In rock climbing, a bolt is a permanent anchor fixed into a hole drilled in the rock as a form of protection. Most bolts are either self-anchoring expansion bolts or fixed in place with liquid resin. While bolts are commonplace in rock and gym climbing there is no universal vocabulary to describe them. A bolt hanger or a fixed hanger is a combination of a fixed bolt and a specialized stainless steel hanger designed to accept a carabiner, whereas in certain regions a bolt runner or a carrot describes a hangerless bolt. A ring bolt has a loop on one end. A climbing rope is clipped into the carabiner. Quickdraws or slings are employed between bolt hangers and the rope to reduce drag when ascending and rappelling. Bolts are used in sport climbing as a backup to catch a fall, but not to aid ascent, whereas in aid climbing they can be used to aid ascent. Bolts are subject to corrosion and stress and the combination tends to cause stress corrosion cracking. A bolt in an aggressive tropical climate such as Thailand can fail in as little as 18 months.
In more temperate regions, a lifespan of 10–15 years is typical. There is a lack of effective standards and maintenance in many places but new materials such as titanium are now being used to improve the expected lifespan. Piton Carabiner Climbing equipment Maillon Picture of Petzl brand bolt and hanger Article about bolting Access Fund and American Alpine Club Policy on Fixed Anchors Arguments against bolting
Abseiling known as rappelling from French rapeler,'to recall' or'to pull through'), is a controlled descent off a vertical drop, such as a rock face, using a rope. This technique is used by climbers, cavers, canyoners and rescue and rope access technicians to descend cliffs or slopes when they are too steep and/or dangerous to descend without protection. Many climbers use this technique to protect established anchors from damage. Rope access technicians use this as a method to access difficult-to-reach areas from above for various industrial applications like maintenance, construction and welding. To descend safely, abseilers use a variety of techniques to increase the friction on the rope to the point where it can be controlled comfortably; these techniques range from wrapping the rope around their body to using a custom built device like a rack. Practitioners choose a technique based on speed, safety and other circumstantial concerns. In the United States, the term "rappelling" is used nearly exclusively.
In the United Kingdom, both terms are understood, but "abseilling" is preferred. In Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the two terms are used interchangably. Globally, the term "rappelling" appears in books written in English more than "abseiling"; the origin of the term rappel in reference to the technique is attributed by Roger Frison-Roche circa 1944. Frison in turn attributed the techinique of abseiling to Jean Charlet-Straton, a Chamonix guide who lived from 1840–1925. Charlet devised the technique during a failed solo attempt of Petit Dru in 1876. After many attempts, some of them solo, he managed to reach the summit of the Petit Dru in 1879 in the company of two other hired Chamonix guides, Prosper Payot and Frédéric Folliguet. During that ascent, Charlet mastered the technique. Ropes: Static rope is ideal, but dynamic rope is used. Anchors: Usually constructed from trees, ice or rock features, using webbing/cordellete, or rock climbing equipment; some areas have fixed anchors such as pitons.
A descender: A friction device or friction hitch that allows rope to be played out in a controlled fashion, under load, with a minimal effort by the person controlling it. Climbing harness: Fixed around the waist or whole body used to secure the descender. Fit is important to prevent suspension trauma. Safety back-up: Typically a friction hitch such as a prusik, Klemheist knot, or autoblock knot wrapped around the rope as to prevent uncontrolled descents. Helmets: Used to protect the head from bumps and falling rocks. Gloves: Used to protect hands from the rope and from colliding with the wall. May increase the risk of accident by becoming caught in the descender. Boots or climbing shoes: Used to increase friction against the rock Knee-pads Abseiling is used in a number of applications, including: Climbing - for returning to the base of a climb or to a point where one can try a new route. Recreation Canyoning - to descend tall waterfalls and/or cliffs. Mountaineering Caving and speleology - where underground pitches need to be accessed.
Adventure racing Industrial/commercial applications - to access parts of structures or buildings so as to perform maintenance, cleaning or construction Access to wildfires. Confined spaces access - e.g. ballast tanks, manholes Rescue applications - used to access injured people on or nearby cliffs. Military applications - tactical heliborne insertion of troops, including special forces, into the battlefield close to the objective when proper landing zones are not available. Australian rappel — Used in the military; the abseiler descends facing downwards allowing them to see. Tandem or spider abseiling — Used in climbing. Involves two climbers descending on the same belay device; this is useful in rescue situations when one of the climbers is incapacitated or the descent needs to be done quickly. The set-up is similar to a regular rappelling, with the incapacitated climber suspended from the descender. Simul-rappelling or rappelling — Used in climbing and canyoning. Two climbers descend on the same length of rope, where one climber’s weight counterbalances the other.
The technique is considered less safe than the regular rappelling. This is common in places like the Needles of South Dakota’s Black Hills. Counterbalance abseiling — Used in climbing; this rescue technique is used by a leader to reach an injured second. The leader abseils off on one strand of rope, using the incapacitated second's weight on the other strand of the rope as a counterbalance. Releasable abseil — Used by guides; this safety technique allows a leader to descend with inexperienced abseilers. A rope about twice the length of the descent is anchored with a munter mule hitch; the client descends on a single isolated strand of the rope. If the client becomes stuck halfway down the guide will be able to unlock the other strand and lower the client to the ground using the hitch as a belay device; this could be useful if the client gets clothing or hair entangled in the descender. Classical, e.g. the Dülfersitz — Used in emergencies. These technique are more dangerous than modern alternatives and only used when no other option is available.
They involve descending without aid of mechanical devices, by wrapping the rope around the body, were used before the advent of harnesses and hardware. South African classical abseil — Used in emergencies; this is a
El Potrero Chico is an internationally renowned rock climbing area in the Mexican state of Nuevo León, 3 kilometres outside the town of Hidalgo, within Sierra del Fraile protected area. El Potrero Chico is a unique geological formation of limestone cliffs and spires, some as high as 2,000 feet. There is a large range of most of them in the 5.8 to 5.13 grade. The type of climbing can range from steep overhanging face to easy slab; the rock is quite sharp. The climbs are situated in a canyon at the entrance of the park, while the interior offers undeveloped mountain terrain with many mountain biking routes, ranging from easy to expert options. El Potrero draws rock-climbers from around the world, it is considered one of the top 10 locations to sport climb in the world. In addition to well over 500 routes, the area boasts the second longest sport route in North America, Timewave Zero, with 23 pitches and over 2,000 feet. New routes are continually being developed. Rock climbers from Austin, notably, Jeff Jackson, Kevin Gallahger, Craig Pacinda, Alex Catlin, along with Colorado climber Kurt Smith started developing the area in the 1990s.
Development continued in the 21st century, notably by first accentionists Alex Catlin, Ed Wright, Dane Bass. Many climbers have attempted to build bridges with the local community, but there remains much work to be done. There are multiple guide books covering the area, some of which are linked under External Links below; the eventual status of the land is uncertain. Much of the area is a legal classification of little actual consequence. After the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the land within the park was divided amongst the townspeople as per the ejido system; this means that the Hidalgo ejido commission owns and controls 99% of the climbing area. The temperature can vary quite a lot from day from sunny to shady areas. During the summer months however, it is recommended to climb in the shade only. Due to the shape of the canyon, the weather outside may be cloudy and raining, but sunny inside the potrero, it is always possible to find a shady area. In the winter months, the daily high is about 18 degrees C° yet some days it can reach close to 25 C°.
The low is about 5-10 C°, but snow is always possible. Las Estrellas: Located on the east side of the main canyon. 5.9 to 5.12. Single pitch climbs. Club Mex: Home to a number of hard, single pitch climbs as well as the 8 pitch classic, Supernova. Mini super Wall: Directly across from the Central Scrutinizer Wall; the first handful of climbs encountered here are good warm up routes ranging from 5.8 to 5.9+. The route El Volvo Scorcho is named after the car accident that killed the first ascentionist, Dane Bass. Mota Wall: One of the most popular walls located on the Lower Sense of Religion. Mota Wall houses many of the classic climbs at El Potrero such as Double Cherry Pie. Accessed area. Lots of easy to medium range climbs. Mileski Wall: Above the Mota Wall. Hard overhanging climbs; the spires: Very popular areas. Two rock horns about 200' tall on the west side of the canyon. Outrage Wall: Lots of beautiful climbs in the mid 10s to 12 range; the Surf: 15 minutes walk from the spires, hard overhanging from 5.12a to 5.13b.
Central Srutinizer, Virgin canyon: West of the canyon. El Sendero Luminoso: This area is found before entering the main canyon, on the west side, it is where the climb El Sendero Luminoso a long difficult route with 10 pitches of 5.12, is situated. Wonder Wall: This new wall is located inside the swimming pool complex; these routes are up the stairs by the B-BQ grills. They range from 5.6 to 5.11 b. Yankee Clipper - 15 Pitches http://www.elpotrerochicoguides.com/yankee-clipper Snott Girlz - 7 Pitches Timewave Zero - 23 Pitches http://www.elpotrerochicoguides.com/time-wave-zero Pancho Villa Rides Again - 5 Pitches Treasure of Sierra Madre - 7 Pitches Estrellita - 12 Pitches http://www.elpotrerochicoguides.com/estrellita Agua De Coco - 3 Pitches Black Cat Bone - 9 Pitches Space Boyz - 11 Pitches http://www.elpotrerochicoguides.com/space-boyz The Devil's Tongue - 3 pitches Supernova - 8 pitches Access Denied - 4 Pitches Dope Ninja - 6 Pitches There are quite a few campgrounds/ranches just outside the climbing area.
Free camping is available in the area. Most of the campgrounds offer rooms for rent and there are several rental houses in the area. For house rentals visit: http://www.elpotrerochicoguides.com/accommodations La Huasteca El Salto Culo de Gato Puente de Dios Cubia Cave Potrero House and room rentals Potrero Chico Online Guide Potrero Chico Climbing Guidebook AMGA Certified Climbing Guide for El Potrero Mountain Project: Potrero Chico Potrero Chico Climbing Guides
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is semi-arid; this includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location. Deserts are formed by weathering processes as large variations in temperature between day and night put strains on the rocks which break in pieces. Although rain occurs in deserts, there are occasional downpours that can result in flash floods. Rain falling on hot rocks can cause them to shatter and the resulting fragments and rubble strewn over the desert floor are further eroded by the wind; this wafts them aloft in sand or dust storms.
Wind-blown sand grains striking any solid object in their path can abrade the surface. Rocks are smoothed down, the wind sorts sand into uniform deposits; the grains are piled high in billowing sand dunes. Other deserts are flat, stony plains where all the fine material has been blown away and the surface consists of a mosaic of smooth stones; these areas are known as desert pavements and little further erosion takes place. Other desert features include rock outcrops, exposed bedrock and clays once deposited by flowing water. Temporary lakes may form and salt pans may be left when waters evaporate. There may be underground sources of water in the form of seepages from aquifers. Where these are found, oases can occur. Plants and animals living in the desert need special adaptations to survive in the harsh environment. Plants tend to be tough and wiry with small or no leaves, water-resistant cuticles and spines to deter herbivory; some annual plants germinate and die in the course of a few weeks after rainfall while other long-lived plants survive for years and have deep root systems able to tap underground moisture.
Animals need to find enough food and water to survive. Many stay in the shade or underground during the heat of the day, they tend to be efficient at conserving water, extracting most of their needs from their food and concentrating their urine. Some animals remain in a state of dormancy for long periods, ready to become active again during the rare rainfall, they reproduce while conditions are favorable before returning to dormancy. People have struggled to live in the surrounding semi-arid lands for millennia. Nomads have moved their flocks and herds to wherever grazing is available and oases have provided opportunities for a more settled way of life; the cultivation of semi-arid regions encourages erosion of soil and is one of the causes of increased desertification. Desert farming is possible with the aid of irrigation, the Imperial Valley in California provides an example of how barren land can be made productive by the import of water from an outside source. Many trade routes have been forged across deserts across the Sahara Desert, traditionally were used by caravans of camels carrying salt, gold and other goods.
Large numbers of slaves were taken northwards across the Sahara. Some mineral extraction takes place in deserts, the uninterrupted sunlight gives potential for the capture of large quantities of solar energy. English desert and its Romance cognates all come from the ecclesiastical Latin dēsertum, a participle of dēserere, "to abandon"; the correlation between aridity and sparse population is complex and dynamic, varying by culture and technologies. In English before the 20th century, desert was used in the sense of "unpopulated area", without specific reference to aridity. Phrases such as "desert island" and "Great American Desert", or Shakespeare's "deserts of Bohemia" in previous centuries did not imply sand or aridity. A desert is a region of land, dry because it receives low amounts of precipitation has little coverage by plants, in which streams dry up unless they are supplied by water from outside the area. Deserts receive less than 250 mm of precipitation each year; the potential evapotranspiration may be large but the actual evapotranspiration may be close to zero.
Semideserts are regions which receive between 250 and 500 mm and when clad in grass, these are known as steppes. Deserts have been defined and classified in a number of ways combining total precipitation, number of days on which this falls and humidity, sometimes additional factors. For example, Arizona, receives less than 250 mm of precipitation per year, is recognized as being located in a desert because of its aridity-adapted plants; the North Slope of Alaska's Brooks Range receives less than 250 mm of precipitation per year and is classified as a cold desert. Other regions of the world have cold deserts, including areas of the Himalayas and other high-altitude areas in other parts of the world. Polar deserts cover much of the ice-free
A Tyrolean traverse is a method of crossing through free space between two high points on a rope without a hanging cart or cart equivalent. This is used in a range of mountaineering activities: rock climbing, technical tree climbing, water crossings and mountain rescue. A zip-line is in essence a Tyrolean traverse, traveled down with the assistance of gravity. Several sources claim that the name comes from the Tyrolean Alps, where climbers are said to have developed the system in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. In rock climbing a Tyrolean traverse is most used to return to the main part of a wall after climbing a detached pillar. Lost Arrow Spire, a detached pillar in Yosemite Valley, is abseiled using a dramatic Tyrolean traverse. There are many ways to anchor the line at the two high points but the significant feature is that there is a line strung between them. Many classic locations for Tyrolean traverses have since been used as locations for "highlining" or "slacklining" at great heights.
In a sense completing such a slackline would count as a Tyrolean traverse but since slacklines are not used as a form of transportation this is not accurate. With the rise in popularity of slacklining and the relative decline in the use of Tyrolean traverse by the climbing community the terms "highlining" and "Tyrolean traverse" have been somewhat confused due to obvious overlaps in the nature of the activity, including preparation and location. Traveling across a Tyrolean traverse varies from purely using one's hands and legs to the use of prusiks, one way pulleys, or ascenders. In most modern situations the traverser is secured to the line through some combination of climbing harness, carabiner, and/or pulleys. There are situations in which a Tyrolean traverse is the preferred way to descend a route, a Tyrolean traverse may allow a climber to avoid a long multi-pitch rope rappel in favor of a walk-off; the longest Tyrolean traverse agreed by Guinness is 1550 meters. It was created on September 2008 in Rila mountain range in Bulgaria.
Another famous Tyrolean traverse, set up in 2000, connected Castleton Tower and Rectory desert towers, which are about 500 meters apart. A famous use of a Tyrolean traverse in popular culture was in the opening scene of the 1993 Sylvester Stallone film "Cliffhanger", where a mountain rescue climber unsuccessfully attempts to transport a woman across a high Tyrolean traverse, only to have her fall to her death; this scene was spoofed in the Jim Carrey comedy film "Ace Ventura: When Nature Calls"
In rock climbing and ice climbing, a pitch is a steep section of a route that requires a rope between two belays, as part of a climbing system. Standard climbing ropes are between 50 and 80 metres long, so a pitch is always shorter, between two convenient ledges if possible. In free climbing, pitch refers to classification by climbers of the difficulty of ascent on certain climbing routes. In advanced climbing or mountaineering, another definition of pitch is not restricted by the length of the rope. On easier terrain or when moving the length of a pitch can be extended by means of simul climbing combining several pitches together by means of a running belay. Speed climbers will state that they completed a long route with a reduced number of pitches calling a pitch any time a fixed belay was used or a changeover in the lead occurred; this definition is used loosely, since the length of a pitch is only limited by the nature of the terrain and the confidence of the individual climbing party. Comparative The term'pitch' is used by cavers to refer to a steep or vertical section in a cave that needs ladders or single rope technique to descend and ascend.
As caving rope lengths are not standardized, the length of a pitch is equal to that of the drop. The deepest underground pitch is 603 m in Vrtiglavica Cave in the Julian Slovenia. In some cases, cavers may choose to split one drop into two or more distinct pitches; however in most cases a single rope or ladder is used for the entire drop, so in practical usage'pitch' has become synonymous with the terms'drop','pit' or'shaft'. In England the term "pot" is used to refer to a pitch, although this may refer to the entire cave in northern areas where vertical caves are predominant. While a pitch refers to a drop that can be descended, the term Aven is used to refer to a pitch when discovered from below. If not free-climbable, avens can be ascended by means of a bolt climb, where a caver places an ascending series of bolts in the walls and ascends to the top. A rope can be rigged to the bottom allowing following cavers to pass the obstacle; some avens have been tackled by lifting ladders using long poles.
Narrow avens can be climbed by pushing against opposite walls. Pit cave Grade, a subjective numerical code for athletic difficulty; the world's deepest pitches, by Bob Gulden Caves with the deepest drop, by Jochen Duckeck