Palace of Moncloa
The Palace of Moncloa or Moncloa Palace is the official residence and workplace of the Prime Minister of Spain. It is located in the Moncloa-Aravaca district in Madrid, it has been the official residence of the Prime Minister of Spain since 1977, when Adolfo Suárez moved the residence from the Palace of Villamejor. The Moncloa Complex includes a bunker and a hospital; the Ministry of the Presidency, the Deputy Prime Minister's Office, the Cabinet Office, the Chief of Staff's Office and the Press Office are located in this complex. The weekly meetings of the Council of Ministers are held at La Moncloa. In Spain'Moncloa' is sometimes used as a metonym for the central government when contrasting with the governments of the Autonomous Communities; the Moncloa Palace was a farm for agricultural use, due to its good situation became a palace-house. In 1660 it was bought by Gaspar de Haro y Guzmán, Marquis of Carpio and Eliche, owner of the neighboring orchard of La Moncloa, a name that came from its former owners, the Counts of Monclova, which gave rise to Moncloa, as know today.
When the two gardens were joined, Gaspar de Haro had a palace built on the highest part of the land, known first as Eliche's Palace and as Painted House, in reference to the frescoes that adorned the exterior walls, as Palace of La Moncloa. The Palace passed through different owners until reaching María del Pilar Teresa Cayetana de Silva Álvarez de Toledo, 13th Duchess of Alba de Tormes. To his death without descendants in 1802, Charles IV acquired the mansion and the orchard and added it to the Royal Site of La Florida, called Royal Site of La Moncloa. In 1816, Ferdinand VII ordered the restoration of the palace. Thirty years Isabella II ceded the property of La Moncloa to the State, which became part of the Ministry of Development; the palace was restored again in 1929. The Palace was destroyed during the Siege of Madrid in the Spanish Civil War. A decade after its destruction, the architect Diego Méndez built, between 1949 and 1953, the present building following the model of the Casa del Labrador of Aranjuez.
It was destined to official residence of heads of State in visits to Spain and high personalities. By law of July 15, 1954, the Moncloa Palace and its gardens, with an area of 58,293.81 square meters and adjoining the four cardinal points with land of the University City of Madrid, was integrated into the National Heritage. The new design was adapted to the new functions assigned to the palace, inaugurated by Francisco Franco in 1953. On June 3, 1954, arrived the palace's first foreign head of state, Rafael Leonidas Trujillo. On November 28, 1976, the last one, Carlos Andrés Pérez. In 1977, Prime Minister Adolfo Suárez moved the headquarters of the Presidency of the Government, located until in the central Villamejor Palace, to La Moncloa; the change occurred and given the remote location of the palace, away from the center of Madrid, for security reasons, in the face of concern that an attack against the young prime minister, newly appointed by King Juan Carlos I. With the new palace was established on it the official residence for the Prime Minister and his family.
Since 1977, the reforms and expansions of the Complex has been constant prime minister after prime minister. Adolfo Suarez ordered the the reform of the pool, he ordered the old main courtyard covered, now the famous Hall of Columns. Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo was a short prime minister but he had enough time to enable more rooms on the third floor and a music room to install a piano. Felipe González arrived in 1982 and cultivated a small orchard of bonsais although the major work he did in the complex was the construction of an underground bunker. In his mind, there was a memory of the coup d'état attempt of February 23, 1981, he built a new building close to the presidential residence to carry out the Council of Ministers, releasing in this way the main building of some work, dedicating it more to the private residence of the prime minister. José María Aznar, Ana Botella, his three sons and two cocker dogs turned the Moncloa into his house between 1996 and 2004. Prime Minister Aznar was responsible for the construction of a game room for his three children, as well as a paddle tennis court to practice his favorite sport.
Sonsoles Espinosa, wife of the Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, decided to give a radical change to the private rooms. She bet on the minimalist style: painted the rooms with light colors, changed classic furniture for other design ones and hung pictures of contemporary authors on the walls. Mariano Rajoy and his wife did not make many changes that are known, beyond changing the vases of the flowers. Before September 19, 2018, the entrance to the palace by the public were not allowed. Only accredited personnel like journalists or public servants were allowed to enter along with universities, high schools and primary schools students; these latter make a short tour to know the gardens and the Press Center. Since September 2018, the new PM Pedro Sánchez allow the public to visit the Complex, not only the Press Room and the Council of Minister's Room but the main builidings of the Complex, including the Deputy PM's Office, the Ministry of the Presidency building and the Prime Minister Chief of Staff's Office.
There is a tradition in summer by which the prime minister make a tour through the Palace to the children of the employees of the Complex. The requirements to visit
Valencian referred to as Southern Catalan, is a dialect of the Catalan language spoken in the Valencian Community, where it is an official language, in the El Carche comarca in Murcia, where it has no official recognition. Besides, it is spoken in the south of the Terres de l'Ebre and in the south of La Franja in Aragon, in its transitional variety; the denominations "Valencian" or "Valencian language" are used traditionally and as a glottonym exclusively in the Valencian Community, to refer not only to the dialect spoken in the region, but to refer to the totality of the Catalan language. However, outside this territory the use of this denomination is null, it is considered the Valencian Community's own language according to the region's 1982 Statute of Autonomy and the Spanish Constitution. According to philological studies, the varieties of this language spoken in the Valencian Community and El Carxe cannot be considered a dialect restricted to these borders: the several dialects of Valencian belong to the Western group of Catalan dialects.
Valencian, as a variety of the Catalan language, displays transitional features between Ibero-Romance languages and Gallo-Romance languages. Its similarity with Occitan has led many authors to group it under the Occitano-Romance languages. There is some controversy within the Valencian Community regarding its status as a glottonym or as a language on its own among certain political sectors such as blaverism and Spanish nationalism. According to a study carried out by the Generalitat Valenciana in 2014, scarcely more than a half people in the Valencian Community consider it as a separate language, different from Catalan. However, according to the same study, most of Valencians with higher studies say that it is the same language. According to the 2006 Statute of Autonomy Valencian is regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, by means of the Normes de Castelló. Due to not having been recognized for a long time and the considerable immigration coming from Andalusia but from other areas of Spain where Spanish is spoken, the number of speakers has decreased, the influence of Spanish has led to the adoption of a huge amount of loanwords.
Some of the most important works of Catalan literature in Valencia experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, Ausiàs March's poetry; the first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor; the official status of Valencian is regulated by the Spanish Constitution and the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, together with the Law of Use and Education of Valencian. Article 6 of the Valencian Statute of Autonomy sets the legal status of Valencian, providing that: The official language of the Valencian Community is Valencian. Valencian is official within the Valencian Community, along with Spanish, the official language nationwide. Everyone shall have the right to know it and use it, receive education in Valencian. No one can be discriminated against by reason of their language.
Special protection and respect shall be given to the recuperation of Valencian. The Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua shall be the normative institution of the Valencian language; the Law of Use and Education of Valencian develops this framework, providing for implementation of a bilingual educational system, regulating the use of Valencian in the public administration and judiciary system, where citizens can use it when acting before both. Valencian is recognized under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages as "Valencian". Valencian is not spoken all over the Valencian Community. A quarter of its territory, equivalent to 10% of the population, is traditionally Castilian-speaking only, whereas Valencian is spoken to varying degrees elsewhere. Additionally, it is spoken by a reduced number of people in Carche, a rural area in the Region of Murcia adjoining the Valencian Community. Although the Valencian language was an important part of the history of this zone, nowadays only about 600 people are able to speak Valencian in the area of Carche.
In 2010 the Generalitat Valenciana published a study and Social use of Valencian, which included a survey sampling more than 6,600 people in the provinces of Castellón, Alicante. The survey collected the answers of respondents and did not include any testing or verification; the results were: Valencian was the language "always or most used": at home: 31.6% with friends: 28.0% in internal business relations: 24.7%For ability: 48.5% answered they speak Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" 26.2% answered they write Valencian "perfectly" or "quite well" The survey shows that, although Valencian is still the common language in many areas in the Valencian Community, where more than half of the Valencian population are able to speak it, most Valencians do not speak in Valencian in their
James I of Aragon
James I the Conqueror was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign—the longest of any Iberian monarch—saw the expansion of the House of Aragon and House of Barcelona in three directions: Languedoc to the north, the Balearic Islands to the southeast, Valencia to the south. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the County of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown, he renounced northward expansion and taking back the once Catalan territories in Occitania and vassal counties loyal to the County of Barcelona, lands that were lost by his father Peter II of Aragon in the Battle of Muret during the Albigensian Crusade and annexed by the Kingdom of France, decided to turn south. His great part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. One of the main reasons for this formal renunciation of most of the once Catalan territories in Languedoc and Occitania and any expansion into them is the fact that he was raised by the Knights Templar crusaders, who had defeated his father fighting for the Pope alongside the French, so it was forbidden for him to try to maintain the traditional influence of the Count of Barcelona that existed in Occitania and Languedoc.
As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a high place among the European kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consolat de Mar, which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean, he was an important figure in the development of the Catalan language, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets. James was born at Montpellier as the only son of Peter II of Marie of Montpellier; as a child, James was made a pawn in the power politics of Provence, where his father was engaged in struggles helping the Cathar heretics of Albi against the Albigensian Crusaders led by Simon IV de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, who were trying to exterminate them. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simon's daughter, when the former was only two years old, he entrusted the boy to be educated in Montfort's care in 1211, but was soon forced to take up arms against him, dying at the Battle of Muret on 12 September 1213.
Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him. James was handed over to the papal legate Peter of Benevento at Carcassonne in May or June 1214. James was sent to Monzón, where he was entrusted to the care of Guillem de Montredó, the head of the Knights Templar in Spain and Provence; the kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza. In 1221, he was married to daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile; the next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles and the king came to terms. In 1228, James faced the sternest opposition yet from a vassal. Guerau IV de Cabrera occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. Although Aurembiax's mother, had made herself a protegée of James's father, upon her death in 1220 Guerau occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, claiming that a woman could not inherit.
James intervened to whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory, which she did at Lleida also becoming one of James' earliest mistresses, she agreed to hold Urgell in fief for him. On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal. From 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. James and Sancho negotiated a treaty whereby James would inherit Navarre on the old Sancho's death, but when this occurred in 1234, the Navarrese nobles elevated Theobald to the throne instead, James disputed it. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene. In the end, James accepted Theobald's succession. James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees in order to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire; as with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical and political obstacles.
As in the case of Navarre, he declined to launch into perilous adventures. By the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he ended his conflict with Louis IX of France, securing the renunciation of French claims to sovereignty over Catalonia. After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. On 5 September 1229, the troops from Aragon, consisting of 155 ships, 1,500 horsemen and 15,000 soldiers, set sail from Tarragona and Cambrils to conquer Majorca from Abú Yahya, the semi-independent Almohad governor of the island. Although a group of Aragonese knights took part in the campaign because of their obligations to the king, the conquest of Majorca was a Catalan undertaking, Catalans would make up the majority of Majorca's settlers. James conquered Majorca on 31 December 1229, Menorca and Ibi
The Contestani were an ancient Iberian people of the Iberian peninsula. They are believed to have spoken the Iberian language, they lived in a region located in the southwest of Hispania Tarraconensis, east of the territory of the Bastetani, between the city of Urci, located NE of the Baetica and river Sucro, today known as Júcar. Nowadays this would correspond to a section of the Albacete Province, the eastern part of the Region of Murcia and the southern part of the Valencian Community. Cartago Nova was within its territory. Other important towns were Setabi, Lucenti or Lucentum, Ilici, Menlaria and Iaspis. Iberian coins were minted at Setabi. Important Contestani archaeological sites include Tolmo de Minateda hill near Hellín and Bastida de les Alcusses, near Mogente. Iberians Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Lucentum Lady of Elche Treasure of Villena Tolmo de Minateda La Bastida de les Alcusses http://www.contestania.com Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia Alicante Archaeological Museum Villena Archaeological Museum
Algemesí is a municipality in the comarca of Ribera Alta in the Valencian Community, Spain. The town of Algemesí is one of the major centres for the production of citruses in Spain, several cooperatives are based there; this is due to the mild climate and good irrigation coming from the Xuquer river, which passes through the city. Every September is celebrated the Festivity of “la Mare de Déu de la Salut”, declared as Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO in 2011; the traditional Valencian dance called Muixeranga is a part of the festivity. The Museum os the Parties of Algemesí, venue of the network of museums of the Valencian Council looks for the consolidation of a major research center about the party. There some files are stored for the public consultation by photographic media with the most relevant aspects of the popular festivity. Among the expositive elements are “los misterios y martirios”, la “muixeranga”, “els bastonets”, “el ball de la carxofa i arquets”, “les pastoretes”, “el bolero”, “els tornejants”,“els volants”,“la Mare de Deu de la Salut” y la música.
La Mare de Déu de la Salut Festival” The Festivity of “la Mare de Déu de la Salut” presents a series of traditions which from 1247 through to 1905, were transmitted from generation to generation until they came to form what can now be considered a homage to cultural tradition. This event takes place in the historical parts of the city of Algemesí on the 7th and 8 September each year. Of special note is the great participation and involvement of the townsfolk of all ages in the event, through the many associations formed to meet the needs of the traditions and ritual acts that make up the festivity; the guilds, from which the age-old dances were born, underwent many changes with the industrial revolution in the late 19th Century, providing their members with a window onto other social and professional environments. These days, the ritual acts and traditions which call for a specific number of participants all have waiting lists. Positions on these lists are hereditary; the number of people joining in the dances which are open to any number of participants is growing constantly.
RECOGNITIONS UNESCO has recognized the ritual and community participation dimension of the Valencian celebration Our Lady of Health as part of the "intangible heritage of humanity". Event of Intangible Cultural Interest. Generalitat Valenciana, it is recorded in the Register of Assets of Cultural Interest of the Spanish Ministry of Culture, under code R-I-54-0000151-00000. Festivity of Touristic Interest. Spanish Ministry of Industry and Commerce. Spanish treasure of intangible cultural heritage. In 2009 the festivity received accreditation from the IBOCC as one of the 10 Treasures of Spain’s Intangible Cultural Heritage. Accredited as one of the 7 Valencian marvels. In 2008, the festivity received accreditation as one of the 7 Valencian marvels, in the section “Cultural events and intangible heritage”. Taurine week: Every year in late September in the town is built a wood rectangular bullring where the Fair of calves (the oldest and most important bullfighting and bullfighting on horse; the bullfighting ring is divided into 4 “cadafals” that come to auction and its cost is the basis of the budget of the Party and evening performances.
The bullring is a unique construction: each 9 September the “peñas” as are known the associations built the bullring just as it was done in 1943, with wood and strings as raw materials. Each “peña” built its own “cadafal>” parallel to the façade of the Major Square, so all the 29 “cadafals” form the rectangular square. The exhibition consists on eight runs and afternoon bullfightings on horseback; the schedule is as follows: during the morning they have the “correbous” from the pens to the square. After lunch, at the square of Salvador Castell, where the “peñas” have their booths. In the afternoon, more runs and they have dinner and nightly entertainment in the bullfightring Algemesí is twinned with: Riom, France Gangneung, South Korea
Valencian pilota is a traditional handball sport played in the Valencian Community. Its origins are not known. Rules variations within the generic Pilota Valenciana category are frequent from area to area but the common trait is that the ball is struck with a bare, or bare, hand; the general rule involves two teams made from two up to five players each. Exceptionally, individual matches are played between the most renowned players; the second characteristic is. Instead, similar to modern tennis, two individuals or teams are placed face to face separated either by a line on the ground or a net in all of modern modalities except for the frontó. A distinctive trait of Valencian pilota is that the spectators are seated or standing close to the court which means that they may be hit by the ball and thus become an part of the game; the origins of Valencian pilota are not known with certainty, but it is supposed to have been derived from the medieval Jeu de paume along with several other European handball sports similar to the actual Valencian llargues variant.
Jeu de paume is documented at Paris in 1292 since there were many tripots. There were so many resemblances with the Valencian pilota sport that, in the 16th century, the humanist Joan Lluís Vives compared both games in his Dialogues and claimed them to be the same despite some minor differences. Being played by low-class people and high-class nobles, Valencian pilota was popular: On June 14, 1391 the Valencia City Council fruitlessly forbade it to be played on the streets, but this caused the expansion of trinquets. On, nobles abandoned the handball game in favour of'"'cleaner" sports and so pilota became the property of the middle and lower classes, which led to the appearance of the first professional players and the rise of gambling and challenge matches; the break between indoor and outdoor forms caused many variants to diverge from the original Llargues version. Thus Perxa evolved into Galotxa, which in turn gave rise to Escala i corda, while Raspall was still played in both courtfields.
Llargues is the only variant that uses the original "ratlles" rule, the others using a net to separate two sides on the playing area, or with no court division at all. Another case is the Frontó variety, first documented in the late 19th century, influenced by the popularity of the main Basque pelota variant, which involves players throwing the ball against a wall. Nowadays, Valencian pilota is played in the whole Valencian Community, but every area has its preferred variety. Professional players of Escala i corda and Raspall are hired to play at the trinquets or in streets during the towns' festivals; the popularity of this sport is rising again with the building of new cortifields at schools, weekly broadcasts on Valencian public TV, the management of a professional company and the Handball International Championships with countries where these sports with a common origin are played. There are two basic versions of the sport depending whether it is played outdoors in a designated street or indoors.
Variations of the game played in the street are Galotxa and Raspall. The streets must be wide. If the streets have some irregularities, such as balconies, sidewalks, traffic signals, etc. they may be used in order to score. Some municipalities have built "fake streets" which look like real ones but are meant only for pilota games; as for the ones played indoors there are: Frare: Is a short Valencian frontó with bevels on the corners that cause the ball to bounce unexpectedly. Played in the North of the Castelló province. Frontó: Valencian frontons 20-to-30-metre long courts with a 6-metre high wall, against which the players bounce the ball off a rear wall where the ball may be bounced as well and another wall at the left of the players; the frontis has a 1-metre high line. Galotxetes: Played in a 20-by-3.5-metre space with a 1-metre high net in the middle. On the four corners there are open holes resembling doors. Now it is only played in the Vinalopó Mitjà comarca, but the oldest court still in use dates from 1772 in Abdet.
Trinquet: There is a 60-by-10-metre four walled court with stairs on one side for the spectators to sit. There are two galleries over each of the frontons for people to sit. There is a bottom balcony where reputed people or professional betters may sit, similar to a box in other stadiums. Next to the llotgeta a square is drawn on the ground: the dau. In order to play Escala i corda rules a 2-metre high net must be placed in the middle of the court. One of the most reputed is the Pelayo trinquet in Valencia. See the List of Valencian trinquets. With the basic set of rules for either street or indoor pilota, there are many different variations, some of them are played only locally, but most of them are played in w
The Edetani were an ancient Iberian people of the Iberian peninsula. They are believed to have spoken a form of the Iberian language. Iberians Edeta Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula Puntal dels Llops Ángel Montenegro et alii, Historia de España 2 - colonizaciones y formación de los pueblos prerromanos, Editorial Gredos, Madrid ISBN 84-249-1386-8 Francisco Burillo Mozota, Los Celtíberos, etnias y estados, Crítica, Grijalbo Mondadori, S. A. Barcelona ISBN 84-7423-891-9 Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia