University of Windsor
The University of Windsor is a public comprehensive and research university in Windsor, Canada. It is Canada's southernmost university, it has 12,000 full-time and part-time undergraduate students and over 3,000 graduate students. Founded in 1963, the University of Windsor has graduated more than 100,000 alumni; the University of Windsor has nine faculties, including the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, the Faculty of Education, the Faculty of Engineering, Odette School of Business, the Faculty of Graduate Studies, the Faculty of Human Kinetics, the Faculty of Law, the Faculty of Nursing, the Faculty of Science. Through its faculties and independent schools, the university has demonstrated its primary research focuses of automotive, social justice, international trade research. In recent years, it has began focusing on health, natural science, entrepreneurship research; the University dates to the founding of Assumption College Roman Catholic in Windsor, Ontario in 1857. Assumption College, a theological institution, was founded by the Basilian Fathers of the priestly teaching Congregation of St. Basil, in 1857.
The college grew expanding its curriculum and affiliating with several other colleges over the years. In 1919, Assumption College in Windsor affiliated with the University of Western Ontario. Assumption was one of the largest colleges associated with the University of Western Ontario. Escalating costs forced Assumption University, a denominational university, to become a public institution to qualify for public support, it was granted university status in 1953. In 1950, Assumption College welcomed its first women students. In 1953, through an Act of the Ontario Legislature, Assumption College received its own university powers, ended its affiliation with the University of Western Ontario. In 1956, the institution’s name was changed to Assumption University of Windsor, by an Act of the Ontario Legislature, with Reverend Eugene Carlisle LeBel, C. S. B. named as its first President. The created non-denominational Essex College, led by Frank A. DeMarco, became an affiliate, with responsibility for the Pure Sciences, Applied Sciences, as well as the Schools of Business Administration and Nursing.
In the early 1960s, the City of Windsor’s growth and demands for higher education led to further restructuring. A petition was made to the Province of Ontario for the creation of a non-denominational University of Windsor by the board of governors and regents of Assumption University and the board of directors of Essex College; the University of Windsor came into existence through its incorporation under an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario on December 19, 1962. The transition from an historic Roman Catholic university to a non-denominational provincial university was an unprecedented development. On July 1, 1963, the entire campus with all of its facilities and faculty became known as the University of Windsor; as a'federated member', Assumption University remained as an integrated institution, granting degrees only in its Faculty of Theology. Father Eugene Carlisle LeBel from Assumption became the inaugural president of the University of Windsor, Frank A. DeMarco, holding both positions of Principal, as well as Dean of Applied Science at Essex College, became the inaugural Vice President.
The University's coats of arms were designed by heraldic expert Alan Beddoe. Six months Assumption University of Windsor made affiliation agreements with Holy Redeemer College, Canterbury College and the new Iona College. Canterbury College became the first Anglican college in the world to affiliate with a Roman Catholic University. In 1964, when E. C. LeBel retired, Dr. John Francis Leddy was appointed President of the University of Windsor, presided over a period of significant growth. From 1967 to 1977, Windsor grew from 1,500 to 8,000 full-time students. In the 1980s and early 1990s, this growth continued. Among the new buildings erected were the CAW Student Centre. Enrollment reached record heights in Fall 2003 with the elimination of Grade 13 in Ontario; the university has developed a number of partnerships with local businesses and industry, such as the University of Windsor/Chrysler Canada Ltd. Automotive Research and Development Centre and Maple Leaf Entertainment. Windsor offers more than 120 majors and minors and 55 master's and doctoral degree programs across nine faculties: Faculty of Arts, Humanities & Social ScienceArgumentation Studies.
