Jules-Albert de Dion
Marquis Jules Félix Philippe Albert de Dion de Wandonne was a pioneer of the automobile industry in France. Jules-Albert was the heir of a leading French noble family, in 1901 succeeding his father Louis Albert William Joseph de Dion de Wandonne as Count, a notorious duellist, he had a passion for mechanics. He had already built a steam engine when, in 1881, he saw one in a store window. The engineers, Georges Bouton and his brother-in-law, Charles Trépardoux, had a shop in Léon where they made scientific toys, needing money for Trépardouxs long-time dream of a steam car, they acceded to De Dions request. During 1883 they formed a partnership which became the De Dion-Bouton automobile company and they tried marine steam engines, but progressed to a steam car which used belts to drive the front wheels whilst steering with the rear. This was destroyed by fire during trials, in 1884 they built another with steerable front wheels and drive to the rear wheels. As of 2011, it is the worlds oldest running car, comte de Dion entered one in an 1887 trial, Europes first motoring competition, the brainchild of M.
Paul Faussier of cycling magazine Le Vélocipède Illustré. Evidently, the promotion was insufficient, for the de Dion was the sole entrant, the de Dion tube was actually invented by steam advocate Trépardoux, just before he resigned because the company was turning to internal combustion. In 1898 he co-founded the Mondial de lAutomobile and he died in 1946, age 90, and is buried in the cemetery at Montparnasse in Paris. There is a plaque in the family chapel in Wandonne,3 km south of Audincthun in the Pas-de-Calais. Motor racing was started in France as a result of the enthusiasm with which the French public embraced the motor car. Manufacturers were enthusiastic due to the possibility of using motor racing as a window for their cars. The first motor race took place on 22 July 1894 and was organised by Le Petit Journal and it was run over the 122 kilometres distance between Paris and Rouen. The race was won by de Dion, although he was not awarded the prize for first place as his steam powered car required a stoker and the judges deemed this outside of their objectives.
The roots of both the Tour de France cycle race and LAuto, a sporting newspaper, can be traced to the Dreyfus affair and de Dions passionate opinion. Opinions were heated and there were demonstrations by both sides in the Dreyfus affair. He served 15 days in jail and was fined 100 francs, and his behaviour was criticised by Le Vélo, the largest daily sports newspaper in France. After a legally enforced change of name to LAuto it in turn created the Tour de France race in 1903 to boost falling circulation, in 1900 de Dion led a group of wealthy anti-Dreyfusards including Édouard Michelin to start a rival daily sports paper, LAuto-Velo
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
The Cable News Network is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner. It was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel, upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, and was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN primarily broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City and its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from its sister network. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households, broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on cable and satellite providers throughout Canada. Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories, as of February 2015, CNN is available to about 96,289,000 cable and telco television households in the United States.
The Cable News Network was launched at 5,00 p. m. Eastern Time on June 1,1980, after an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channels first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channels first 200 employees, including the networks first news anchor. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite providers, several websites. The company has 36 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, the channels success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warners eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1,1982, on January 28,1986, CNN carried the only live television coverage of the launch and subsequent break-up of Space Shuttle Challenger, which killed all seven crew members on board. On October 14,1987, Jessica McClure, an 18-month-old toddler, fell down a well in Midland, CNN quickly reported on the story, and the event helped make its name.
This was before correspondents reported live from the capital while American bombs were falling. Before Saddam Hussein held a press conference with a few of the hundreds of Americans he was holding hostage. Before the nation watched, riveted but powerless, as Los Angeles was looted and burned, before O. J. Simpson took a slow ride in a white Bronco, and before everyone close to his case had an agent and a book contract. This was uncharted territory just a time ago. The moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Bernard Shaw on January 16,1991, as follows, lets describe to our viewers what were seeing. The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated, were seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are combustion engines, where the working fluid is separate from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle, in the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done, the reduced-pressure steam is exhausted to the atmosphere, or condensed and pumped back into the boiler. Specialized devices such as hammers and steam pile drivers are dependent on the steam pressure supplied from a separate boiler. The use of boiling water to mechanical motion goes back over 2000 years. The Spanish inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained the first patent for an engine in 1606. In 1698 Thomas Savery patented a steam pump that used steam in direct contact with the water being pumped, Saverys steam pump used condensing steam to create a vacuum and draw water into a chamber, and applied pressurized steam to further pump the water.
