Aryanah is a coastal city in north-eastern Tunisia, part the agglomeration of Tunis, called Grand Tunis. It is located at the north of Tunis city center, around 36°51′45″N 10°11′44″E and it is the capital of Ariana Governorate and the countrys eighth largest city. The citys name seems to back to the period of the Vandal kingdom in Africa. The citys origins date back to the Zirid dynasty, under the Hafsid sultan Muhammad I al-Mustansir Ariana became the residence of the Sephardi Jews and Muslim Andalusians, who sought refuge in Tunisia in the thirteenth century
Tunis is both the capital and the largest city of Tunisia. The greater metropolitan area of Tunis, often referred to as Grand Tunis, has some 2,700,000 inhabitants. Situated on a large Mediterranean Sea gulf, behind the Lake of Tunis and the port of La Goulette, the city extends along the coastal plain, at its core lies its ancient medina, a World Heritage Site. Beyond this district lie the suburbs of Carthage, La Marsa, as the capital city of the country, Tunis is the focus of Tunisian political and administrative life, it is the centre of the countrys commercial activity. Tunis is the transcription of the Arabic name تونس which can be pronounced as Tūnus, Tūnas, All three variations were mentioned by the Greek-Syrian geographer al-Rumi Yaqout in his Mujam al-Bûldan. Different explanations exist for the origin of the name Tunis, some scholars relate it to the Phoenician goddess Tanith, as many ancient cities were named after patron deities. Another possibility is that it was derived from the Berber verbal root ens which means to lie down or to pass the night, given the variations of the precise meaning over time and space, the term Tunis can possibly mean camp at night, camp, or stop.
There are mentions in ancient Roman sources of such names of nearby towns as Tuniza, Thinissut. As all of these Berber villages were situated on Roman roads, the historical study of Carthage is problematic. Because its culture and records were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War and these writers belonged to peoples in competition, and often in conflict, with Carthage. Greek cities contended with Carthage over Sicily, and the Romans fought three wars against Carthage, not surprisingly, their accounts of Carthage are extremely hostile, while there are a few Greek authors who took a favourable view, these works have been lost. The existence of the town is attested by sources dating from the 6th century BC, in the 2nd millennium BC a town, originally named Tunes, was founded by Berbers and over time occupied by Numidians. In 146 BC, the Romans destroyed Tunis, the city was subsequently rebuilt under the rule of Augustus and became an important town under Roman control and the center of a booming agricultural industry.
Situated on a hill, Tunis served as an excellent point from which the comings and goings of naval and caravan traffic to and from Carthage could be observed. Tunis was one of the first towns in the region to fall under Carthaginian control, during Agathocles expedition, which landed at Cape Bon in 310 BC, Tunis changed hands on various occasions. During the Mercenary War, it is possible that Tunis served as a center for the population of the area, and that its population was mainly composed of peasants, fishermen. Compared to the ancient ruins of Carthage, the ruins of ancient Tunis are not as large, according to Strabo, it was destroyed by the Romans during the Third Punic War. Both Tunis and Carthage were destroyed, however, was rebuilt first, the city is mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana as Thuni
Testour is a small town located in the north of Tunisia. The town is perched on the hills of Medjerda Valley,20 km south-west of Medjez-el-Bab and it was known during the Roman period, as Tichilla, which means the green grass as it is situated in the mouth of Siliana valley. It was rebuilt by Muslim and Jewish refugees from Andalusia who gave it a character in building. Today it is a pilgrimage for Jews who visit Rabbi Fraji Chawats tomb. The city host a festival of Malouf and traditional Maghrebi music since 1967. Testour is twinned with, Morocco Serpa, Portugal Gibellina, Italy Overview of Testour Guide of Testour
Carthage was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage and during the 7th to 3rd centuries BC, included its sphere of influence, the Carthaginian Empire. The empire extended over much of the coast of North Africa as well as encompassing substantial parts of coastal Iberia, Carthage was founded in 814 BC. At the height of the prominence it served as a major hub of trade. The city had to deal with potentially hostile Berbers, the inhabitants of the area where Carthage was built. In 146 BC, after the third and final Punic War, Roman forces destroyed, nearly all of the other Phoenician city-states and former Carthaginian dependencies subsequently fell into Roman hands. According to Roman sources, Phoenician colonists from modern-day Lebanon, led by Dido, Queen Elissa was an exiled princess of the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre. At its peak, the metropolis she founded, came to be called the city, ruling 300 other cities around the western Mediterranean Sea. Elissas brother, Pygmalion of Tyre, had murdered Elissas husband, Elissa escaped the tyranny of her own country, founding the new city of Carthage and subsequently its dominions.
Details of her life are sketchy and confusing, but the following can be deduced from various sources, according to Justin, Princess Elissa was the daughter of King Belus II of Tyre. When he died, the throne was jointly bequeathed to her brother and she married her uncle Acerbas, known as Sychaeus, the High Priest of Melqart, a man with both authority and wealth comparable to the king. This led to increased rivalry between the elite and the monarchy. Pygmalion was a tyrant, lover of both gold and intrigue, who desired the authority and fortune enjoyed by Acerbas, Pygmalion assassinated Acerbas in the temple and kept the misdeed concealed from his sister for a long time, deceiving her with lies about her husbands death. At the same time, the people of Tyre called for a single sovereign, in the Roman epic of Virgil, the Aeneid, Queen Dido, the Greek name for Elissa, is first introduced as a highly esteemed character. In just seven years, since their exodus from Tyre, the Carthaginians have rebuilt a successful kingdom under her rule and her subjects adore her and present her with a festival of praise.
Her character is perceived by Virgil as even more noble when she offers asylum to Aeneas and his men, who have recently escaped from Troy. A spirit in the form of the god, sent by Jupiter, reminds Aeneas that his mission is not to stay in Carthage with his new-found love, Dido. Virgil ends his legend of Dido with the story that, when Aeneas tells Dido, her heart broken, as she lay dying, she predicted eternal strife between Aeneas people and her own, rise up from my bones, avenging spirit she says, an invocation of Hannibal. The settlements at Crete and Sicily were in conflict with the Greeks
The Hafsids were a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Berber descent who ruled Ifriqiya from 1229 to 1574. The dynasty was named after Muhammad bin Abu Hafs a Berber from the Masmuda tribe of Morocco and he was appointed governor of Ifriqiya by Muhammad an-Nasir, Caliph of the Almohad empire between 1198-1213. The Banu Hafs, were a powerful group amongst the Almohads, their ancestor is Omar Abu Hafs al-Hentati, a member of the council of ten and a close companion of Ibn Tumart. The Hafsids as governors on behalf of the Almohads faced constant threats from Banu Ghaniya who were descendants of Almoravid princes which the Almohads had defeated and replaced as a ruling dynasty, the Hafsids were Ifriqiya governors of the Almohads until 1229, when they declared independence. After the split of the Hafsids from the Almohads under Abu Zakariya, Abu Zakariya organised the administration in Ifriqiya and built Tunis up as the economic, at the same time, many Muslims from Al-Andalus fleeing the Spanish Reconquista of Castile and Aragon were absorbed.
He conquered the Kingdom of Tlemcen in 1242 and made the Abdalwadids his vassals and his successor Muhammad I al-Mustansir took the title of Caliph. In the 14th century the empire underwent a temporary decline, although the Hafsids succeeded for a time in subjugating the empire of the Abdalwadids of Tlemcen, between 1347 and 1357 they were twice conquered by the Merinids of Morocco. The Abdalwadids however could not defeat the Bedouin, the Hafsids were able to regain their empire, during the same period plague epidemics caused a considerable fall in population, further weakening the empire. Under the Hafsids, commerce with Christian Europe grew significantly, however piracy against Christian shipping grew as well, in 1429, the Hafsids attacked the island of Malta, and took 3000 slaves although they did not conquer the island. The profits were used for a building programme and to support art. However, piracy provoked retaliation from Aragon and Venice, which several times attacked Tunisian coastal cities, under Utman the Hafsids reached their zenith, as the caravan trade through the Sahara and with Egypt was developed, as well as sea trade with Venice and Aragon.
The Bedouins and the cities of the empire became independent, leaving the Hafsids in control of only Tunis. In the 16th century the Hafsids became increasingly caught up in the struggle between Spain and the Ottoman Empire-supported Corsairs. The Ottomans conquered Tunis in 1534 and held it for one year, a year the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor seized Tunis, drove the Ottomans out and restored Muley Hassan as a Hapsburg tributary. Due to the Ottoman threat, the Hafsids were vassals of Spain after 1535, the Ottomans again conquered Tunis in 1569 and held it for four years. Don Juan of Austria recaptured it in 1573, the Hafsid lineage survived the Ottoman massacre by a branch of the family being taken to the Canary Island of Tenerife by the Spanish
The Maghreb, or the Greater Maghreb, is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa or Northwest Africa, west of Egypt. Historical terms for the region or various portions of the Maghreb include Mauretania, Libya, the term maghrib is Arabic for west, from the verb gharaba. In the strict sense, the definite form al-maghrib denotes the country of Morocco in particular and it identified the westernmost territories that fell to the Islamic conquests of the 7th century. Today, it is a noun for the present region of the Maghreb. The Berber languages alternative term for the region, has been popularized by Berber activists since the second half of the 20th century. As recently as the late 19th century it was used to refer to the Western Mediterranean region of coastal North Africa in general, and to Algeria and Tunisia in particular. The region was unified as an independent political entity during the rule of the Berber kingdom of Numidia. The most enduring rule was that of the local Berber empires of the Almoravids, Hammadids, Marinids, the Ottoman Turks ruled the region as well.
Mauritania, Tunisia and Libya established the Maghreb Union in 1989 to promote cooperation and it was envisioned initially by Muammar Gaddafi as a superstate. The union included Western Sahara implicitly under Moroccos membership, putting Moroccos long cold war with Algeria to a rest, this progress was short-lived, and the union is now frozen. Tensions between Algeria and Morocco over Western Sahara re-emerged strongly, reinforced by the unsolved borderline issue between the two countries and these two main conflicts have hindered progress on the unions joint goals and practically made it inactive as a whole. Around 3,500 BC a tilt in the Earths orbit created a rapid desertification of the Sahara, the Maghreb or western North Africa is believed to have been inhabited by Berbers since from at least 10,000 BC. Maghreb coast ports were predominantly occupied or constructed by the Phoenicians, the main Phoenician settlements centered in the Gulf of Tunis along the North African littoral between the Pillars of Hercules and the Libyan coast east of ancient Cyrenaica.
They dominated the trade and intercourse of the Western Mediterranean for centuries, Rome was greatly helped by the defection of King Massinissa and Carthaginians eastern Numidian Massylii client-allies. A century later, the Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent a force under General Belisarius that succeeded in destroying the Vandal kingdom, the Berbers contested outside-the-area control although after the 640s-700 AD period the Arabs controlled the entire region. The Arabs reached the Maghreb in early Umayyad times, Arab expansion and the spread of Islam pushed the development of trans-Saharan trade. While restricted due to the cost and dangers, the trade was highly profitable, commodities traded included such goods as salt, gold and slaves. Arab control over the Maghreb was quite weak, various Islamic variations, such as the Ibadis and the Shia, were adopted by some Berbers, often leading to scorning of Caliphal control in favour of their own interpretation of Islam
Gammarth is a town on the Mediterranean Sea in the Tunis Governorate of Tunisia, located some 15 to 20 kilometres north of Tunis, adjacent to La Marsa. It is a seaside resort, known for its expensive hotels. Gammarth began as a fishing village but following independence from France it blossomed into a resort from the 1950s. Tourism now provides the backbone to the local economy, Gammarth has many five-star hotels and restaurants and contains many lavish white villas and coves in the vicinity. Notable villas include Abou Nawas Gammarth and Les Dunes, excavations at Gammarth Hill have revealed some catacombs and Talmudic inscriptions. These ancient burial chambers are believed to date to Roman times in the 2nd century when nearby Carthage was a thriving Roman city, Gammarth contains a notable cinema complex
Tunisian Arabic, or Tunisian, is a set of dialects of Maghrebi Arabic spoken in Tunisia. It is known by its 11 million speakers as Tounsi Tunisian or Derja everyday language to distinguish it from Modern Standard Arabic, as part of a dialect continuum, Tunisian merges into Algerian Arabic and Libyan Arabic at the borders of the country. Tunisian Arabics morphology, syntax and vocabulary are different from Modern Standard Arabic or Classical Arabic. Like other Maghrebi dialects, it has a vocabulary that is mostly Arabic with a significant Berber substratum, Tunisian has a significant Latin component, as well as many loanwords from French, Turkish and the languages of Spain. Tunisian Arabic is mostly intelligible to speakers of other Maghrebi dialects but is hard to understand or is unintelligible for speakers of Middle Eastern Arabic. Multilingualism within Tunisia and in the Tunisian diaspora makes it common for Tunisians to code-switch, mixing Tunisian with French, Standard Arabic or other languages in daily speech.
Within some circles, Tunisian Arabic has thereby integrated new French and English words, notably in technical fields, or replaced old French, Tunisian Arabic is closely related to Maltese, which is a separate language that descended from tunisian and siculo-arabic. Tunisian Arabic is one of the Arabic languages within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family and it is a variety of Maghrebi Arabic like Moroccan and Algerian Arabic, which are mostly unintelligible to Modern Standard or Mashriqi Arabic speakers. It is considered to be a mostly Hilalian dialects because it was affected by the immigration of Banu Hilal in the 11th century, as were the other Maghrebi varieties. As a part of the Arabic dialect continuum, it is reported that Tunisian Arabic is partly mutually intelligible with Algerian Arabic, Libyan Arabic, However, it is slightly intelligible or even not intelligible with Moroccan, Levantine, Mesopotamian, or Gulf Arabic. During classical antiquity, Tunisias population spoke Berber languages related to the Numidian language, migrants from Phoenicia settled Tunisia during the 12th to the 2nd century BC, founded ancient Carthage and progressively mixed with the local population.
From the eighth century BC, most of Tunisias inhabitants spoke the Punic language, already at that time, in the regions near to Punic settlements, the Berber that was used evolved considerably. In the urban centers such as Dougga, Bulla Regia, Thuburnica or Chemtou, Berber lost its Maghrebi phonology but kept the essential of its vocabulary. The word Africa, which gave its name to the continent, during this period and up to the third century BC, the Tifinagh alphabet developed from the Phoenician alphabet. After the arrival of Romans, following the fall of Carthage in 146 BC, the population spoke mainly Punic. From Roman period until the Arab conquest, Latin and Numidian further influenced the language and this progressively gave birth to African Romance, a Latin dialect, influenced by Tunisias other languages and used along with them. However, it may be that the existence of Punic facilitated the spread of Arabic in the region, the people of several urban cities were progressively influenced by Arabic.
By the 11th century, through contact of local languages such as African Romance or Berber with Classical Arabic, the new dialects were significantly influenced by other historical languages
Ariana Governorate is one of the twenty-four governorates of Tunisia. It is in northern Tunisia, approximately triangular, having as one of its sides part of the Gulf of Tunis, the governorate borders the governorates of Tunis and Bizerte. The average temperature is 18.7 °C, and annual rainfall is 450 millimeters, the governorate is divided into seven delegations, six municipalities, four rural councils, and 42 sectors. The delegations and their populations from the 2004 and 2014 censuses, are listed below, The following six municipalities are located in Ariana Governorate