning of the French Revolution before the final appearance of the current name in 1801. The site of La Roche was inhabited as early as the Mesolithic period as evidenced by the Racloirs, when it was occupied by the Romans Allassac already had several slate quarries that allowed rapid development of the town. In 572 Saint Yrieix and his mother donated a farm and forges to Allassac which was part of Yssandon Country, in the Carolingian period there was already a fortified complex with a church and a house belonging to the abbots of Limoges as well as a stately home. In 864 the relics of the Holy Innocents were transported to Allassac to protect them from Norman invaders, in the Middle Ages Allassac became a lordship of the Abbey of Saint-Martial of Limoges. This was a co-lordship belonging among others to the Roffignac family who were called the first Christians of Limousin, in the 14th century the town had a second enclosure with 17 towers,8 gates, and 6 castles.
The Bishopric fought to protect its territory, in the 16th and 17th centuries Allassac expanded due to the activities in the slate quarries and food curing despite several sieges. In 1569, Henry dAnjou spent a few days in the commune with his armies, in 1580 Allassac was the fourth largest city in Lower Limousin. The number of fortified noble houses was increasing, in 1790, Allassac was briefly the capital of the canton before giving way to Donzenac in 1801. In 1870 the population was 4,200 inhabitants and for over a slate mining remained an important industry. The farmers were slate miners but phylloxera ended this dual economy, the farmers turned to fruit and tobacco cultivation while developing slate quarries with the new opportunity to ship to Paris by train. List of Successive Mayors Mayors from 1941 In 2010 the commune had 3,796 inhabitants, the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793
Albussac is a French commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France. Albussac is located south-west of the Massif Central about 500m above sea level and it has an oceanic climate with temperatures ranging from 25 °C to 30 °C in summer and 9 °C in winter with periods of frequent cold waves in January and February. Albussac has regular snowfalls in winter with 20 cm of snow common, the Roanne has its source in the commune. Albussac is located some 100 km south-east of Limoges and 20 km east of Brive-la-Gaillarde and it can be accessed by the D921 road which comes from Beynat in the west and continues east through the commune and the village and continues to Saint-Chamant. There is the D87 road branching off the D940 just south of Sainte-Fortunade and coming through the border of the commune. There is a network of roads in the commune and numerous hamlets. The Valeine flows from the west north of the village gathering numerous tributaries in the commune, there is the Ruisseau de Mejeu forming part of the northern border flowing east to join the Souvigne.
In the west an unnamed stream flows north-west forming the border of the commune. List of Successive Mayors of Albussac In 2009, the commune had 688 inhabitants, the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years. Population Change Sources, Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The Church of Saint Martin is registered as an historical monument, roche de Vic is a former Gallic oppidum that dominated the region
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy.
The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools associated primarily with Neanderthals. They date to the Middle Paleolithic, the part of the European Old Stone Age. The culture was named after the site of Le Moustier. Similar flintwork has been all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East. Handaxes and points constitute the industry, sometimes a Levallois technique or another prepared-core technique was employed in making the flint flakes, Mousterian tools that have been found in Europe were made by Neanderthals and date from around 160,000 BP and 40,000 BP. In North Africa and the Near East, Mouseterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans, possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B. The industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45, Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa.
Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton, located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, gorhams Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites of Mousterian culture, including Teshik-Tash, siberia has many sites with Mousterian style implements, eg Denisova Cave. Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Synoptic table of the old world prehistoric cultures Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
Albignac is a French commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Albussacois or Albussacoises Albignac is located some 15 km east of Brive-la-Gaillarde and 20 km south by south-east of Saint-Germain-les-Vergnes, access to the commune from the south is by the D175 road which branches from the D921 east of Lanteuil. The D175 goes to the village of Albignac continues north to the hamlet of La Borie, the D130 enters the commune from Aubazine in the north by a circuitous route through La Viallard and exiting the commune in the south-east towards Fontourcy. The D14 road runs north to south inside the western side of the commune. There is a network of country roads in the commune. The commune is mixed farmland and forest, the Roanne flows north into the Correze river at Confolens. There are a number of hamlets in the commune. These are, Albignac comes from the Latin name of a man called Albinus or Albinius and it was called Albiniaco in 1095.
The 11th century Albignac had a priory which belonged to the abbey of Saint-Michel-de-la-Cluse in Piedmont, in the 15th century the priory depended on the Coyroux Priory at Aubazine. In the 12th century, Albignac depended on the Viscount of Gimel, list of Successive Mayors of Albignac In 2010, the commune had 244 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the censuses conducted in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held five years. Population Change Sources, Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The Church of Notre-Dame is registered as an historical monument and it has a bell tower, choir and bas-reliefs in stone
The Bovidae are the biological family of cloven-hoofed, ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, gazelles, goats and domestic cattle. A member of family is called a bovid. With 143 extant species and 300 known extinct species, the family Bovidae consists of eight major subfamilies apart from the disputed Peleinae and Pantholopinae, the family evolved 20 million years ago, in the early Miocene. The bovids show great variation in size and pelage colouration, excepting some domesticated forms, all male bovids have two or more horns, and in many species females possess horns, too. Most bovids bear 30 to 32 teeth, social activity and feeding usually peak during dawn and dusk. Bovids typically rest before dawn, during midday, and after dark and they have various methods of social organisation and social behaviour, which are classified into solitary and gregarious behaviour. Bovids use different forms of vocal and tangible communication, most species alternately feed and ruminate throughout the day.
While small bovids forage in dense and closed habitat, larger species feed on vegetation in open grasslands. Mature bovids mate at least once a year and smaller species may even mate twice, the greatest diversities of bovids occur in Africa. The maximum concentration of species is in the savannas of eastern Africa, other bovid species occur in Europe and North America. Bovidae includes three of the five domesticated mammals whose use has spread outside their original ranges, namely cattle, dairy products such as milk and cheese are manufactured largely from domestic cattle. Bovids provide leather and wool, the name Bovidae was given by the British zoologist John Edward Gray in 1821. The word Bovidae is the combination of the prefix bov- and the suffix -idae, the family Bovidae is placed in the order Artiodactyla. It includes 143 extant species, accounting for nearly 55% of the ungulates, molecular studies have supported monophyly in the family Bovidae. The number of subfamilies in Bovidae is disputed, with suggestions of as many as ten, in addition, three extinct subfamilies are known, Hypsodontinae and the subfamily Tethytraginae, which contains Tethytragus.
In 1992, Alan W. Boodonts have somewhat primitive teeth, resembling those of oxen, a controversy exists about the recognition of Peleinae and Patholopinae, comprising the genera Pelea and Pantholops respectively, as subfamilies. Pantholops, earlier classified in the Antilopinae, was placed in its own subfamily. However and morphological analysis supports the inclusion of Pantholops in Caprinae, below is a cladogram based on Gatesy et al. and Gentry et al
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Beaulieu-sur-Dordogne is a commune in the Corrèze department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of central France. Beaulieu is a city, originally dominated by its great abbey of St Pierre. Like those at nearby Uzerche and Limoges, the abbey of St Peter at Beaulieu was a Benedictine foundation of the 9th century and it was established around 855 by Rudolphe of Turenne, Archbishop of Bourges. The first monks came from the abbey of Solignac, near Limoges, as its wealth grew, the independence of the abbey was threatened by neighbouring feudal lords and it was defended against their depredations by the bishops of Limoges. In the 11th century it was absorbed by Cluny Abbey, around 1095, the construction of the great abbey church was begun and it continued for nearly half a century. In the fourteenth century, a separate western steeple was erected, the abbey declined during the Hundred Years War, which devastated the region. The religious wars completed the process, the town and abbey fell to the Hugenots in October 1569, and it was not until 1663 that the abbey began to function again.
It was dissolved with the French Revolution and destroyed, apart from the church, the church has a nave of four spans, a transept and a large choir, surrounded by an ambulatory. The choir, the arm of the transept and much of the nave date back to the original Romanesque phase of the building. The belfry and the tower are of later, Gothic construction. The total length of building is 71 metres, and the width at the transept is 38 metres, the nave rises to 17 metres, while the central tower exceeds it by 6 metres. The most notable feature of the church is the elaborately sculpted south portal, instead of the usual Last Judgement, this depicts the Second Coming, the triumphant return of Christ, and the General Resurrection. A2.1 metre Christ, his arms spread in the form of a cross, is flanked by the 12 Apostles, while angels above him carry the crown, other angels sound the trumpet to summon up the dead. Another notable feature is a fine baroque retable in gilded wood, dating from 1678 and it depicts the Assumption of the Virgin.
The treasury contains a number of important high medieval items, including a Virgin and Child, communes of the Corrèze department INSEE Official Web Site