Les Angles, Gard
Les Angles is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. Communes of the Gard department INSEE
Laval-Pradel is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. Communes of the Gard department INSEE The Regordane Way or St Gilles Trail, which passes through Le Pradel
Chamborigaud is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. The village is known for its stunning viaduct, designed by Charles Dombre, the construction of which ended in 1867. Unlike most other bridges of this type, the curve of the Viaduct of Chamborigaud faces upstream. Communes of the Gard department INSEE The Regordane Way or St Gilles Trail, which passes through Chamborigaud
Arphy is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. Communes of the Gard department INSEE
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the US, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system; the Industrial Revolution led to an unprecedented rise in the rate of population growth. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was the first to use modern production methods. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, many of the technological innovations were of British origin. By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, with some political influence on the Indian subcontinent, through the activities of the East India Company.
The development of trade and the rise of business were major causes of the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth; some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the standard of living for the general population began to increase for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries. GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies. Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. Although the structural change from agriculture to industry is associated with the Industrial Revolution, in the United Kingdom it was almost complete by 1760.
The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes. Eric Hobsbawm held that the Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the 1780s and was not felt until the 1830s or 1840s, while T. S. Ashton held that it occurred between 1760 and 1830. Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800. Mechanized textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe and the United States in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles and coal emerging in Belgium and the United States and textiles in France. An economic recession occurred from the late 1830s to the early 1840s when the adoption of the original innovations of the Industrial Revolution, such as mechanized spinning and weaving and their markets matured. Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth.
Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution. These new innovations included new steel making processes, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of advanced machinery in steam-powered factories; the earliest recorded use of the term "Industrial Revolution" seems to have been in a letter from 6 July 1799 written by French envoy Louis-Guillaume Otto, announcing that France had entered the race to industrialise. In his 1976 book Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Raymond Williams states in the entry for "Industry": "The idea of a new social order based on major industrial change was clear in Southey and Owen, between 1811 and 1818, was implicit as early as Blake in the early 1790s and Wordsworth at the turn of the century." The term Industrial Revolution applied to technological change was becoming more common by the late 1830s, as in Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui's description in 1837 of la révolution industrielle.
Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of "an industrial revolution, a revolution which at the same time changed the whole of civil society". However, although Engels wrote in the 1840s, his book was not translated into English until the late 1800s, his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, whose 1881 lectures gave a detailed account of the term; some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among some historians; the commencement of the Industrial Revolution is linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies: Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water increased the output of a worker by a factor of around 500.
The power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40. The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50. Large gains in productivity occurred in spinning and weaving of w
Aimargues is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. The town of Aimargues may have Roman origins and is situated beside the Vidourle River on the floodplain of the River Rhône. Traditionally it has been an agricultural and wine-producing community but it now has a number of new industries and employers who benefit from excellent road connections to the north of France as well as to Spain and Italy. Located some 26 km to the southwest of Nîmes, close to the border with the Hérault department, Aimargues can be accessed from the nearby Autoroute A9. Aimargues has a railway station on the line from Saint-Césaire to Le Grau-du-Roi; the Petite Camargue is an area of wetlands on the west side of the delta of the Rhône River in southern France. Aimargues is a small town in the Petite Camargue beside the River Vidourle which rises in the Cévennes Mountains to the northwest; some 6,000 years BC much of the interior of the Petite Carmargue was occupied by a lagoon, l’étang de l’or, separated from the sea by a sandy bar.
Since the lake has become progressively silted up. The countryside around Aimargues is flat and the soil is rich, being accumulated sediment brought down the River Rhône and deposited in its delta and surrounding area during flooding; as well as agricultural land there are levees, marshes, brackish ponds and dunes in the area. The suffix "argues" suggests, it was named after the Roman military commander Flavius Armatus. It is unclear when Aimargues castle was built but it was in existence before 1185. King Louis IX is said to have set out for the Crusades from the town. In the 13th century, a census showed that the town had become a bustling community with 522 homes, indicating a population of over 2,000 people. In 1565, the area came under the rule of the house of Crussol and Viscount d'Uzès made it one of the main strongholds of the Lower Vistrenque. Louis XIII ordered the destruction of the city walls. In the early 18th century, Jean Charles de Crussol included Baron d'Aymargues among his titles.
After the French Revolution the town was no longer controlled by the Uzès and in 1790, with the establishment of the department of Gard, it became the capital of the Canton Aimargues, now the Canton Rhôny-Vidourle, in the district of Nîmes. The town has developed from an initial central core; this is self-contained and not traversed by routes extending from one side of the town to the other. It was surrounded by the city wall, has the château in its northwest corner and the church, reconstructed in the nineteenth century, in its centre; this ancient part is surrounded by another zone that has packed houses and narrow streets. The outer suburbs are modern; the Commune of Aimargues has several buildings of historic interest: The Château de Teillan located 2 km to the south of the village is an old Roman castrum called "Villa Telliamis". It subsequently belonged to Psalmody Abbey. Today's building dates from the second half of the 16th century with some 17th-century additions, it became a listed historic monument in 1992.
The Mas de Malherbes, property of the Ménard-Dorian family, linked to the Victor Hugo one. The former 17th-century parish church was converted into an indoor market at the end of the 19th century. Now known as the Salle Georges Brassens, it is used as an exhibition centre; the village has schools, nurseries, a library, a youth centre and an adult leisure centre. There is a bullfighting arena. In the traditional fights held here, the bull is not killed but an unarmed raseteur attempts to snatch a rosette from between its horns. While agriculture and wine production are still important contributors to the local economy, more recent players such as Royal Canin, the dog and cat food producer, Itesoft, a software company, the underwear company Éminence are important employers, benefitting from easy access to the motorway with connections to Italy and Spain as well as to the north of France. Under French Revolution: Jean-Baptiste Lancry de La Loyelle, first mayor elected.
Allègre-les-Fumades is a commune in the Gard department in southern France. Château d'Allègre: ruined castle, protected since 1997 as a monument historique. Daniel Féret and doctor, works at the thermal springs centre in Fumades. Communes of the Gard department INSEE