Independent Democratic Union
The Independent Democratic Union is a Chilean right-wing, conservative political party, founded in 1983. Its founder was the lawyer and law professor Jaime Guzmán, a civilian who collaborated with Augusto Pinochet and a member of the Opus Dei. Guzmán was a senator from 1990 until his assassination on April 1, 1991, its ideological origins date back to Guzmán's Guildist Movement, born out of the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile in 1966, espousing the independence and depoliticization of intermediate bodies of civil society. The UDI is today a conservative political party with strong links to the Opus Dei, that opposes women reproductive rightsUDI, together with National Renewal and other minor movements, formed a coalition of right-wing parties called Coalition for Change, the successor to Alliance for Chile and rose to power in March 2010, after victory in the presidential elections of January 2010, it was the largest political party in Congress between 2010 and 2014. In the Chilean parliamentary election, 2009, UDI held the largest majority in the election of deputies, electing 40 deputies with 23.04%, got 21.21% in the election of senators.
Its bench is the largest obtained by a single party in Chile since 1990. UDI has 39 deputies and 8 senators. In the Chilean municipal election, 2008, UDI got 347 councilmen by a vote of 15.11%, obtained 58 mayors by a vote of 20.05%. That year, it was the largest party by elected councilmen and the most voted for party in the election of councilmen. UDI is the second largest party by number of mayors in Chile, it was during the university strikes of the 1960s when Jaime Guzmán, President of the Law Students Union at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile -who opposed the protests and strikes, led by the Christian-democrats and left-wing students- gathered a group of students and founded the Movimiento Gremial and ran for the University's Student Union election. The movement became one of the most important in the Catholic University, won the presidency of the University's Student Union. Jaime Guzmán criticized liberal democracy and sought inspiration in authoritarian corporatism, proposing the principle of subsidiarity and to invigorate intermediate social movements, by the way that these were independent to develop their own specific purposes.
Well into the government of Salvador Allende, some young members of the National Party and the Christian Democrats became part of the Gremialismo Movement of Jaime Guzmán. Guzmán supported a military coup against Allende's government, which happened shortly thereafter on September 11, 1973, he was a close advisor of General Augusto Pinochet. Guzmán was appointed a member of the Commission for the Study of the New Constitution, who worded the new constitution promulgated in 1980. After the 1982 economic crisis, which caused the temporary removal of the "Chicago Boys" from cabinet, Guzmán moved away from the government and decided to found the movement he desired, establishing it on September 24, 1983 under the name Independent Democratic Union Movement; the emerging movement, a supporter of the military government, had a strong empathy with the lower classes, in order to seize from the Marxist left its traditional domain. Amid the growing economic crisis of the time, UDI engaged in empowering leaders in the countryside and peripheral neighbourhoods that would help extend its influence in the middle and lower classes.
One of them was Simon Yévenes, UDI member assassinated by left-wing resistance fighters on April 2, 1986. On April 29, 1987, the Independent Democratic Union merged with other related movements such as National Union Movement, led by Andrés Allamand, National Labour Front, led by Sergio Onofre Jarpa, plus some former members and supporters of the National Party and the Christian Democrats, to form the National Renewal party, who managed to unite all the right movements in the country. However, UDI members maintained their own identity in the new party, which caused a crisis in 1988, culminating in the resignation of all former UDI members to National Renewal. Allamand stayed in charge of National Renewal, while Jaime Guzman managed to register a new political party: Independent Democratic Union in 1989. UDI supported Pinochet's remaining in power in the Chilean national plebiscite, 1988. After the "Yes" option was defeated and presidential elections were announced, the UDI joined National Renewal and formed the "Democracy and Progress" alliance.
Hernan Büchi, the former Minister of Finances under Pinochet, ran for president for this alliance. The alliance ran a common Parliament list; the UDI's option lost the 1989 presidential election, this time against the center-left Concertación's leader, the Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin. In the 1989 parliamentary elections, the Independent Democratic Union obtained a 9.82% of votes in deputies and 5.11% in the Senate. Jaime Guzmán won a seat as Senator for Western Santiago constituency. Although Guzman took third place with only 17% of the vote, behind Christian Democrat Andrés Zaldívar and Party for Democracy leader Ricardo Lagos, the two main leaders of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy, the binomial system allowed Zaldívar's and his election and deferred Ricardo Lagos who got 30%. By 1990, Guzman was positioned as the leader of the opposition and was one of the harshest critics o
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area, located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word rural as encompassing "...all population and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural."Typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, as are other types of areas such as forest. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for administrative purposes. In Canada, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a "predominantly rural region" as having more than 50% of the population living in rural communities where a "rural community" has a population density less than 150 people per square kilometre. In Canada, the census division has been used to represent "regions" and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent "communities". Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their population living in a rural community.
Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their population living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft and Beeman. Rural metro-adjacent regions are predominantly rural census divisions which are adjacent to metropolitan centres while rural non-metro-adjacent regions are those predominantly rural census divisions which are not adjacent to metropolitan centres. Rural northern regions are predominantly rural census divisions that are found either or above the following lines of parallel in each province: Newfoundland and Labrador, 50th; as well, rural northern regions encompass all of Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts; this definition has changed over time. It has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or fewer inhabitants; the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre.
84% of the United States' inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, but cities occupy only 10 percent of the country. Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent; the U. S. Census Bureau, the USDA's Economic Research Service, the Office of Management and Budget have come together to help define rural areas. United States Census Bureau: The Census Bureau definitions, which are based on population density, defines rural areas as all territory outside Census Bureau-defined urbanized areas and urban clusters. An urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000, they may not contain individual cities with 50,000 or more. Thus, rural areas comprise open country and settlements with fewer than 2,500 residents. USDA The USDA's Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds; the 2002 farm bill defined rural and rural area as any area other than a city or town that has a population of greater than 50,000 inhabitants, the urbanized areas contiguous and adjacent to such a city or town.
The rural-urban continuum codes, urban influence code, rural county typology codes developed by USDA’s Economic Research Service allow researchers to break out the standard metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas into smaller residential groups. For example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. OMB: Under the Core Based Statistical Areas used by the OMB, a metropolitan county, or Metropolitan Statistical Area, consists of central counties with one or more urbanized areas and outlying counties that are economically tied to the core counties as measured by worker commuting data. Non-metro counties are outside the boundaries of metro areas and are further subdivided into Micropolitan Statistical Areas centered on urban clusters of 10,000–50,000 residents, all remaining non-core counties. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts.
National Center for Education Statistics revised its definition of rural schools in 2006 after working with the Census Bureau to create a new locale classification system to capitalize on improved geocoding technology. Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States. According to the handbook, Definitions of Rural: A Handbook for Health Policy Makers and Researchers, "Residents of metropolitan counties are thought to have easy access to the concentrated health services of the county's central areas. However, some metropolitan counties are so large that t
Santiago Province, Chile
Santiago Province is one of the six provinces of the Santiago Metropolitan Region of central Chile. It encompasses the majority of the population of that region, including 31 of the 36 communities of Greater Santiago; the province spans 2,030.30 km. As a province, Santiago is a second-level administrative division of Chile. Unlike all other provinces of Chile, which are governed by a provincial governor appointed by the president, the duties of provincial governor are instead carried out by the intendant of the Santiago Metropolitan Region, appointed by the president. In January 2001, the Provincial Delegation of Santiago was created via a Provincial Delegate, who exercises the functions of a provincial governor on behalf of the intendant; the province comprises 32 communes, each governed by a municipality consisting of an alcalde and municipal council. The climate of the Santiago Province, of the Metropolitan Region is temperate Mediterranean cold, of the kind called continental. Precipitation is concentrated in the winter months as snow over 1000 m above sea level and, in colder years, over the city of Santiago.
Winter tends to be cold with frequent frosts during which temperature drops below 0 °C. The summer months are dry and hot; the Cordillera de la Costa acts as a climate screen and reduces marine influence, which makes the climate more continental. This situation becomes apparent when comparing precipitation from a coastal location such as Valparaíso with that of Santiago de Chile; the annual median precipitation reaches 367 mm on average. The annual median temperature comes out to 13.5 °C, with a median high of 21 °C and a median low of 6 °C. Most of the province is made up of an fertile, level prairie that the locals call la Depresión intermedia; the terrain is known for its low elevation in relation to sea level and for being surrounded by hills, as well as emergent so-called island hills, such as Santa Lucía, Renca, present today in the city of Santiago. There is some occurrence of the endangered Chilean Wine Palm, Jubaea chilensis within the Santiago Province. Before the Iberian conquest, the central zone of Chile was sparsely inhabited by an indigenous population of Picunches, the northern branch of the Mapuches.
The European occupation had a considerable impact on the native population and culture, which suffered a rapid and profound disintegration. Chief among the reasons was the Spanish Crown's granting of gifts of land to its colonists. In addition, the institution of a system of encomiendas, only abolished by the end of the 18th century, had irreversible consequences, it represented first the appropriation of indigenous ground, second the practice of Spaniards receiving groups of natives who had to pay tribute. Over time, in the Province, as in the whole country, cultural identity became predominantly European in character, with minor hints of native character, thus setting in motion a process of homogenization of the population. According to the census of 2002, Santiago Province has 4,668,473 inhabitants, of whom 2,244,497 are male and 2,423,976 female, meaning that the number of males is 92.6% that of females. The population density is the highest in Chile, with 2,999.4 inhabitants/km2. In 2002, there were 4,658,687 persons living in urban areas and 9,786 persons living in rural areas, classifying 99.79% of the population as urban.
The annual population growth rate is calculated for 2005 as 0.9%. Life expectancy is the Chilean national average, the highest national life expectancy in Latin America: 80 years on average, 78 for men and 82 for women; the area has an average household income of $29,062 in PPP US dollars. The population tends to be concentrated evenly between the heart of the city and the suburbs, due to government promotion of populating urban centers in high-rise buildings by offering state subsidies, thereby avoiding the progressive extension of Greater Santiago. Santiago Province's economic activity produces about 30% of the country's total income; the "primary" or agricultural sector represents less than 3.5% of the economic activity according to the census, a figure that has remained unchanged during the first few years of the 21st century. The "secondary" or industrial sector contributes 21% of the region's GDP; the tertiary or service sector fluctuates around 76% of regional GDP. This province stands for its service sector.
Industry is diverse and along with Valparaíso and Biobío regions, it is one of the country's three industrial pillars. Machinery and electronic equipment, food processing and metallurgical industry are Santiago Province's most important industries; the predominance of the service sector can be explained by the activity from the following industries, among others: electricity, water, commerce and communication, financial services, education and public administration. Because Santiago Province includes the city of Santiago, the network of roads are important elements in the province's transportation system; the principal north-south routes are: Route 5 The basepoint for numbering the kilometers of the "Central Highway", the Chilean portion of the Panamerican Hi
Chile the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, the Drake Passage in the far south. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez and Easter Island in Oceania. Chile claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty; the arid Atacama Desert in northern Chile contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands, features a string of volcanoes and lakes; the southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, canals, twisting peninsulas, islands.
Spain conquered and colonized the region in the mid-16th century, replacing Inca rule in the north and centre, but failing to conquer the independent Mapuche who inhabited what is now south-central Chile. After declaring its independence from Spain in 1818, Chile emerged in the 1830s as a stable authoritarian republic. In the 19th century, Chile saw significant economic and territorial growth, ending Mapuche resistance in the 1880s and gaining its current northern territory in the War of the Pacific after defeating Peru and Bolivia. In the 1960s and 1970s, the country experienced severe left-right political polarization and turmoil; this development culminated with the 1973 Chilean coup d'état that overthrew Salvador Allende's democratically elected left-wing government and instituted a 16-year-long right-wing military dictatorship that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing. The regime, headed by Augusto Pinochet, ended in 1990 after it lost a referendum in 1988 and was succeeded by a center-left coalition which ruled through four presidencies until 2010.
The modern sovereign state of Chile is among South America's most economically and stable and prosperous nations, with a high-income economy and high living standards. It leads Latin American nations in rankings of human development, income per capita, state of peace, economic freedom, low perception of corruption, it ranks high regionally in sustainability of the state, democratic development. Chile is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, joining in 2010, it has the lowest homicide rate in the Americas after Canada. Chile is a founding member of the United Nations, the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to 17th-century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century.
Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chili. Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls". Another origin attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of the warble of a bird locally known as trile; the Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli". Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such; the older spelling "Chili" was in use in English until at least 1900 before switching to "Chile". Stone tool evidence indicates humans sporadically frequented the Monte Verde valley area as long as 18,500 years ago. About 10,000 years ago, migrating indigenous Peoples settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present-day Chile.
Settlement sites from early human habitation include Monte Verde, Cueva del Milodón and the Pali-Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization, they fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river. In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the globe, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him thus becoming the first European to set foot on what is now Chile; the next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered various cultures that supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting; the conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on 12 February 1541.
Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognize
A municipal council is the legislative body of a municipality such as a city council or a town council. In spite of enormous differences in populations, each of the communes of the French Republic possesses a mayor and a municipal council, which manage the commune from the mairie, with the same powers no matter the size of the commune and council; the one exception is the city of Paris, where the city police is in the hands of the central state, not in the hands of the mayor of Paris. This uniformity of status is a clear legacy of the French Revolution, which wanted to do away with the local idiosyncrasies and tremendous differences of status that existed in the kingdom of France; the size of a commune still matters, however, in two domains: French law determines the size of the municipal council according to the population of the commune. Lists of communes of France Commune List of fifteen largest French metropolitan areas by population Established as the Sanitary Board in 1883, the Municipal Council in Hong Kong Island and Kowloon provided municipal services to the covered regions in the British Hong Kong.
Partial elections were allowed in 1887, though enabling selected persons to vote for members of the Board. The Board was reconstituted in 1935 and hence renamed as Urban Council in the following year after the government had passed the Urban Council Ordinance. Democratisation had been implemented, allowing universal suffrage to happen throughout its development. Two years after the Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, the Council was disbanded in 1999 by the Chief Executive of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. All members of the council were elected through universal suffrage by the time of the dissolution; the counterpart of the Municipal Council serving the New Territories was the Regional Council established as the Provisional Regional Council in 1986. The functional select committees, district committees, sub-committees constituted the entire Regional Council. All members were elected from the constituencies and district boards. Both of the Municipal Councils in Hong Kong are now defunct.
See Nagar Palika for municipalities of India. The Municipal Council in Moldova is the governing body in five municipalities: Chișinău, Bălți, Tiraspol and Bendery; the Municipal Council serves as a consultative body with some powers of general policy determination. It is composed of a determined number of counsellors elected every four years, representing political parties and independent counsellors. Once elected, counsellors may form fractions inside of the Municipal Council. Last regional elections of local public administration held in Bălți in June 2007, brought to the power the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, which holds 21 mandates, 11 mandates are held by representatives of other parties, 3 mandates by independents. There are two fractions in the Municipal Council: "Meleag" fraction; the Mayor of the municipality is elected for four years. In Bălți, Vasile Panciuc is the incumbent from 2001 and was re-elected twice: in 2003 during the anticipated elections, in 2007. In Chișinău, the last mayor elections had to be repeated three times, because of the low rate of participation.
As a result, Dorin Chirtoacă, won the last mayor elections in Chișinău. In the Netherlands the municipal council is the elected assembly of the municipality, it consists of between 45 members who are elected by the citizens once every four years. The council's main tasks are setting the city's policies and overseeing the execution of those policies by the municipality's executive board; the municipal council municipal board, is the highest governing body of the municipality in Norway. The municipal council sets the scope of municipal activity, takes major decisions, delegates responsibility; the council is led by a mayor s divided into an executive council and a number of committees, each responsible for a subsection of tasks. It is not uncommon for some members of the council to sit in the county councils too, but rare that they hold legislative or Government office, without leave of absence; the municipal council dates back to 1837 with the creation of the Formannskabsdistrikt. In cities the council is called a city council.
In the Republic of China, a municipal council represents a special municipality. Members of the councils are elected through municipal elections held every 4-5 years. Councils for the special municipalities in Taiwan are Taipei City Council, New Taipei City Council, Taichung City Council, Tainan City Council, Kaohsiung City Council and Taoyuan City Council. City council Town council
Socialist Party of Chile
The Socialist Party of Chile is a political party within the centre-left Nueva Mayoría. Its historic leader was President of Chile Salvador Allende, deposed in a coup d'état by General Pinochet in 1973. Twenty-seven years Ricardo Lagos Escobar represented the Socialist Party in the 1999 presidential elections, he was elected with 51.3 % in the second round. In the legislative elections on 16 December 2001, as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy, the party won 10 out of 117 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 5 out of 38 elected seats in the Senate. After the 2005 elections, the Party increased its seats to 8, respectively. In the 2009 elections, it retained 11 Congressional and 5 Senate seats. Socialist Michelle Bachelet won the 2005 presidential election, she was the first female president of Chile and was succeeded by Sebastián Piñera in 2010. In the 2013 presidential election, she was elected again and took office in 2014; the Socialist Party of Chile was co-founded on 19 April 1933, by Colonel Marmaduque Grove, who had led several governments, Oscar Schnake, Carlos Alberto Martínez, future President Salvador Allende, other personalities.
After the Chilean coup of 1973 it was proscribed and the party split into several groups which would not reunite until after the return to civilian rule in 1990. Socialist thought in Chile goes back to the mid-19th century, when Francisco Bilbao and Santiago Arcos opened a debate on civil rights and social equality in Chile; these ideas took hold in the labour movement at the beginning of the 20th century and, along with them, the various communist, anarchist and mutualist ideals of the time were diffused by writers and leaders such as Luis Emilio Recabarren. The impact of the 1917 October Revolution in Russia imparted new vigor to Chile's revolutionary movements, which in the 1920s were identified with the global Communist movement; the Great Depression of 1930 plunged the country's working and middle classes into a serious crisis that led them to sympathize with socialist ideas, which found expression in the establishment of the short-lived Socialist Republic of Chile in 1932. The idea of founding a political party to unite the different movements identified with socialism took shape in the foundation of the Socialist Party of Chile, on 19 April 1933.
At a conference in Santiago, at 150 Serrano, 14 delegates from the Socialist Marxist Party led by Eduardo Rodriguez Mazer. The Party's Statement of Principles was: -The Socialist Party embodies Marxism, enriched by scientific and social progress. -The Capitalist exploitation based on the doctrine of private property regarding land, industry and transportation must be replaced by an economically socialist state in which said private property be transformed into collective. -During the process of total transformation of the system of government, a representative revolutionary government of the manual and intellectual labourers' class is necessary. The new socialist state only can be born of the initiative and the revolutionary action of the proletariat masses. -The socialist doctrine is of an international character and requires the support of all the workers of the world. The Socialist Party will support their revolutionary goals in economics and politics across Latin America in order to pursue a vision of a Confederacy of the Socialist Republics of the Continent, the first step toward the World Socialist Confederation.
The Party obtained popular support. Its partisan structure exhibits some singularities, such as the creation of "brigades" that group their militants according to environment of activity. In the 1930s they included the "Left Communist" faction, formed by a split of the Communist Party of Chile, headed by Manuel Noble Plaza and comprising the journalist Oscar Waiss, the lawyer Tomás Chadwick and the first secretary of the PS, Ramón Sepúlveda Loyal, among others. In 1934 the Socialists, along with the Radical-Socialist Party and the Democratic Party constituted the "Leftist Bloc". In the first parliamentary election they obtained 22 representatives, among them its Secretary general Oscar Schnake Vergara, elected senator of Tarapacá-Antofagasta, placed by the PS in a noticeable place inside the political giants of the epoch. For the 1938 presidential election, the PS participated in the formation of the Popular Front, withdrawing its presidential candidate, the colonel Marmaduque Grove, supporting the Radical Party's candidate, Pedro Aguirre Cerda, who narrowly defeated the right-wing candidate following an attempted coup by the National Socialist Movement of Chile.
In the government of Aguirre Cerda the socialists obtained the Ministries of Public Health and Social Assistance, given to Salvador Allende, the Minister of Promotion, trusted to Oscar Schnake, the Ministers of Lands and Colonization, handed out to Rolando Merino. The participation of the Socialist Party in the government of Aguirre Cerda reached an end on 15 December 1940, due to internal conflic
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif