National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Charcoal is a lightweight, black residue, consisting of carbon and any remaining ash, obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. Charcoal is usually produced by slow pyrolysis- the heating of wood or other substances in the absence of oxygen, the whole pile is covered with turf or moistened clay. The firing is begun at the bottom of the flue, the success of the operation depends upon the rate of the combustion. The operation is so delicate that it was left to colliers. They often lived alone in small huts in order to tend their wood piles, for example, in the Harz Mountains of Germany, charcoal burners lived in conical huts called Köten which are still much in evidence today. The massive production of charcoal was a cause of deforestation. The increasing scarcity of easily harvested wood was a factor behind the switch to fossil fuel equivalents, mainly coal. Charcoal made at 300 °C is brown and friable, and readily inflames at 380 °C, made at higher temperatures it is hard and brittle, in Finland and Scandinavia, the charcoal was considered the by-product of wood tar production.
The best tar came from pine, thus pinewoods were cut down for tar pyrolysis, the residual charcoal was widely used as substitute for metallurgical coke in blast furnaces for smelting. Tar production led to deforestation, it has been estimated all Finnish forests are younger than 300 years. The end of tar production at the end of the 19th century resulted in rapid re-forestation, the charcoal briquette was first invented and patented by Ellsworth B. A. Zwoyer of Pennsylvania in 1897 and was produced by the Zwoyer Fuel Company. The process was popularized by Henry Ford, who used wood. Ford Charcoal went on to become the Kingsford Company, Charcoal has been made by various methods. The traditional method in Britain used a clamp and this is essentially a pile of wooden logs leaning against a chimney. The chimney consists of 4 wooden stakes held up by some rope, the logs are completely covered with soil and straw allowing no air to enter. It must be lit by introducing some burning fuel into the chimney, if the soil covering gets torn by the fire, additional soil is placed on the cracks.
Once the burn is complete, the chimney is plugged to prevent air from entering, the true art of this production method is in managing the sufficient generation of heat, and its transfer to wood parts in the process of being carbonised. A strong disadvantage of this method is the huge amount of emissions that are harmful to human health
Leighton is a town in Colbert County, United States. It is part of the Florence - Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Statistical Area known as The Shoals, at the 2010 census the population was 729. Leighton has been hit by tornadoes in the 2000s, including a damaging EF2 on May 8,2008. The first settlers in what is now Leighton arrived as early as 1813, the first business at the intersection was a tavern. The name was changed to Leighton for Rev. William Leigh, in 1826, the towns population expanded dramatically after 20 families from North Carolina settled there. In 1833, the Tuscumbia and Decatur Railroad built a line through the city, the town incorporated in 1890 and remained a major shipping center well into the twentieth century. Leighton originally straddled the county line of Franklin and Lawrence Counties, when Colbert County was carved off in 1867, the town still remained divided between the new county and Lawrence. On the 1880 U. S. Census, it reported having 196 residents on the Colbert County side and 83 on the Lawrence County side, after the 1890 Census, Colbert Countys eastern border was expanded eastward several miles to Town Creek, placing Leighton wholly within Colbert.
In 1909, an African-American man named Sam Davenport was lynched by a mob of two dozen men in Leighton. Davenport was suspected of burning a white mans barn, Leighton is located in eastern Colbert County at 34°41′59″N 87°31′51″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has an area of 1.0 square mile. As of the census of 2000, there were 849 people,360 households, the population density was 857.8 people per square mile. There were 414 housing units at a density of 418.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 44. 41% White,55. 12% Black or African American and 0. 47% Native American,0. 94% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 18. 6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.99. In the town, the population was out with 24. 0% under the age of 18,8. 7% from 18 to 24,24. 7% from 25 to 44,22. 1% from 45 to 64. The median age was 40 years, for every 100 females there were 75.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.7 males, the median income for a household in the town was $20,500, and the median income for a family was $28,036