Thomas Newcomens atmospheric engine was the first commercial steam engine using a piston. In 1781 James Watt patented an engine that produced continuous rotary motion. Watts ten-horsepower engines enabled a range of manufacturing machinery to be powered. The engines could be sited anywhere that water and coal or wood fuel could be obtained, by 1883, engines that could provide 10,000 hp had become feasible. The stationary steam engine was a key component of the Industrial Revolution, the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria in the 1st century AD is considered to be the first recorded steam engine. Torque was produced by steam jets exiting the turbine, in the Spanish Empire, the great inventor Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont obtained a patent for the first steam engine in history in 1603. Thomas Savery, in 1698, patented the first practical, atmospheric pressure and it had no piston or moving parts, only taps. It was an engine, a kind of thermic syphon, in which steam was admitted to an empty container.
The vacuum thus created was used to water from the sump at the bottom of the mine
The Fender Stratocaster is a model of electric guitar designed in 1954 by Leo Fender, Bill Carson, George Fullerton, and Freddie Tavares. The Fender Musical Instruments Corporation has continuously manufactured the Stratocaster from 1954 to the present and it is a double-cutaway guitar, with an extended top horn shape for balance. Along with the Gibson Les Paul, it is one of the most often emulated electric guitar shapes and Strat are trademark terms belonging to Fender. The Fender Stratocaster was the first guitar to feature three pickups and a spring tension tremolo system, as well as being the first Fender with a contoured body, the Stratocasters sleek, contoured body shape differed from the flat, slab-like design of the Telecaster. The Stratocasters double cutaways allowed players access to higher positions on the neck. Starting in 1954, the Stratocaster was offered with a solid, deeply contoured ash body, a 21-fret one-piece maple neck with black dot inlays, the color was originally a two color sunburst pattern, although custom color guitars were produced.
In 1956, Fender began using alder for sunburst and most custom color Stratocaster bodies, in 1960, the available custom colors were standardized, many of which were automobile lacquer colors from DuPont available at an additional 5% cost. A unique single-ply, 8-screw hole white pickguard held all electronic components except the recessed jack plate—facilitating easy assembly, in this floating position, players could move the bridge-mounted tremolo arm up or down to modulate the pitch of the notes being played. Hank Marvin, Jeff Beck and Ike Turner used the Strats floating tremolo extensively in their playing, as string gauges have changed, players have experimented with the number of tremolo springs, and modern Stratocasters ship with three springs. Some Strats have a bridge in place of the tremolo assembly. There is considerable debate about the effects on tone and sustain of the used in the tremolo systems inertia bar. The Stratocaster features three single coil pickups, with the originally selected by a 3-way switch.
In 1977 Fender introduced a 5-way selector making such pickup combinations more stable, dick Dale is a prominent Stratocaster player who collaborated with Leo Fender in developing the Fender Showman amplifier. In the early 1960s, the instrument was championed by Hank Marvin, guitarist for the Shadows, in 1965, George Harrison and John Lennon acquired Stratocasters and used them for Help. Rubber Soul and recording sessions, the double unison guitar solo on Nowhere Man is played by Harrison and Lennon on their new Stratocasters, after the introduction of the Fender Stratocaster Ultra series in 1989, ebony was officially selected as a fretboard material on some models. In December 1965 the Stratocaster was given a broader headstock with altered decals to match the size of the Jazzmaster, during the CBS era, particularly the 1970s, the perceived quality of Fender instruments fell. During this time, vintage instruments from the era became popular. Dan Smith, with the help of John Page, proceeded to work on a reissue of the most popular guitars of Leo Fenders era
Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance
The Pebble Beach Concours dElegance is an automotive charitable event held each year on the Pebble Beach Golf Links in Pebble Beach, considered the most prestigious event of its kind. It is the finale of Monterey Car Week held in August every year, a Concours dElegance is an event open to both prewar and postwar collector cars in which they are judged for authenticity, function and style. Classes are commonly arranged by type, coachbuilder, country of origin, judges select first-, second-, and third-place finishers for each class in the event, and the judges confer the Best of Show award on one car from the group of first-place winners. Approximately 15,000 spectators attend the event, the 1950 and 1951 Concours were held on a practice tee and driving range adjacent to the Beach Club, a private club near the Del Monte Lodge. Thirty cars were exhibited on November 4,1950, and a field of 23 on May 27,1951. In 1952, the event was moved to the 18th green of the Pebble Beach Golf Links, the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance has continued since 1950 with one missed year, in 1960, the show was cancelled due to scheduling conflicts.
In 2001, the event saw an introduction of a new category for preservation cars and this category was designed to bear witness to the passage of time, including the so-called barn find car. The 2006 event saw 175 cars lining the 18th green and hole of Pebble Beach Golf Links with 25 judged classes, with cars brought to Pebble Beach from 27 states and 13 countries. The event describes itself as Exhibiting prewar and postwar automobiles along with the latest in concept car designs, the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance is the premiere concours in the world. 24 of the 175 cars in the come from outside the U. S, representing Italy, France, Australia, Germany, Czech Republic, Netherlands. The total estimated cost of the vehicles spread across the 18th fairway at the 2006 event was US$200 million, from 227 cars in 2005, the 2006 event had a field reduced to 175 cars. Organizers said the change was made to more time to judge each car. In 2009, the Pebble Beach Concours included classic motorcycles for the first time under the theme of pre-1959 British Motorcycles, the Concours received the 2011 Motoring Event of the Year award by the International Historic Motoring Awards.
Each years Pebble Beach Concours honors a featured marque, prospective entrants must submit an application for each car, and the Concours field is selected from each years pool of applicants. Many collectors spend years and hundreds of thousands of dollars purchasing and restoring a car in hopes of being chosen, many of the competing cars are valued in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, and more recently into the millions of dollars. To the repeat participants, their guests, and thousands of attendees, the proceeds of the Pebble Beach Concours dElegance have supported the United Way of Monterey County and the Pebble Beach Company Foundation for a combination of 56 years. It supports a number of local and national organizations. The 2016 event raised over $1.75 million, and the Concours has given more than $23 million to charities through the years
According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975. A new town, founded by the will of King Louis XIV, it was the de facto capital of the Kingdom of France for over a century, from 1682 to 1789, before becoming the cradle of the French Revolution. After having lost its status of city, it became the préfecture of Seine-et-Oise département in 1790, of Yvelines in 1968. Versailles is historically known for numerous treaties such as the Treaty of Paris, which ended the American Revolutionary War and this word formation is similar to Latin seminare which gave French semailles. From May 1682, when Louis XIV moved the court and government permanently to Versailles, until his death in September 1715, during the various periods when government affairs were conducted from Versailles, Paris remained the official capital of France. Versailles was made the préfecture of the Seine-et-Oise département at its inception in March 1790, Versailles was made the préfecture of the Yvelines département, the largest chunk of the former Seine-et-Oise.
At the 2006 census the Yvelines had 1,395,804 inhabitants, Versailles is the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese which was created in 1790. The diocese of Versailles is subordinate to the archdiocese of Paris, in 1975, Versailles was made the seat of a Court of Appeal whose jurisdiction covers the western suburbs of Paris. Since 1972, Versailles has been the seat of one of Frances 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education. Versailles is an important node for the French army, a tradition going back to the monarchy with, for instance, the palace of Versailles is in the out-skirts of the city. Versailles is located 17.1 km west-southwest from the centre of Paris, the city of Versailles has an area of 26.18 km2, which is a quarter of the area of the city of Paris. In 1989, Versailles had a density of 3, 344/km2, whereas Paris had a density of 20. Born out of the will of a king, the city has a rational and symmetrical grid of streets, by the standards of the 18th century, Versailles was a very modern European city.
Versailles was used as a model for the building of Washington, the name of Versailles appears for the first time in a medieval document dated 1038. In the end of the 11th century, the village curled around a medieval castle, the 14th century brought the Black Death and the Hundred Years War, and with it death and destruction. At the end of the Hundred Years War in the 15th century, in 1561, Martial de Loménie, secretary of state for finances under King Charles IX, became lord of Versailles. He obtained permission to four annual fairs and a weekly market on Thursdays. The population of Versailles was 500 inhabitants, Martial de Loménie was murdered during the St. Bartholomews Day massacre
London to Brighton Veteran Car Run
The London to Brighton Veteran Car Run is the longest-running motoring event in the world. The first run was in 1896, and it has taken place most years since its revival in 1927. To qualify, the cars must have built before 1905. It is the worlds largest gathering of veteran cars –443 started in 2005,484 in 2009, compared to 37 starters in 1927,51 starters in 1930 and 131 in 1938. It takes place, currently, on the first Sunday in November and starts at sunrise from Hyde Park, there are two official stops along the way and Preston Park. Preston Park is the finishing point, the cars proceed to Madeira Drive on the seafront, the venue for Brightons other big motoring event. The organisers emphasise that the event is not a race – they do not even publish the order in which cars finish, any that finish before 4,30 pm are awarded a medal. The first run took place on 14 November 1896, a wet Saturday, since 1878 the speed limit had been 4 mph in the country and 2 mph in the town and an escort had been required to walk 20 yards ahead of the vehicle.
The 1865 act had required the escort to carry a red flag at a distance of 60 yards, the event started with a breakfast at the Charing Cross Hotel, which included the symbolic tearing in two by Lord Winchelsea of a red flag. A total of 33 motorists set off from London for the coast and 17 arrived in Brighton. The first of the set off from London at 10,30 am. Two Duryea cars participated in the run, marking the first appearance of American motor vehicles in Europe, the run was not staged again until 1927, and annually run from 1927 until the onset of the Second World War. Owing to petrol rationing, the event was cancelled until 1947, with all this considered, it is the worlds longest running motoring event. Since 1930, the event has been controlled by the Royal Automobile Club, the 1953 comedy movie Genevieve is set during one of these runs. The 72nd anniversary run took place in 1968 and was joined by celebrity participants Prince Rainier and Princess Grace of Monaco and that year Stirling Moss participated, driving a 1903 four-cylinder Mercedes.
Some participants dress up in a late Victorian or Edwardian style of clothing, in 1971 Queen Elizabeth II was a passenger in a 1900 Daimler. A regular participant is Prince Michael of Kent, the event is intended to showcase low energy impact vehicles of various technologies – Electric and Low-Emission ICE. Participants compete to minimise energy consumption using road legal vehicles in real world conditions
A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from. It is a used in a variety of contexts, including semantics, electronics. A prototype is used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system analysts. Prototyping serves to provide specifications for a real, working system rather than a theoretical one, in some design workflow models, creating a prototype is the step between the formalization and the evaluation of an idea. The word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον prototypon, primitive form, neutral of πρωτότυπος prototypos, primitive, from πρῶτος protos, first and τύπος typos, a Working Prototype represents all or nearly all of the functionality of the final product. A Visual Prototype represents the size and appearance, but not the functionality, a User Experience Prototype represents enough of the appearance and function of the product that it can be used for user research.
A Functional Prototype captures both function and appearance of the design, though it may be created with different techniques. A Paper Prototype is a printed or hand-drawn representation of the interface of a software product. In some cases, the final production materials may still be undergoing development themselves, process - Mass-production processes are often unsuitable for making a small number of parts, so prototypes may be made using different fabrication processes than the final product. Differences in fabrication process may lead to differences in the appearance of the prototype as compared to the final product, verification - The final product may be subject to a number of quality assurance tests to verify conformance with drawings or specifications. These tests may involve custom inspection fixtures, statistical sampling methods, prototypes are generally made with much closer individual inspection and the assumption that some adjustment or rework will be part of the fabrication process.
Prototypes may be exempted from some requirements that apply to the final product. Engineers and prototype specialists will attempt to minimize the impact of these differences on the role for the prototype. Engineers and prototyping specialists seek to understand the limitations of prototypes to exactly simulate the characteristics of their intended design and it is important to realize that by their very definition, prototypes will represent some compromise from the final production design. Due to differences in materials and design fidelity, it is possible that a prototype may fail to perform acceptably whereas the design may have been sound. In general, it can be expected that individual prototype costs will be greater than the final production costs due to inefficiencies in materials. Prototypes are used to revise the design for the purposes of reducing costs through optimization and it is possible to use prototype testing to reduce the risk that a design may not perform as intended, however prototypes generally cannot eliminate all risk.
As an alternative, rapid prototyping or rapid application development techniques are used for the prototypes, which implement part
De Dion-Bouton was a French automobile manufacturer and railcar manufacturer operating from 1883 to 1932. The company was founded by the Marquis Jules-Albert de Dion, Georges Bouton, the company was formed after de Dion in 1881 saw a toy locomotive in a store window and asked the toymakers to build another. Engineers Bouton and Trépardoux had been eking a living on scientific toys at a shop in the Passage de Léon, Trépardoux had long dreamed of building a steam car, but neither could afford it. De Dion, already inspired by steam and with money, agreed. This became the De Dion-Bouton automobile company, the worlds largest automobile manufacturer for a time, becoming known for their quality, reliability. Before 1883 was over they had set up shop in larger premises in the Passage de Léon, Paris and dropped steam engines for boats, and produced a steam car. With the boiler and engine mounted at the front, driving the front wheels by belts and steering with the rear and they built a second, La Marquise, the next year, with a more conventional steering and rear-wheel drive, capable of seating four.
The Marquis de Dion entered one of these in an 1887 trial, Europes first motoring competition, the brainchild of one M. Fossier of cycling magazine Le Vélocipède. Evidently, the promotion was insufficient, for the De Dion was the entrant, but it completed the course, with de Dion at the tiller. This must be taken with care, the first official land speed record. The vehicle survives, in condition, and has been a regular entry in the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run. Following this singular success, the company offered steam tricycles with boilers between the front wheels and two-cylinder engines and they were built in small numbers, evidently a favorite of young playboys. They were joined by a tractor, able to pull trailers. On July 22,1894, Paris–Rouen race, it averaged 18.7 km/h over the 126 km route, two more cars were made in 1885 followed by a series of lightweight two-cylinder tricars, which from 1892 had Michelin pneumatic tyres. The company manufactured steam buses and trucks until 1904, staunchly supporting steam, resigned in 1894 as the company turned to internal combustion vehicles.
The steam car remained in more or less unchanged for ten years more. By 1889, de Dion was becoming convinced the future lay in the combustion engine. After Trépardoux resigned in 1894, the company became De Dion, Bouton et Compagnie, for 1895, Bouton created a new 137 cc one-cylinder engine with trembler coil ignition
History of the automobile
The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, in 1807 François Isaac de Rivaz designed the first car powered by an internal combustion engine fueled by hydrogen. Marcus created the two-cycle combustion engine, the cars second incarnation in 1880 introduced a four-cycle, gasoline-powered engine, an ingenious carburetor design and magneto ignition. He created an additional two models further refining his design with steering, a clutch and brakes, the four-stroke petrol internal combustion engine that still constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotive propulsion was patented by Nikolaus Otto. The similar four-stroke diesel engine was invented by Rudolf Diesel, the hydrogen fuel cell, one of the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as an energy source for cars, was discovered in principle by Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1838. The battery electric car owes its beginnings to Ányos Jedlik, one of the inventors of the motor, and Gaston Planté.
In 1886, Karl Benz developed a petrol or gasoline powered automobile and this is considered to be the first production vehicle as Benz made several other identical copies. The automobile was powered by a single two stroke engine. The early history of the automobile was concentrated on the search for a portable power unit to propel the vehicle. Ferdinand Verbiest, a member of a Jesuit mission in China and it was small scale and could not carry a driver but it was, quite possibly, the first working steam-powered vehicle. Steam-powered self-propelled vehicles large enough to people and cargo were first devised in the late 18th century. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot demonstrated his fardier à vapeur, an experimental steam-driven artillery tractor, as Cugnots design proved to be impractical, his invention was not developed in his native France. The center of innovation shifted to Great Britain, by 1784, William Murdoch had built a working model of a steam carriage in Redruth and in 1801 Richard Trevithick was running a full-sized vehicle on the roads in Camborne.
The first automobile patent in the United States was granted to Oliver Evans in 1789, during the 19th century attempts were made to introduce practical steam powered vehicles. Innovations such as brakes, multi-speed transmissions and better steering developed. This effectively halted road auto development in the UK for most of the rest of the 19th century, the law was not repealed until 1896, although the need for the red flag was removed in 1878. In 1816, a professor at Prague Polytechnic, Josef Bozek, walter Hancock and operator of London steam buses, in 1838 built a four-seat steam phaeton. In 1867, Canadian jeweller Henry Seth Taylor demonstrated his 4-wheeled steam buggy at the Stanstead Fair in Stanstead, the basis of the buggy, which he began building in 1865, was a high-wheeled carriage with bracing to support a two-cylinder steam engine mounted on the floor