Teshik-Tash 1 is a Neanderthal skeleton discovered in 1938 in Teshik-Tash Cave, in the Bajsuntau mountain range, Uzbek SSR, central Asia. The remains were discovered in 1938 by A. P. Okladnikov, they were found in a shallow pit, reported to be associated with five pairs of Siberian ibex horn cores. Through dental analysis the skull was said to have been an 8 to 11 year old child; the horn cores were found around the perimeter of the grave surrounding. This has led a number of researchers to believe; the site was excavated in five cultural layers of sediment with Mousterian artefacts. Lack of adequate published material on the excavation and the numerous Ibex bones found led to this interpretation being questioned. Paul Mellars, questioning the ritual interpretation suggested that the bones may not have been deliberately placed. Others believe; the remains are not dated. Based on the archaeology and skeleton itself, it is thought to come from the Middle Palaeolithic; the Teshik-Tash skull was reconstructed from 150 bone fragments.
The skull was crushed due to the several layers of sediment. The Teshik-Tash skull’s dental analysis placed the age of the hominid between 8–9 years old at the time of death; the size of the skull was larger than that of a modern child’s skull of the same age. Archaeologists suggested that this was because Neanderthals have a faster rate of growth than modern Homo sapien adolescences; the skull is larger and taller and exhibited typical Neanderthal traits such as an occipital bun, oval-shaped foramen magnum, shovel-shaped incisors, supraorbital ridge, the absence of a strong chin. Other midfacial features of the skull such as the lingual of the mandibular foramen were said to be more characteristic of modern humans than Neanderthals; the morphological features of the Teshik-Tash skull lead researchers to question the classification as some argued that it was closer in morphological association with Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens. Statistical analysis of 27 linear measurements placed the Teshik-Tash skull and mandible outside the variation of the Neanderthals and associated it with Upper Paleolithic humans.
MtDNA analysis was conducted on the Teshik-Tash skull which confirmed that the skull was Neanderthal. Further genetic research concluded that near-eastern Neanderthals were somewhat segregated from northwestern European Neanderthals and early Neanderthals along the Mediterranean; this data is suggested through consistent low levels of gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans in the Near East. Prior to the discovery of the Teshik-Tash skull in 1938, it was thought that Neanderthals had not spread east enough to reach Central Asia. List of human evolution fossils List of Neanderthal sites 37°57′57″N 67°09′23″E
Neanderthals in Gibraltar
The Neanderthals in Gibraltar were among the first to be discovered by modern scientists and have been among the most well studied of their species according to a number of extinction studies which emphasize regional differences claiming the Iberian Peninsula acted as a “refuge” for the shrinking Neanderthal populations and the Gibraltar community of Neanderthals as having been one of many dwindling communities of archaic human populations, existing just until around 42,000 years ago. Many other Neanderthal communities went extinct around the same time; the skull of a Neanderthal woman, discovered in a quarry in 1848, was only the second Neanderthal skull found and the first adult Neanderthal skull to be discovered, eight years before the discovery of the skull for which the species was named in Neandertal, Germany. The skull of a Neanderthal child was discovered nearby in 1926; the Neanderthals are known to have occupied ten sites on the Gibraltar peninsula at the southern tip of Iberia, which may have had one of the densest areas of Neanderthal settlement of anywhere in Europe, although not the last place of possible habitation.
The caves in the Rock of Gibraltar that the Neanderthals inhabited have been excavated and have revealed a wealth of information about their lifestyle and the prehistoric landscape of the area. The peninsula stood on the edge of a fertile coastal plain, now submerged, that supported a wide variety of animals and plants which the Neanderthals exploited to provide a varied diet. Unlike northern Europe, which underwent massive swings in its climate and was uninhabitable for long periods, the far south of Iberia enjoyed a stable and mild climate for over 125,000 years, it became a refuge from the ice ages for animals and Neanderthals, the latter of which most did not survive there for thousand years longer than any other habitation site. Around 42,000 years ago, the climate underwent cycles of abrupt change which would have disrupt the Gibraltar Neanderthals' food supply and may have stressed their population beyond recovery, leading to their aggregated extinction in areas of Europe with similar climates.
In Gibraltar, but in other less well studied areas, did the Homo Neanderthalensis leave its last footprint of existence circa 40,000 BCE. The Gibraltar Neanderthals first came to light in 1848 during excavations in the course of the construction of a fortification called Forbes' Barrier at the northern end of the Rock of Gibraltar; the skull of a Neanderthal was discovered in Forbes' Quarry by Lieutenant Edmund Flint, though its exact provenance is unknown, was the subject of a presentation to the Gibraltar Scientific Society by Lieutenant Flint in March 1848. It was not realised at the time that the skull, now known as Gibraltar 1, was of a separate species and it was not until 1862 that it was studied by palaeontologists George Busk and Hugh Falconer during a visit to Gibraltar, they gave a report on it to the British Association for the Advancement of Science in 1864 and proposed that the species be called Homo calpicus after Mons Calpe, the ancient name for Gibraltar. It was only realised that the skull was a specimen of Homo neanderthalensis, named for the Neanderthal 1 skull found in Germany in 1856.
Busk described it as "characteristic of a race extending from the Rhine to the Pillars of Hercules", highlighting its importance as confirmation that the Neanderthal 1 specimen was genuinely a member of a distinct species and not a deformed Homo sapiens. The skull was the first Neanderthal adult cranium to be discovered and, although small, is nearly complete. In 1926, a second Neanderthal skull was found by Dorothy Garrod at a rock shelter named Devil's Tower close to Forbes' Quarry; this fossil, known as Gibraltar 2, is much less complete than the Gibraltar 1 skull and has been identified as that of a four-year-old child. Further excavations at the two sites are infeasible. Quarrying at Forbes' Quarry has meant that it has been denuded of Pleistocene sediments while Devil's Tower is directly under the North Front of the Rock of Gibraltar and is one of the most dangerous places on the entire peninsula due to frequent rockfalls; the limestone massif of the Rock of Gibraltar is riddled with caves – its ancient name, means "hollow" – and it was here that archaeologists focused their efforts to find sites of Neanderthal occupation.
Ten such sites have been discovered so far, of which the most important are five caves on the eastern side of the Rock: Ibex Cave, high up on the east side, only discovered in 1975 due to being buried under the wind-blown sands of the Great Gibraltar Sand Dune, four sea caves near sea level on the south-eastern flank, Boathoist Cave, Vanguard Cave, Gorham's Cave and Bennett's Cave. Large-scale excavations in 1947–54 by John d'Arcy Waechter showed that Gorham's Cave had been occupied for over 100,000 years during the Middle Palaeolithic, Upper Palaeolithic and Holocene epochs. Further excavations have been carried out in Gorham's, Vanguard and Ibex Caves since 1994 as part of the Gibraltar Museum's Gibraltar Caves Project; the excavations have revealed the best evidence of a Neanderthal landscape found anywhere, buried under many metres of sand, fallen stalactites, bat guano and other debris that has fortuitously preserved an abundance of palaeontological evidence on the cave floors. The finds have enabled palaeontologists to reconstruct the lifestyles of the occupants and their environment in considerable detail.
The finds in Gorham's Cave include charcoal, stone tools and burnt
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, which radiated in the Middle Pleistocene from about 700,000 to 300,000 years ago, known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe. African H. heidelbergensis has several subspecies. The subspecies are Homo heidelbergensis heidelbergensis, Homo heidelbergensis daliensis, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo heidelbergensis steinheimensi; the derivation of Homo sapiens from Homo rhodesiensis has been proposed, but is obscured by a fossil gap from 400–260 kya. The species was named Homo heidelbergensis due to the skeleton's first discovery near Heidelberg, Germany; the first discovery—a mandible—was made in 1907 by Otto Schoetensack. The skulls of this species share features with both Homo erectus and the anatomically modern Homo sapiens; the Sima de los Huesos cave at Atapuerca in northern Spain holds rich layers of deposits where excavations were still in progress as of 2018. H. Heidelbergensis was dispersed throughout Southern Africa as well as Europe.
Its exact relation both to the earlier Homo antecessor and Homo ergaster, to the lineages of Neanderthals and modern humans is unclear. Homo sapiens has been proposed as derived from H. heidelbergensis via Homo rhodesiensis, present in East and North Africa from around 400,000 years ago. The correct assignment of many fossils to a particular chronospecies is difficult and differences in opinion ensue among paleoanthropologists due to the absence of universally accepted dividing lines between Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo rhodesiensis and Neanderthals, it is uncertain whether H. heidelbergensis is ancestral to Homo sapiens, as a fossil gap in Africa between 400,000 and 260,000 years ago obscures the presumed derivation of H. sapiens from H. rhodesiensis. Genetic analysis of the Sima de los Huesos fossils seems to suggest that H. heidelbergensis in its entirety should be included in the Neanderthal lineage, as "pre-Neanderthal" or "archaic Neanderthal" or "early Neanderthal", while the divergence time between the Neanderthal and modern lineages has been pushed back to before the emergence of H. heidelbergensis, to about 600,000 to 800,000 years ago, the approximate time of disappearance of Homo antecessor.
The delineation between early H. heidelbergensis and H. erectus is unclear. Given the evidence, it means there is no direct evidence that suggest the Homo heidelbergensis is related to modern-day humans. H. heidelbergensis is thought to be derived from Homo antecessor, around 800,000 to 700,000 years ago. The oldest-known fossil classified as H. heidelbergensis dates to around 600,000 years ago, but the flint tools found in 2005 at Pakefield near Lowestoft in Suffolk with teeth from the water vole Mimomys savini, a key dating species, suggest human presence in England at 700,000 years ago, assumed to correspond to a transitional form between H. antecessor and H. heidelbergensis. Fifty prehistoric hominid footprints up to nearly one million years old were discovered in Happisburgh, England, they are members of Homo antecessor that lived from 1.2 million to 800,000 years ago. In Europe, H. heidelbergensis is taken to have given rise to H. neanderthalensis at 240,000 years ago. Homo sapiens most derived from H. rhodesiensis after around 300,000 years ago.
A morphological separation of a European and an African branch of H. heidelbergensis during the Wolstonian Stage and Ipswichian Stage, the last of the prolonged Quaternary glacial periods, has been argued based on the evidence of the Atapuerca skull in Spain and the Kabwe skull in modern-day Zambia. Neither the derivation of H. heidelbergensis from H. erectus, nor the derivation of anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals from H. heidelbergensis, are clear-cut and are the object of debate. Both H. erectus and H. heidelbergensis are described as polytypic species, which went through a number of population bottlenecks and associated In the summary of Hublin, Middle Pleistocene humans in Eurasia underwent a succession of population bottlenecks due to glaciations. The "Western Eurasian clade" derived form H. rhodesiensis or H. heidelbergensis sensu lato diverge at MIS 12 but coalesce as late as MIS 5, suggesting a division between Eurasian H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis before MIS 11.
A fossil gap in Africa between 400 and 260 kya obscures the presumed derivation of H. sapiens from H. rhodesiensis. Chris Stringer argues for Homo heidelbergensis as an independent chronospecies. A 2013 genetic study on the Sima de los Huesos fossils classified them as H. heidelbergensis or "early Neanderthal". For more than half a century, many experts were reluctant to accept Homo heidelbergensis as a separate taxon due to the rarity of specimens, which prevented sufficient informative morphological comparisons and the distinction of H. heidelbergensis from other known human species. The species name "heidelbergensis" only experienced a renaissance with the many discoveries of Middle Pleistocene fossils since the 1990s; the paleontology institute at Heidelberg University, where the type specimen is kept since 1908, as late as 2010 still classified it as Homo erectus heidelbergensis, i.e. categorizing it as a Homo erectus subspecies. This was changed to Homo heidelbergensis, accepting the categorization as separate species, in 2015."Rhodesian Man" (Kab
The Mousterian is a techno-complex of flint lithic tools associated with the earliest anatomically modern humans in North Africa and West Asia, as well as with the Neanderthals in Europe. The Mousterian defines the latter part of the Middle Paleolithic, the middle of the West Eurasian Old Stone Age, it lasted from 160,000 to 40,000 BP. If its predecessor, known as Levallois or "Levallois-Mousterian" is included, the range is extended to as early as c. 300,000–200,000 BP. The culture was named after the type site of Le Moustier, three superimposed rock shelters in the Dordogne region of France. Similar flintwork has been found all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East and North Africa. Handaxes and points constitute the industry; the European Mousterian is the product of Neanderthals. It existed from 160,000 to 40,000 BP; some assemblages, namely those from Pech de l'Aze, include exceptionally small points prepared using the Levallois technique among other prepared core types, causing some researchers to suggest that these flakes take advantage of greater grip strength possessed by Neanderthals.
In North Africa and the Near East, Mousterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans; the Mousterian industry in North Africa is estimated to be 315,000 years old. Possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B; the industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45,000-40,000 BP period. Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa, as well as in Bambata cave, Zimbabwe, in Southern Africa. Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton. Located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, contains Mousterian objects. Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites including Teshik-Tash.
Turkmenistan has Mousterian relics. Siberia has many sites with eg Denisova Cave. Israel is one of the places where remains of both Neandertals and Homo sapiens sapiens have been found in association with Mousterian artifacts. Lynford Quarry near near Mundford, England has yielded Mousterian tools The archaeological cave site of Azykh contains Mousterian relics in the overlying strata. In this cave low jaw of hominid named “Azykhantrop” has been found, it is supposed that this finding belongs to “pre-neanderthal” species Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
Arthritis is a term used to mean any disorder that affects joints. Symptoms include joint pain and stiffness. Other symptoms may include redness, warmth and decreased range of motion of the affected joints. In some types other organs are affected. Onset can be sudden. There are over 100 types of arthritis; the most common forms are rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis occurs with age and affects the fingers and hips. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that affects the hands and feet. Other types include gout, lupus and septic arthritis, they are all types of rheumatic disease. Treatment may include alternating between applying ice and heat. Weight loss and exercise may be useful. Pain medications such as ibuprofen and paracetamol may be used. In some a joint replacement may be useful. Osteoarthritis affects more than 3.8% of people while rheumatoid arthritis affects about 0.24% of people. Gout affects about 1–2% of the Western population at some point in their lives. In Australia about 15% of people are affected, while in the United States more than 20% have a type of arthritis.
Overall the disease becomes more common with age. Arthritis is a common reason that people can result in a decreased quality of life; the term is derived from arthr- and -itis. There are several diseases where joint pain is primary, is considered the main feature; when a person has "arthritis" it means that they have one of these diseases, which include: Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Gout and pseudo-gout Septic arthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis Still's diseaseJoint pain can be a symptom of other diseases. In this case, the arthritis is considered to be secondary to the main disease. Pain, which can vary in severity, is a common symptom in all types of arthritis. Other symptoms include swelling, joint stiffness and aching around the joint. Arthritic disorders like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis can affect other organs in the body, leading to a variety of symptoms. Symptoms may include: Inability to use the hand or walk Stiffness, which may be worse in the morning, or after use Malaise and fatigue Weight loss Poor sleep Muscle aches and pains Tenderness Difficulty moving the jointIt is common in advanced arthritis for significant secondary changes to occur.
For example, arthritic symptoms might make it difficult for a person to move around and/or exercise, which can lead to secondary effects, such as: Muscle weakness Loss of flexibility Decreased aerobic fitnessThese changes, in addition to the primary symptoms, can have a huge impact on quality of life. Arthritis is the most common cause of disability in the United States. More than 20 million individuals with arthritis have severe limitations in function on a daily basis. Absenteeism and frequent visits to the physician are common in individuals. Arthritis can make it difficult for individuals to be physically active and some become home bound, it is estimated that the total cost of arthritis cases is close to $100 billion of which 50% is from lost earnings. Each year, arthritis results in nearly 1 million hospitalizations and close to 45 million outpatient visits to health care centers. Decreased mobility, in combination with the above symptoms, can make it difficult for an individual to remain physically active, contributing to an increased risk of obesity, high cholesterol or vulnerability to heart disease.
People with arthritis are at increased risk of depression, which may be a response to numerous factors, including fear of worsening symptoms. Diagnosis is made by clinical examination from an appropriate health professional, may be supported by other tests such as radiology and blood tests, depending on the type of suspected arthritis. All arthritides feature pain. Pain patterns may differ depending on the location. Rheumatoid arthritis is worse in the morning and associated with stiffness lasting over 30 minutes. However, in the early stages, patients may have no symptoms after a warm shower. Osteoarthritis, on the other hand, tends to be associated with morning stiffness which eases quickly with movement and exercise. In the aged and children, pain might not be the main presenting feature. Elements of the history of the disorder guide diagnosis. Important features are speed and time of onset, pattern of joint involvement, symmetry of symptoms, early morning stiffness, gelling or locking with inactivity and relieving factors, other systemic symptoms.
Physical examination may indicate systemic disease. Radiographs are used to follow progression or help assess severity. Blood tests and X-rays of the affected joints are performed to make the diagnosis. Screening blood tests are indicated if
Everything about Neanderthal behaviour is controversial. From their physiology, Neanderthals are presumed to have been omnivores, but animal protein formed the majority of their dietary protein, showing them to have been apex predators and not scavengers; some studies suggest. The quality of stone tools at archaeological sites suggests Neanderthals were good at "expert" cognition, a form of observational learning and practice acquired through apprenticeship that relies on long-term procedural memory. Neanderthal toolmaking changed little over hundreds of thousands of years; the lack of innovation was said to imply they may have had a reduced capacity for thinking by analogy and less working memory. The researchers further speculated that Neanderthal behaviour would seem neophobic and xenophobic to modern humans. A 2018 open access paper discussed, in light of recent developments in the fields of paleogenetics and paleoanthropology, whether or not Neanderthals were rational; the authors' argument focuses on the genetic evidence that supports interbreeding with Homo sapiens, language acquisition, archaeological signs of cultural development and potential for cumulative cultural evolutionFew Neanderthals lived past 35.
It is not known whether Neanderthals were anatomically capable of speech and whether they spoke. A once-widely believed theory that the Neanderthal vocal tract was different from that of living humans and so could not speak is now discredited; the only bone in the vocal tract is the hyoid but is so fragile that no Neanderthal hyoid was found until 1983, when excavators discovered a well-preserved one on Neanderthal Kebara 2, Israel. It was similar to that of living humans. Although the original excavators claimed that the similarity of this bone with that of living humans implied Neanderthals were anatomically capable of speech, it is not possible to reconstruct the vocal tract with information supplied by the hyoid. In particular, it does not allow to determine whether the larynx of its owner was in a low-lying position, a feature considered important in producing speech. A 2013 study on the Kebara hyoid used X-ray microtomography and finite element analysis to conclude that the Neanderthal hyoid showed microscopic features more similar to a modern human's hyoid than to a chimpanzee hyoid.
To the authors, that suggested the Neanderthal hyoid was used to that in living humans, that is, to produce speech. Yet, because the authors did not compare the microscopic structure of the Kebara 2 hyoid with that of speech-hindered living humans, the result is not yet conclusive. Although some researchers believe Neanderthal tool-making is too complex for them not to have had language, toolmaking experiments of Levallois technology, the most common Neanderthal toolmaking technique, have found that living humans can learn it in silence. Neanderthals had the same DNA-coding region of the FOXP2 gene as living humans, but are different in one position of the gene's regulatory regions, the extent of FOXP2 expression might hence have been different in Neanderthals. Although the gene appears necessary for language—living humans who don't have the normal human version of the gene have serious language difficulties—it is not sufficient, it is not known whether FOXP2 evolved for or in conjunction with language, nor whether there are other language-related genes that Neanderthals may or may not have had.
The size and functionality of the Neanderthal Broca's and Wernicke's areas, used for speech generation in modern humans, is debated. In 1998, researchers suggested Neanderthals had a hypoglossal canal at least as large as humans, suggesting they had part of the neurological requirements for language; the canal carries the hypoglossal nerve, which controls the muscles of the tongue, necessary to produce language. However, a Berkeley research team showed no correlation between canal size and speech, as a number of extant non-human primates and fossilized australopithecines have larger hypoglossal canals; the morphology of the outer and middle ear of Homo heidelbergensis, the Neanderthal's ancestor, suggests they had an auditory sensitivity similar to modern humans and different from chimpanzees. Neanderthal and early anatomically modern human archaeological sites show a more simple toolkit than those found in Upper Paleolithic sites, produced by modern humans after about 50,000 BP. In both early anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals, there is little innovation in the toolkit.
Tools produced by Middle Palaeolithic humans in Eurasia are known as Mousterian. These were produced using soft hammer percussion, with hammers made of materials like bones and wood, rather than hard hammer percussion, using stone hammers. A result of this is that their bone industry was simple, they made stone implements. Neanderthal tools consisted of task-specific hand axes, many of which were sharp. There is evidence for violence among Neanderthals; the 40,000-year-old Neanderthal skull of St. Césaire has a healed fracture in its cranial vault caused by something sharp, suggesting interpersonal violence; the wound healed and the Neanderthal survived. Whether they had projectile weapons is controversial, they seem to have had wooden spears, but it is unclear whether they were used as projectiles or as thrusting spears. Wood implements survive, but several 320,000-year-old wooden spears about 2-metres in length were found near Schöningen, northern Germany, are believed to be the product of the older Homo heidelbergensis species.
Neanderthals used fire on occasion. They may have used Pyrolusite (manganese di
Scladina, or Sclayn Cave, is an archaeological site in the Andenne hills in Belgium, where excavations since 1978 have provided the material for an exhaustive collection of over thirteen thousand Mousterian stone artifacts and the fossilized remains of an ancient Neanderthal, called the Scladina child were discovered in 1993. The Scladina cave is located on a hill to the right of the Meuse river bank, south-west of Sclayn village, being one of a number of caves in the middle Meuse river region, where significant paleontological discoveries were made as in the Spy Cave and the Lyell Cave; the caves in the area have been undergone systematic exploration since 1949. Scladina Cave was discovered in 1971 by cavers of the CAS. In 1978 the Scientific Council of the Prehistory Department of the University of Liège began to direct the excavations. Since the site has yielded numerous artifacts of Mousterian Neanderthal origin, amidst assemblages of stone tools and faunal remains. After the clearing of the entrance the excavations uncovered two strata of Neanderthal occupation, the oldest dating back 130,000 years.
The sediments yielded artifacts and Mousterian stone tools, the earliest were attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic. The lithic industry of layer 5 is considered to be instrumental for a deeper understanding of the Mousterian settlements in the region and future studies might support the acquisition of a more accurate chronology and help to draw a more complete image of the contemporary environment of the site; the remarkably good state of preservation of the fossils, faunal remains and the sediments have the site allowed to become a point of reference in climatic evolution studies of Palaeolithic north-western Europe. Two Neanderthal occupation sites were identified, one dated to be 130,000 years old and the other 40,000 years. Modern humans infrequently occupied the site between 32,000 and 9,000 years ago and used the site as a burial place during the late Neolithic and Bronze Age between 5,300 and 2,000 years ago. Continued excavations since 1978 have produced a steady stream of findings that culminated in the discovery of the remarkable Sclayn child fossils in 1993.
Sclayn cave site has been classified as a national heritage site of Wallonia on 27 May 2009 and is since open to the public. Dated to be around 127,000 years old, the first fragment of the now nearly complete mandible, was found on 16 July 1993. A maxillary fragment and several teeth of the child were excavated in subsequent campaigns. A genetic sample was extracted from one of the molars at a specific laboratory for ancient DNA and analyzed at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig; the child's DNA is one of the oldest to have been extracted from a Homo neanderthalensis fossil and has contributed to the genetic mapping of the Neanderthal genome and the comparison with Homo sapiens. It was suggested that the Scladina child was 2 to 4 years older than current estimates, based upon traditional assessments of the progressive dental development. Results of an international research collaboration allow the proposal that Homo neanderthalensis children had a faster rate of dental development than modern human children as well as other aspects of physical development were to be more rapid in juvenile Neanderthals, such as a quicker onset of sexual maturity and different and faster patterns of early cognitive development.
The study further elaborates, that tooth development is related to overall physiological development, noticeable as the first molar eruption coincides - universally across the primate phylum - with the beginning of the weaning stage, whereas the upsurge of the third molar indicates the onset of sexual development. Some scholars, though debate universal periods of anterior tooth growth, as it is known that anterior tooth growth takes longer in great apes than in humans and varies among human populations; the study of the child turned out to support the idea that prolonged duration of human development is unique to Homo sapiens and a recent development in human evolution. Although the matter is still debated, the more rapid development apparent in Homo neanderthalensis children puts Neanderthal development patterns at a progressive stage in between modern Homo sapiens and that of earlier species, such as Homo erectus; this trend suggests to many scientists the necessary prevalence of differing patterns of behavioral and social development as well.
A single tooth of another Neanderthal infant found at the site that had undergone comprehensive and rigorous analysis suggests that this particular child has received 7 months of breastfeeding and supplementation for additional 7 months, which adds up to 14 months of breastfeeding. This cycle is indeed longer than that of some contemporary human cultures, which implies that Neanderthal children might have grown up faster, a process that began only after the stages of early infancy. Neanderthal diet consisted to over 70% of meat, unlike that of contemporary Homo sapiens hunter-gatherer societies. Although some cooked vegetables are evident. Provisioning techniques, made superior by extensive tool use, aided early Homo in pursuits of worldwide expansion. One large game evident in the diets of Scladina Neanderthals is bear. Several bear bones were found amongst other stone modifiers within the Scladina cave site. Wear marks on the bones, 4 of the 6 bear bone tools which originated from a single femur, exhibit abrasion traits that classify them as lithic retouchers.
The ASBL Archéologie Andennaise has established an educational mission in consequence of the prolonged and insightful study of the site and the enormous implications of the