Odette School of BusinessAccounting, Management, Human Resources and StrategyFaculty of Graduate Studies Faculty of Human KineticsSport Studies, Movement Science and Sport ManagementFaculty of Law Faculty of Nursing Faculty of ScienceBiological Sciences and Biochemistry, Computer Science and Environmental Sciences, Economics and Statistics, General Science. Univers
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Royal Military College of Canada
The Royal Military College of Canada abbreviated as RMC, is the military college of the Canadian Armed Forces, is a degree-granting university training military officers. RMC was established in 1876 and is the only federal institution in Canada with degree-granting powers; the Royal Military College of Canada Degrees Act, 1959 empowers the college to confer degrees in arts and engineering. Programs are offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels, both on campus as well as through the college's distance learning programme via the Division of Continuing Studies. Located on Point Frederick, a 41-hectare peninsula in Kingston, the college is a mix of historic buildings and more modern academic and dormitory facilities. Officer cadets of the Royal Military College of Canada are trained in what are known as the "four pillars" of academics, officership and bilingualism; the Royal Military College of Canada prepares officer cadets for a career in the profession of arms and continues the development of other Canadian Armed Forces members and civilians with an interest in defence issues.
RMC provides programs and courses of higher education and professional development to meet the needs of the Canadian Armed Forces and the Department of National Defence. RMC is responsible to: Provide a university education in both official languages in appropriate disciplines designed on a broad base to meet the unique needs of the Canadian Armed Forces Develop qualities of leadership in officer cadets Develop the ability to communicate in both official languages for officer cadets Develop a high standard of physical fitness Stimulate an awareness of the ethic of the military profession Conduct research activities in support of RMC and to meet the needs of Defence Research Agencies The RMC priorities are: To build high quality, world-class programs in areas of importance to the Canadian Armed Forces and to Canada To promote national and international collaborations and partnerships To promote interdisciplinary co-operation; the RMC mission is to educate and develop Officer Cadets for leadership careers of effective service in the Canadian Armed Forces – the Royal Canadian Air Force, the Royal Canadian Navy and the Canadian Army.
For most students under the ROTP, education is free and a monthly salary is paid which meets incidentals. The courses are offered both on site and by distance learning in both official languages: English and French. After graduation, Officers are to give two months of service for each subsidized month of education. RMC offers 19 undergraduate programs in Arts and Engineering. RMC offers 34 graduate studies opportunities, including 14 doctorates. In addition to the Faculty of Arts and Science, the Division of Continuing Studies offers undergraduate and graduate level programs including the "Officer Professional Military Education" program; the Department of Applied Military Science offers a graduate level program – the Land Force Technical Staff Programme and an undergraduate/community college level program – the Army Technical Warrant Officer's Programme. All undergraduate students are required to complete the core curriculum, designed to provide a balanced liberal arts and military education.
The Core Curriculum consists of Economics, Mathematics, Calculus, Military history of Canada, Canadian History and Civics. Tuition fees at the undergraduate level vary from $2,780 – $3,710 for Canadian undergraduate students and $2,780 – $3,165 for Canadian Graduate students; the tuition fees for international students vary from $8,750 – $9,000 for undergraduate students and $6,200 – $6,700 for graduate students. The lower tuition amounts are for the arts and sciences programs, while the higher amounts are for the engineering programs; because of commitments of military service following graduation, education is free for most on-campus undergraduates. Funding has been put in place to support civilian students, who are eligible for admission to the master's and doctoral programs to work alongside graduate students who are members of the Canadian Armed Forces; the research at RMCC focusses on areas of direct and indirect benefit to the Department of National Defence. RMC conducts both academic and contracted research on electrical and computer engineering, chemistry, chemical engineering and environmental engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, international security and the economics of defence.
Both members of the Canadian Forces and civilian students are eligible for admission to the master's and doctoral programs. The undergraduate student body, known as the Cadet Wing, is sub-divided into 13 squadrons of 70 college cadets each; each squadron is subdivided into three flights, with each flight further subdivided into three sections. The squadrons are led by senior cadets under the guidance of the squadron commander. Note: The dates given are for the current organization of the wing and does not include former squadrons or the same squadrons under different names. For example, 1 Squadron was the first squadron at RMC, meaning 1 squadron has existed since the College's founding in 1876, but has only been known as Hudson Squadron since 1948. In 2007, a former squadron of the Royal Military Colloge Saint-Jean, Jolliet Squadron, was stood up at RMC as 13
Nipissing University is a undergraduate public liberal arts university located in North Bay, Canada. The university overlooks Lake Nipissing. Nipissing University is recognized for providing an individualized student experience, having supportive and accessible professors, small class sizes, research opportunities for undergraduate students, some of the best residences and residence programming in Canada; the roots of Nipissing University date back to 1947, when residents of North Bay formed a committee with the goal of establishing a university within the city. The 1958 Northeastern University Committee continued their efforts in the following years. By 1960, Northeastern University was established and for a short time in 1960-61, the institution offered first year university courses in Arts and Commerce in facilities provided by a local Catholic boys' high school. However, Northeastern University's application to the Ontario Ministry of Education for a degree-granting university charter was denied on February 28, 1961, the classes ended shortly thereafter.
By mid-1962, Northeastern University had leased new space on Cassells Street in North Bay and arranged for Laurentian University professors to teach extension night classes there. This arrangement continued through mid-1967, with students receiving credits from Laurentian for the coursework done in these classes. To ensure its funding as a university-level institution, Northeastern University changed its name to Nipissing College and signed an affiliation agreement with Laurentian University in 1967. Students attending Nipissing College in North Bay were officially students of Laurentian University with Laurentian being the degree-granting institution. In 1972, the College Education Centre opened; this building, still home to Nipissing University, was shared between multiple other educational institutions including Canadore College, a school of nursing, a teachers' college. In 1973, the North Bay Teachers' College was incorporated into Nipissing College as the Faculty of Education. Nipissing University received its charter as an independent university in 1992, thus allowing the school to grant baccalaureate degrees.
On December 12, 2001, the government of Ontario passed a bill revising the university's charter to permit it to grant graduate degrees. The governance of Nipissing University is modelled on the provincial University of Toronto Act of 1906, which established a bicameral system of university government consisting of a senate, responsible for academic policy, a board of governors exercising exclusive control over financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters; the president, appointed by the board, is to provide a link between the two bodies and to perform institutional leadership. The university is composed of three faculties: the Faculty of Professional Studies. Nipissing University has 5000 undergraduate students, the majority of which are full-time students, 150 graduate students. Applicants entering from high school must have a minimum of 70%, or 75% if applying for a degree in Criminal Justice or Concurrent Education, to be considered for full-time study. Cut-off averages for each program change annually.
The graduation rate at Nipissing University is 85.9%, higher than the average Ontario graduation rate of 77.3%. Nipissing University offers over 30 areas of study, many of which have opportunities for internships or experiential learning; some partnership programs, such as Environmental Biology and Technology and Criminal Justice, Social Welfare and Social Development allow students to earn both a bachelor's degree and a college diploma from Canadore College in four years. Nipissing has a collaborative nursing program with Canadore, giving students access the college's nursing simulation labs. Formally known as the Faculty of Education, the Schulich School of Education was established in 2010 due to a donation from philanthropist Seymour Schulich. Programs within the Schulich School of Education include both Concurrent and Consecutive Bachelor of Educations degrees as well as a Bachelor of Physical and Health Education. Nipissing University offers the following undergraduate degrees: Bachelor of Arts with majors in: Anthropology and Family Studies, Classical Studies, Computer Science, Criminal Justice, English Studies, Environmental Geography, Gender Equality and Social Justice, History, Liberal Arts, Native Studies, Political Science, Psychology and Cultures, Social Welfare and Social Development, Sociology Bachelor of Business Administration Bachelor of Fine Arts Bachelor of Physical and Health Education Bachelor of Science with majors in: Biology, Computer Science, Environmental Biology and Technology and Physical Geography, Liberal Science and Psychology Bachelor of Science in Nursing Bachelor of Social Work Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science combined with Bachelor of Commerce Concurrent Bachelor of Arts /Bachelor of Education Concurrent Bachelor of Business Administration /Bachelor of Education Concurrent Bachelor of Physical and Health Education /Bachelor of Education Concurrent Bachelor of Science /Bachelor of Education The following graduate and professional programs are offered at Nipissing University: Consecutive Bachelor of Education Master of
Internet radio is a digital audio service transmitted via the Internet. Broadcasting on the Internet is referred to as webcasting since it is not transmitted broadly through wireless means, it can either be used as a stand-alone device running through the internet, or as a software running through a single computer. Internet radio is used to communicate and spread messages through the form of talk, it is distributed through a wireless communication network connected to a switch packet network via a disclosed source.'Internet radio involves streaming media, presenting listeners with a continuous stream of audio that cannot be paused or replayed, much like traditional broadcast media. Internet radio is distinct from podcasting, which involves downloading rather than streaming. Internet radio services offer news, sports and various genres of music—every format, available on traditional broadcast radio stations. Many Internet radio services are associated with a corresponding traditional radio station or radio network, although low start-up and ongoing costs have allowed a substantial proliferation of independent Internet-only radio stations.
The first Internet radio service was launched in 1993. As of 2017, the most popular internet radio platforms and applications in the world include TuneIn Radio, iHeartRadio,and Sirius XM. Internet radio services are accessible from anywhere in the world with a suitable internet connection available; this has made internet radio suited to and popular among expatriate listeners. Some major networks like TuneIn Radio, Pandora Radio, iHeartRadio and Citadel Broadcasting in the United States, Chrysalis in the United Kingdom, restrict listening to in-country due to music licensing and advertising issues. Internet radio is suited to listeners with special interests, allowing users to pick from a multitude of different stations and genres less represented on traditional radio. Internet radio is listened to on a standard home PC or similar device, through an embedded player program located on the respective station's website. In recent years, dedicated devices that resemble and offer the listener a similar experience to a traditional radio receiver have arrived on the market.
Streaming technology is used to distribute Internet radio using a lossy audio codec. Streaming audio formats include MP3, Ogg Vorbis, Windows Media Audio, RealAudio, HE-AAC. Audio data is continuously transmitted serially over the local network or internet in TCP or UDP packets reassembled at the receiver and played a second or two later; the delay is called lag, is introduced at several stages of digital audio broadcasting. A local tuner simulation program includes all the online radios that can be heard in the air in the city. In 2003, revenue from online streaming music radio was US$49 million. By 2006, that figure rose to US$500 million. A February 21, 2007 "survey of 3,000 Americans released by consultancy Bridge Ratings & Research" found that "s much as 19% of U. S. consumers 12 and older listen to Web-based radio stations." In other words, there were "some 57 million weekly listeners of Internet radio programs. More people listen to online radio than to satellite radio, high-definition radio, podcasts, or cell-phone-based radio combined."
An April 2008 Arbitron survey showed that, in the US, more than one in seven persons aged 25–54 years old listen to online radio each week. In 2008, 13 percent of the American population listened to the radio online, compared to 11 percent in 2007. Internet radio functionality is built into many dedicated Internet radio devices, which give an FM like receiver user experience. In the fourth quarter of 2012, TuneIn Radio, iHeart Radio, other subscription-based and free Internet radio services accounted for nearly one quarter of the average weekly music listening time among consumers between the ages of 13 and 35, an increase from a share of 17 percent the previous year; as Internet-radio listening rose among the 13-to-35 age group, listening to AM/FM radio, which now accounts for 24 percent of music-listening time, declined 2 percentage points. In the 36-and-older age group, by contrast, Internet radio accounted for just 13 percent of music listening, while AM/FM radio dominated listening methods with a 41 percent share.
47% of all Americans ages 12 and older—an estimated 124 million people—said they have listened to online radio in the last month, while 36% have listened in the last week. These figures are up from 45% and 33% in 2013; the average amount of time spent listening increased from 11 hours, 56 minutes per week in 2013 to 13 hours 19 minutes in 2014. As might be expected, usage numbers are much higher for teens and younger adults, with 75% of Americans ages 12–24 listening to online radio in the last month, compared to 50% of Americans ages 25–54 and 21% of Americans 55+; the weekly figures for the same age groups were 37 % and 13 %, respectively. In 2015, it was recorded that 53% of Americans, or 143 million people, ages 12 and up listen to internet radio; some stations, such as Primordial Radio, use Internet radio as a platform as opposed to other means such as FM or DAB, as it gives greater freedom to broadcast as they see fit, without being subject to regulatory bodies such as Ofcom in the UK.
For example, Ofcom has strict rules about presenters e
Laurentian University, incorporated on March 28, 1960, is a mid-sized bilingual university in Greater Sudbury, Canada. While focusing on undergraduate programming, Laurentian houses the east campus of Canada's newest medical school—the Northern Ontario School of Medicine, which opened in 2005, its school of Graduate Studies offers a number of graduate-level degrees. Laurentian is the largest bilingual provider of distance education in Canada; the university's campus is located on the south side of Ramsey Lake, just south of Greater Sudbury's downtown core in the Bell Grove neighbourhood. The city's Idylwylde golf course borders on the university campus to the west and the Lake Laurentian Conservation Area borders on the campus to the south; the Lake Laurentian Conservation Area contains a network of trails used for running, mountain biking and nordic skiing. The university has a federated school structure, similar to that of the University of Toronto; the school has two separate student unions.
Students choose a student association. Laurentian's historical roots lie in the Roman Catholic church; the Collège du Sacré-Coeur was founded by the Society of Jesus in 1913. According to a plaque at the entrance to the R. D. Parker Building, the school began granting degrees in 1957 as the University of Sudbury. A university federation combining representatives from the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches was incorporated as a "non-denominational, bilingual institution of higher learning" in 1960; the new Laurentian University held classes in the University of Sudbury facility, as well as in a variety of locations in the city, including the Sudbury Steelworkers Hall, until its current campus was opened in 1964. The federated colleges included Huntington College, University of Sudbury College, Thorneloe College which joined in 1963. Collège universitaire de Hearst in Hearst is the only remaining affiliated college while both Nipissing University College in North Bay and Algoma University College in Sault Ste.
Marie were affiliated with Laurentian. Nipissing and Algoma were established in 2008 respectively. Laurentian opered a campus in Ontario in 2001 in partnership with Georgian College. In 2016, the university announced that it would shut down operations in Barrie by May 2019. In recent years, the university has expanded its professional programs, launching the Northern Ontario School of Medicine in 2005 and receiving approval to launch the Northern Ontario School of Architecture in 2011. Located in a city where the major industry is mining, Laurentian has strong ties with the mining industry, is one of the few schools in Canada offering mining engineering; the Willett Green Miller Centre, a provincial building located on campus, houses the Ontario Geological Survey, the Ontario Geoscience Laboratories, the J. B. Gammon Mines Library, the Mining and Minerals Division of the Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, it houses the Mining Innovation and Applied Research Corporation, a not-for-profit applied research and technical service company formed through collaboration between Laurentian University and the private and public sectors, the Mineral Exploration Research Centre, a semi-autonomous research and teaching centre whose focus is field-based, collaborative research on mineral deposits and their environments.
The university is a partner in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, the world's deepest underground laboratory. The observatory studies the origins of the universe. In 2004, the university, along with Lakehead University, formed the Northern Ontario Medical School. In addition, Laurentian University has a partnership with St. Lawrence College Tri-campus for its Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Bachelor of Business Administration; the university is a member of L'Association des universités de la francophonie canadienne, a network of academic institutions of the Canadian Francophonie. The Board of Governors heads the university with the president. Directly to the left and right of the president is the assistant to the president, the Laurentian University senate. Judith Woodsworth was the president of Laurentian University until 2002, at which time Dominic Giroux became president until she left the university to become President and Vice-Chancellor of Concordia University, Montreal. Aline Chrétien, the wife of former Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, was named the university's first chancellor on September 22, 2010.
She was succeeded by Steve Paikin on October 26, 2013. Laurentian University's affiliate universities each have a chancellor; the chancellor is a ceremonial role, has little participation in the day-to-day operations of the university. The chancellor for the affiliated University of Sudbury is Sudbury lawyer André Lacroix. University administration is the responsibility of the Board of Governors, headed by the chairperson of the Board of Governors; as of 2016 this post is held by Jennifer Witty. Stanley G. Mullins R. J. A. Cloutier Edward J. Monahan Henry Best John Daniel Ross Paul Jean Watters Judith Woodsworth Dominic Gi