Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland
The Federal Supreme Court of Switzerland is the supreme court of the Swiss Confederation. As part of the judiciary, it is one of the three branches of government in Switzerland's political system, it is headquartered in the Federal Courthouse in Lausanne in the canton of Vaud. The two social security divisions of the Federal Supreme Court, are located in Lucerne; the United Federal Assembly elects 38 federal justices to the Federal Supreme Court. The current president of the court is Ulrich Meyer; the Federal Supreme Court is the final arbiter on disputes in the field of civil law, the public arena, as well as in disputes between cantons or between cantons and the Confederation. Decisions in the field of human rights violation can be appealed to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg; as a state agency, the Federal Supreme Court examines the uniform application of federal law by the cantonal and federal courts of lower instance. It protects the rights. During a dispute, the Federal Supreme Court examines the application of the law and does not examine the facts of the other courts below, unless evidently flawed.
When an appeal is filed, the Federal Supreme Court examines whether the law was applied in the contested decision and thus ensures the uniform application of federal law throughout the country. Its decisions contribute to its adaptation to new circumstances; the other courts and the administrative authorities use the decisions of the Federal Supreme Court as a reference and adopt their principles. Procedures before the Federal Supreme Court take place in writing. There are no court hearings with plaintiffs and defendants giving testimony and lawyers pleading their cases; the Federal Supreme Court bases its decisions on facts as they are established by the lower instances and described in the records of the previous proceedings. If the Federal Supreme Court concludes that a lower court has decided incorrectly, it overturns the contested decision and if necessary sends it back to the previous instance for a new decision. In addition to its work as the highest judicial authority, the Federal Supreme Court exercises administrative supervision over the Federal Criminal Court, the Federal Administrative Court and the Federal Patent Court.
According to the Constitution of Switzerland, the court has jurisdiction over violations of: federal law. Because of an emphasis on direct democracy through referendum, the Constitution precludes the Federal Supreme Court from reviewing acts of the Federal Parliament, unless such review is provided for by statute. Decisions of arbitral tribunals constituted under Swiss law, such as the Court of Arbitration for Sport, can be appealed to the Federal Supreme Court, although judicial review is limited to a narrow set of questions of law in such cases; the supervisory bodies are the Court Assembly, the Administrative Commission and the Conference of Presidents. The Court Assembly consists of all ordinary justices and is responsible for the Court’s internal organisation, it designates the divisions, appoints their presidents and issues the procedural rules for the Court. The Administrative Commission is responsible for managing the Court’s administration, it is composed of the President of the Federal Supreme Court, the Vice-President and one other justice.
The Conference of Presidents consists of the presidents of the various divisions and is responsible for the coordination of judicial decision-making among the divisions. The President of the Federal Supreme Court acts in an advisory capacity; the Secretary- General participates in meetings held by the Court Assembly, the Administrative Commission and the Conference of Presidents in an advisory capacity. A total of 38 justices sit on the bench of the Federal Supreme Court. 14 women and 24 men serve as federal justices. Of the federal justices serving on the bench, three have Italian, 12 French and 23 German as their native language; the justices are forbidden from engaging in any gainful occupation outside of their work as federal justices. The federal justices have the status of government officials; the federal justices are proposed by the Judicial Committee and elected by the United Federal Assembly for a term of office of six years. They can be re-elected an unlimited number of times. There is, however, an upper age limit of 68.
Anyone who has the right to vote at the federal level may be elected a federal justice. In practice, only proven jurists from the judiciary, practicing legal profession, academia or the public sector are elected; the Federal Supreme Court numbers 19 deputy justices, who are elected by the Federal Assembly. Of the deputy justices sitting on the bench, three have Italian, five French and 11 German as their native language. Nine of the deputy justices are women; the deputy federal justices serve in a part-time capacity, otherwise they are professors, practicing lawyers or cantonal judges. As a general rule, they serve as replacements for justices who have recused themselves or have taken ill, or when the Court’s docket has become overly full. In the proceedings on which they sit they have the same rights and obligations as the ordin
Tour de Sauvabelin
The Tour de Sauvabelin is a wooden tower located in the Sauvabelin forest, Switzerland. The tower is 35 meters high, it provides with panoramic view on the city of Lausanne, the Lake Léman and the surrounding countryside and mountains. Lac de Sauvabelin Spiral stairs Official website Page on the website of the City of Lausanne
Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts
The Cantonal Museum of Fine Arts is an art museum in Lausanne, Switzerland. The museum was created by private initiative in 1841, with funds provided by the artist Marc-Louis Arlaud, who became its first curator. Private funds still help the acquisition process with legacies. In 2014, the museum conserved around 10,000 artworks. A part of them retrace a general history of art, beginning with ancient Egypt, but the largest part focuses on art from the end of the eighteenth century to post-impressionism; the reputation of the museum is due to five great collections: those of Abraham-Louis-Rodolphe Ducros, Charles Gleyre, Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen, Félix Vallotton and Louis Soutter. Modern and contemporary art collections includes works by Marcel Broodthaers, Rolf Iseli, Tadeusz Kantor, Charles Rollier, Daniel Spoerri or Maria Elena Vieira da Silva. Expressive figuration is extensively represented by Günter Brus, Luciano Castelli, Miriam Cahn, Martin Disler, Leiko Ikemura, Arnulf Rainer, Klaudia Schifferle, Jean-Frédéric Schnyder, among others.
In the years 1990-2010, the museum focused on the acquisition of majors works by international artists such as Christian Boltanski, Tom Burr, Sophie Calle, Alfredo Jaar, Nalini Malani, Bruce Nauman and Jim Shaw, as well as representing local artists such as Jean-Luc Manz, Alain Huck, Silvie Defraoui, Didier Rittener, Denis Savary and Anne-Julie Raccoursier. List of art museums Official website Page on the website of the City of Lausanne
Lousonna is a Roman archaeological site in Switzerland. It preceded the present-day city of Lausanne; the Romans built a military camp on this spot, which they called Lousonna, at the site of a Celtic settlement near Lake Geneva. Switzerland in the Roman era Page on the website of the City of Lausanne Lausanne Roman Museum
Palais de Beaulieu
Palais de Beaulieu is the historical and emblematic building of the Lausanne convention and exhibition center, located in Lausanne, in the Vaud Canton, Switzerland. The Palais is a convention centre that welcomes conventions and events; the center includes the Théâtre de Beaulieu concert and theatre hall which hosted the 1989 Eurovision Song Contest. With 1,844 seats, the Théâtre de Beaulieu is the biggest theatre in Switzerland; the Prix de Lausanne, an international ballet competition, is hosted at the Palais de Beaulieu. La Télé, a regional TV-channel, has its studio and its offices at Beaulieu, as well as the Béjart Ballet Lausanne company. Located in the Beaulieu area in Lausanne, the Convention and Exhibition Center lies in more than 6 hectares of ground, it boasts of 12,000 sq. m. of public gardens. The Convention Center uses around 20 modular halls. Beaulieu Lausanne, part of MCH Group hosts some of Switzerland's major fairs and exhibitions; the first "Comptoir Vaudois d'échantillons" was inaugurated in Lausanne in 1916, thanks to the Société industrielle et commerciale de Lausanne, the Chambre vaudoise du commerce et de l'industrie, with support from the Lausanne Municipality.
This kind of event was a novelty in Switzerland. The first Comptoir suisse took place in September, 1920. Since only one edition never happened: the one of 1939, because of the war. Note that the first official event of the NASA in Europe took place during the 1962 Comptoir suisse; the great hall - to be known as Beaulieu's main building - was built in 1921. It is called the Palais de Beaulieu since 1957. During the Second World War, it hosted prisoners of war. Talks about creating a new theater began in 1949, involved the Lausanne Municipality and the Société Coopérative du Comptoir Suisse. In 1954, the Théâtre de Beaulieu was inaugurated. Nowadays, the Theater is used, among others, by well-known local institutions such as the Béjart Ballet Lausanne, the Orchestre de la Suisse romande and the Paternelle. On the western side of Beaulieu, buildings were added between 1920 and 1940. Between 1950 and 1954, development moved to the South and East of the site; the North Halls were built in 1960 and many renovations followed.
Thus, as well as the Comptoir suisse, Beaulieu hosted conventions, artistic activities and economic events. Since 2000, the buildings belong to a public law foundation named the Beaulieu Foundation, created by the Vaud Canton, the City of Lausanne and Vaud district councils; the Foundation is in charge of maintenance and logistics, as well as the strategic and economic development of the site. It manages the Convention Center and, along with Opus One SA, the Beaulieu Theater; as a tenant, MCH Beaulieu Lausanne SA, that took over from the Société Coopérative du Comptoir Suisse, organizes fairs and exhibitions in the South Halls. Since 2006, Eldora Traiteur SA, a branch of the Eldora SA Group, is in charge of the catering; the Beaulieu Foundation launched a renovation program named Beaulieu 2020, that encompasses years 2000 to 2020. Under the Beaulieu 2020 flag, the Palais de Beaulieu has undergone various renovations since 2001, work is still going on; the old South Halls were destroyed and new South Halls were built in 2011.
In 2014, a vote of the population of Lausanne rejected by 52% the project of building a tower of 90 meters next to the Palais de Beaulieu. As a result, MCH Beaulieu Lausanne decided to reduce the conference activities and to concentrate on trade fairs; this triggered a reorganization of its partners. As from 2014, spaces in the Palais de Beaulieu are being reallocated; the Haute Ecole de la Santé La Source has decided to take premises at Beaulieu. The Court of Arbitration for Sport of the International Olympic Committee is planning to move from the Château de Béthusy to the south part of the Palais de Beaulieu. Habitat Jardin Comptoir suisse Baby & Kid Planet Swiss Expo Le Salon des métiers et de la formation Le Prix de Lausanne le Béjart Ballet Lausanne L'OSR La Paternelle Numerus general assemblies and conventions First International Congress on World Evangelization Eurovision Song Contest 1989 World Gymnaestrada Holiday on Ice Mamma Mia Official website Official website
Le Flon (Lausanne)
Le Flon is a district of the city of Lausanne, in Switzerland. It is served by Lausanne Metro lines 2 from Lausanne-Flon station; this area is in the bowl of a valley, filled. A river named Flon, once flowed through this valley and now runs underground; the area is situated in the central neighborhood of Lausanne. The Flon was once a uninhabited valley; the early industrial development in the nineteenth century saw new mills and fullers occupy the Flon valley, accompanied by a bad reputation due to the activity of leather work, which brought unpleasant smells, forcing Lausanne inhabitants to avoid the place. On March 12, 1874, the Compagnie du Chemin de fer Lausanne-Ouchy was founded to provide transport for people and goods between the port of Ouchy, the station of the Jura-Simplon line, the Place Saint-François; the Company became the owner of the valley in exchange for supporting all the costs of the work, planned and which began the following June. Tunnels were dug between Lausanne and Ouchy, the excavated soil was used to backfill the Flon, downstream of the Grand Pont.
This major undertaking lasted until the end of World War II, giving the area during 40 years the looks of a wasteland to what was a once green valley. In the early twentieth century, the Flon had become the main freight station of the city of Lausanne. However, from 1950 the site was connected to the rest of the city that extended around the ancient valley, removing the reason to be of the Gare du Flon. A period started during which the site deteriorated and some warehouses were transformed into low rent offices; the nightclub MAD opened in the 1980s. In 1991, Line 1 of the Lausanne Metro opened, with its central terminus located at Lausanne-Flon, to give interchange with the Métro Lausanne–Ouchy and LEB commuter trains to Échallens and Bercher. Up until the early 1990s, The Flon was considered a bad area of Lausanne; the Group Lausanne-Ouchy SA decided to start major work in accordance with their Plan partiel d'affectation, divided into two parts. In June 1999 the Municipal Council adopted the Lausanne PPP.
The extensive work helped rehabilitate Le Flon with the opening of a seven-screen cinema complex along with a parking lot, an English pub and a Thai restaurant. Page on the website of the City of Lausanne
The Lausanne Metro system is an urban rail transport system in Lausanne, which operates both driverless rapid transit services on a grade-separated route and more traditional light rail services. Around a quarter of the system has been used for urban rail transport since 1877, when the route between the city centre and Ouchy opened as Switzerland's first public funicular railway; the network is operated by a third. Of the two operating lines, the first is a limited-capacity light rail route, while the second is a automated metro which opened on 27 October 2008; when this opened, Lausanne replaced Rennes as the smallest city in the world to have a full metro system. A third line is now planned, based on the same rubber-tyred metro technology; this makes Lausanne the first and the only city in Switzerland to have a metro system, although Zürich once proposed a U-Bahn system in the 1960s and 70s, which failed in the face of massive political and public opposition. The Lausanne-Ouchy railway, the precursor to the M2 line of the Lausanne Metro, was inaugurated in 1877 as a funicular.
In 1959 the first overhaul took place by transforming the funicular into a rack railway under the name "métro". At that time and Gare CFF stations were demolished and replaced by concrete underground equivalents; the line was however always nicknamed "La Ficelle" by its users due to its funicular past and circulation above ground in the greenery for more than half of its run. Connected to the Flon facilities, the freight trains from the main station to the storage area of the harbour travelled on this line until the construction of a direct connection between the freight station of Sébeillon and the Flon valley in 1954; the line was closed to all traffic on 21 January 2006. The rolling stock was sold to the French city of Villard-de-Lans which planned the construction in 2008 of its own rack railway, La Patache, to ensure a link between the center of Villard and Le Balcon de Villard. A bus service was put into operation to replace the then-closed "La Ficelle" until the opening of the new metro M2 line.
This service was called Métrobus: the south loop linked Ouchy to the CFF station and the north loop linked the station to Montbenon. Lausanne had a tram system that opened in 1896, grew to an 66-kilometre network by 1934, but the original Lausanne tram network closed in 1964. A modern tramline, which became Lausanne Métro Line M1, opened on 24 May 1991, began revenue service on 2 June 1991. In 2001, for marketing and public communication reasons, this line was renamed the M1 line by its operator TSOL; the M1 is a light rail line with a total of 15 stations, a dozen of which are at-grade and three of which are underground. Complementary inquiry: September 2001 Decision by the State Council: June 2002 Funding requested from the High Council: September 2002 Popular vote: end 2002 Duration of construction: 4–5 years Metro-Ouchy operations stopped: January 2006 Official Inauguration: 18–21 September 2008 In operation from: 27 October 2008 The Lausanne Métro Line M1 was opened to the public on 2 June 1991.
The line is owned by a company named TSOL and this acronym is used by the commuters who use the line. Trains on the line are operated by the Transports publics de la région lausannoise; the M1 is a light rail line with three underground. The line, 7.8 km long, links the centre of Lausanne, the Lausanne campus and Renens. The line is single track. At most stations a passing loop is provided to allow trains to pass, a dedicated platform is provided for each direction. Exceptions to this are Bassenges, UNIL-Sorge and Provence stations, where the line is still single track serving one bidirectional platform. Unlike the line 2, an automated or remotely controlled train was not planned when the line opened in 1991; this may be due to the recent development of automated metro technology, coupled with the decision to develop the line as a light metro with level crossings rather than using grade separation. To run the service, the line was equipped with a set of modern Light Rail Vehicles, which run using electricity supplied via an overhead live wire and can be run singly or in multiple units, with each formation needing a driver.
There are a total of 18 of these original LRVs on the line, but after 20 years in service they were showing their age, 2 were out of use. Additionally, the line has been a victim of its own success, with 12.5 million passengers carried in 2012 and the line carrying the equivalent to the entire population of Yverdon-les-Bains every day. In 2011, the Canton of Vaud gave 34 million Swiss Francs to enable the existing LRVs to have a mid-life refurbishment, to permit the operator to commission MOB to build 5 brand-new LRVs, it was physically impossible for all trains to operate with a double formation, but the additional vehicles will enable the line to operate a full double-car service on all 10 peak-hour trains. In order to accommodate the new trains, the depot at Ecublens has been enlarged and additional servicing facilities built; the first of the new LRVs was finished in July 2013 and was taken to the Ecublens depot in three distinct pieces: one half of the car body, the other half body, the underframes and bogies.
The operator was left to complete final assembly, the new car entered service in December 2013. It is expected that the full fleet will be in service by 2015, permitting a 5-minute interval service of double-length trains; the Lausanne Mét