La Martiniere College
La Martinière College is a non-denominational private school in India and in France. La Martinière Schools were founded posthumously by Major General Claude Martin, in the early 19th century. Martin had acquired a large fortune while serving the Nawab of Awadh Asaf-ud-Daula and bequeath a major part of his estate to establish the schools, his will outlined every detail of the schools, from their location to the manner of celebrating the annual Founder's Day. The seven branches maintain close contacts and share most traditions. La Martinière College, Lucknow was awarded a Battle Honour -'Defence of Lucknow' for the part the staff and pupils played in the Defence of the Residency at Lucknow during the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 - the only school in the world so distinguished. La Martiniere Calcutta and La Martinière Lucknow consist of separate girls' and boys' schools, while the three in La Martinière Lyon are co-educational; the Colleges are day schools. Extra-curricular activities, including sports and community service organizations, are emphasized, music and dance are included in the general curriculum.
Claude Martin was born on 5 January 1735 in France. He came to India. After the French influence declined in India, he served in the British East India Company and rose to the rank of Major-General. After taking up residence in Lucknow, he occupied an important position in the court of Nawab Shuja-ud-Daulah and his son, Asaf-ud-Daula. During this period Martin accumulated a fortune of about 4,000,000 rupees, he built the palace of'Constantia' and his fine house of Farud Baksh, both of which he equipped with luxuries that included a library of some 4,000 volumes written in many languages and a picture gallery containing a collection of works of art. Martin died in Lucknow on 13 September 1800. According to his will, he was buried in the vault prepared for his remains in the basement of the college in Lucknow; the major portion of his estate were left for the founding of three institutions, one each at Lucknow and his birthplace Lyon in France. It took 30 years to dispose of the litigation arising out of Claude Martin's will.
As the result of a Supreme Court decision, La Martinière Schools opened in Calcutta, on 1 March 1836. Claude Martin's intent was the education of children in India without specific mention to race and creed. However, the attitude of British rulers in India changed to a Victorian and imperialist outlook resulted in the formation of a school meant for European Christians, though permitting Catholics, Armenien Christians and those of other denominations, it was only in 1935. The La Martinière coat of arms was designed by the founder Claude Martin, it is supported by each bearing the design of a fish, the emblem of Oudh. The devices on the escutcheon appear to epitomise Claude Martin's life; the ship recalls his voyage to India. The lion with the pennant represents his career as an officer in the East India Company and with the Nawab of Oudh The setting sun behind the castellated building to the right of the shield has been said to point to the sunset of his days and the large part which the building of "Constantia" played in his years.
The coat of arms and the accompanying motto Labore et Constantia are now shared by all the schools founded by Martin. The La Martinere College flag consists of the coat of arms on a gold background; the flag is flown above the buildings, used for formal events and celebrations, such as the annual Founder's Day. The seal is engraved on the school buildings. Founder's Day is commemorated every year on 13 September, the day; some of the traditions of this day include an extended formal assembly in the morning with a faculty march, a speech by a prominent guest or alumnus, the playing of bagpipes, singing of the school song and other selected hymns by the College choir, the laying of a wreath at Claude Martin's tomb. For the Founder's Day dinner the entire senior school and staff are treated to an elaborate sit-down dinner in the afternoon. Claude Martin had listed in his will that his death should not be commemorated as a day of mourning but one of celebration of his life, he had written out a menu for the meal to be served.
Although today, the menu does not remain the same, the tradition of the Founder's Day dinner is still preserved. A Founder's Day Social is held in the evening for the senior school. Classes are suspended on Founder's Day, followed by a school holiday. At the end of each academic year in April, Prize Day is held to recognise academic excellence and to honour high achieving students; some of the traditions include a formal assembly in the afternoon involving a faculty march, a formal speech by a prominent guest or alumnus, singing of the school song and other selected works by the College choir. The top three ranking students of each class are awarded prizes books, upper classes receive subject proficiency awards. In India, the students achieving first rank in competing academic examinations in grades 10 and 12 are awarded the Founder's Gold Medal. Several additional special prizes are awarded; each year, on the last Sunday of November, the athletic talents of the students are displayed. Traditions include a school march, gymnastics, a performance by the school band, an athletic competition between the school houses.
The students of each College are divided into four houses for promoting academic and athletic competition among students. The houses have different
La Martiniere Lucknow
La Martinière College is an educational institution located in Lucknow, the capital of the Indian State of Uttar Pradesh. The college consists of two schools on different campuses for girls. La Martinière Boys' College was founded in 1845 and La Martinière Girls' College was established in 1869; the Boys' College is the only school in the world to have been awarded royal battle honours for its role in the defence of Lucknow during the mutiny of 1857. The two Lucknow colleges are part of the La Martinière family of schools founded by the French adventurer Major General Claude Martin. There are three in Lyon. La Martinière provides a liberal education and the medium of instruction is the English language; the schools cater for pupils from the ages of five through to 17 or 18, are open to children of all religious denominations. The schools have day boarders; the Economist has described its Constantia building as "perhaps the best-preserved colonial building in Lucknow". La Martinière Boys' College was founded by an endowment from the wealthy eighteenth-century Frenchman, Major-General Claude Martin, an officer in the French and the British East India Company.
Martin acquired his fortune while serving Asaf-ud-Daula, the nawab wazir of Awadh, was reputedly the richest Frenchman in India. Constantia, the palatial building which now houses the Boys' College, was built in 1785 as Martin's country residence, but was not completed until 1802, two years after Martin's death on 13 September 1800. Historians believe that the house takes its name from the school motto Labore et Constantia which represents Martin's personal philosophy. There is a more romantic, though unproven, notion that the building was named after Constance, a young French girl, Martin's first love. Martin never married and he had no heirs. In his will, dated 1 January 1800, he left the bulk of his estate to provide for the establishment of three schools to be named La Martinière in his memory; the schools were to be located at Lyon, his birthplace in France. The residue of his estate after bequests had been made was to be used for the maintenance of these schools, he directed that the school in Lucknow should be established at Constantia and that the house should be kept as a "school or College for learning young men the English language and Christian religion if they found themselves inclined".
Martin instructed in his will that his'body be salted, put in spirits or embalmed', placed in a lead coffin in a vault beneath the house. His tomb should carry a plaque bearing the following inscription: It is popularly believed that Martin was motivated not just by vanity but by a desire to protect his property after his death and to prevent his friend, the nawab, from acquiring it. By having himself, a Christian, buried beneath Constantia, he knew that the building would be permanently desecrated in the Muslim nawab's eyes. Chandan Mitra, in his book Constant Glory, thinks otherwise, he writes "Constantia's plans show that the basement mausoleum was part of the original scheme for the building and not included as an afterthought to guard against requisition."Martin was duly interred in a specially prepared vault in the basement of the house. Thus Constantia became both a mausoleum, it is the largest European funerary monument in India, the historian William Dalrymple has described it as "The East India Company's answer to the Taj Mahal".
After Martin's death there were protracted disputes in the Calcutta High Court and his will was not proved until 1840. In the interim the Constantia building was used as a guest house for visiting Europeans. In 1837 Emily Eden, sister of the Governor General, described it as "a sort of castle in a fine jungly park, built by an old General La Martine, who came out to India a private soldier, died worth more than a million. I wish we had come out in those days"; the school opened on 1 October 1845 with some seventy boys on roll. The first Principal was John Newmarch. Unlike the Calcutta La Martinière, the Lucknow school was technically established outside British territory so right from its inception its interaction with local society was frequent. There was a native branch of the school in the Maqbara Umjid Ali Shah at Hazratgunj in the centre of Lucknow. There were plans to move the native school to a different location, although it is not known whether this took place; the first major challenge for the La Martinière School was the events of 1857 when it had to leave its premises and assisted in the defence of the Lucknow Residency.
The events of 1857 saw the making of the Martinian military legend. For the first time in history, Britain called on schoolboys to assist in the military conflict – namely the defence of the Lucknow Residency; the names of eight staff members, sixty seven boys and one ensign are inscribed on the'Roll of Honour, defence of the Residency 1857' at La Martinière Lucknow. The siege began on 30 June 1857. Early in June, the Chief Commissioner of Oudh, Sir Henry Lawrence ordered the Martinière be evacuated and for several days the boys travelled from the Residency to the College collecting provisions; the force within the Residency consisted of British and Indian troops and civilian volunteers including a number of Anglo-Indians. The Martinière contingent was commanded by Mr. George Schilling; the Residency was under siege for eighty-six days, until relieved by Sir Colin Campbell in November 1857. The role of the boys and masters of La Martinière has been well documented in Chandan Mitra's 1987 book titled Constant Glory – La Martinière saga 1836–1986.
The Residency fortifications and defended houses were about a mile in circumference
Auguste and Louis Lumière
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas and Louis Jean, were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties; the Lumière brothers were born in Besançon, France, to Charles-Antoine Lumière and Jeanne Joséphine Costille Lumière, who were married in 1861 and moved to Besançon, setting up a small photographic portrait studio where Auguste and Louis were born. They moved to Lyon in 1870, where three daughters were born. Auguste and Louis both attended the largest technical school in Lyon, their father Charles-Antoine set up a small factory producing photographic plates, but with Louis and a young sister working from 5 a.m. to 11 p.m. it teetered on the verge of bankruptcy, by 1882 it looked as if they would fail, but when Auguste returned from military service the boys designed the machines necessary to automate their father's plate production and devised a successful new photo plate,'etiquettes bleue', by 1884 the factory employed a dozen workers.
When their father retired in 1892 the brothers began to create moving pictures. They patented several significant processes leading up to their film camera, most notably film perforations as a means of advancing the film through the camera and projector; the original cinématographe had been patented by Léon Guillaume Bouly on 12 February 1892. The brothers patented their own version on 13 February 1895; the first footage to be recorded using it was recorded on 19 March 1895. This first film shows workers leaving the Lumière factory; the Lumière brothers saw film as a novelty and had withdrawn from the film business in 1905. They went on to develop the Lumière Autochrome. Louis died on 6 June 1948 and Auguste on 10 April 1954, they are buried in a family tomb in the New Guillotière Cemetery in Lyon. The Lumières held their first private screening of projected motion pictures in 1895; this first screening on 22 March 1895 took place in Paris, at the "Society for the Development of the National Industry", in front of an audience of 200 people – among which Léon Gaumont director of the company the Comptoir géneral de la photographie.
The main focus of this conference by Louis Lumière were the recent developments in the photograph industry the research on polychromy. It was much to Lumière's surprise that the moving black-and-white images retained more attention than the coloured stills photographs; the American Woodville Latham had screened works of film 2 months on 20 May 1895. The first public screening of films at which admission was charged was a program by the Skladanowsky brothers, held on 1 November 1895, in Berlin; the Lumières gave their first paid public screening on 28 December 1895, at Salon Indien du Grand Café in Paris. This history-making presentation featured 10 short films, including their first film, Sortie des Usines Lumière à Lyon; each film is 17 meters long, when hand cranked through a projector, runs 50 seconds. It is believed their first film was recorded that same year with Léon Bouly's cinématographe device, patented the previous year; the date of the recording of their first film is in dispute. In an interview with Georges Sadoul given in 1948, Louis Lumière tells that he shot the film in August 1894.
This is questioned by historians who consider that a functional Lumière camera didn't exist before the end of 1894, that their first film was recorded 19 March 1895, publicly projected 22 March at the Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale in Paris. The cinématographe — a three-in-one device that could record and project motion pictures — was further developed by the Lumières; the public debut at the Grand Café came a few months and consisted of the following 10 short films: La Sortie de l'Usine Lumière à Lyon, 46 seconds Le Jardinier, 49 seconds Le Débarquement du Congrès de Photographie à Lyon, 48 seconds La Voltige, 46 seconds La Pêche aux poissons rouges, 42 seconds Les Forgerons, 49 seconds Repas de bébé, 41 seconds Le Saut à la couverture, 41 seconds La Places des Cordeliers à Lyon, 44 seconds La Mer, 38 secondsThe Lumières went on tour with the cinématographe in 1896, visiting Brussels, London, New York City and Buenos Aires. In 1896, only a few months after the initial screenings in Europe, films by the Lumiere Brothers were shown in Egypt, first in the Tousson stock exchange in Alexandria on 5 November 1896 and in the Hamam Schneider in Cairo.
The moving images had an immediate and significant influence on popular culture with L'Arrivée d'un Train en Gare de la Ciotat and Carmaux, défournage du coke. Their actuality films
East India Company
The East India Company known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or The Company, was an English and British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region with Mughal India and the East Indies, with Qing China; the company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade in basic commodities including cotton, indigo dye, spices, saltpetre and opium; the company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.
The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595; these Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company, which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares; the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s; the battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India.
In the following decades it increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys. By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561, expenses of £14,017,473; the company came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, it was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by rendered it vestigial and obsolete.
The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the captured Spanish and Portuguese ships with their cargoes enabled English voyagers to travel the globe in search of riches. London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean; the aim was to deliver a decisive blow to the Portuguese monopoly of Far Eastern Trade. Elizabeth granted her permission and on 10 April 1591 James Lancaster in the Bonaventure with two other ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. Having sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula, they preyed on Spanish and Portuguese ships there before returning to England in 1594; the biggest capture that galvanised English trade was the seizure of the large Portuguese Carrack, the Madre de Deus by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland at the Battle of Flores on 13 August 1592.
When she was brought in to Dartmouth she was the largest vessel, seen in England and her cargo consisted of chests filled with jewels, gold, silver coins, cloth, pepper, cinnamon, benjamin, red dye and ebony. Valuable was the ship's rutter containing vital information on the China and Japan trades; these riches aroused the English to engage in this opulent commerce. In 1596, three more English ships were all lost at sea. A year however saw the arrival of Ralph Fitch, an adventurer merchant who, along with his companions, had made a remarkable fifteen-year overland journey to Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Fitch was consulted on the Indian affairs and gave more valuable information to Lancaster. On 22 September 1599, a group of merchants met and stated their intention "to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies, the sums that they will adventure", committing £30
Asaf-ud-Daula was the nawab wazir of Oudh ratified by Shah Alam II, from 26 January 1775 to 21 September 1797, the son of Shuja-ud-Dowlah. His mother and grandmother were the begums of Oudh. Asaf-ud-Daula became nawab at the age of 26, on the death of his father, Shujauddaula, on 28 January 1775; when Shuja-ud-Daula died he left two million pounds sterling buried in the vaults of the zenana. The widow and mother of the deceased prince claimed the whole of this treasure under the terms of a will, never produced; when Warren Hastings pressed the nawab for the payment of debt due to the British East India Company, he obtained from his mother a loan of 26 lakh rupees, for which he gave her a jagir of four times the value. These jagirs were afterwards confiscated on the ground of the begum's complicity in the rising of Chai Singh, attested by documentary evidence, as the evidence now available seems to show that Warren Hastings did his best throughout to rescue the nawab from his own incapacity, was inclined to be lenient to the begums.
Painted several times by Johann Zoffany, he was self-obsessed. In 1775 he moved the capital of Awadh from Faizabad to Lucknow and built various monuments in and around Lucknow, including the Bara Imambara. Nawab Asaf-ud-Dowlah is considered the architect general of Lucknow. With the ambition to outshine the splendour of Mughal architecture, he built a number of monuments and developed the city of Lucknow into an architectural marvel. Several of the buildings survive today, including the famed Asafi Imambara which attracts tourists today, the Qaisar Bagh area of downtown Lucknow where thousands live in resurrected buildings; the Asafi Imambara is a famed vaulted structure surrounded by beautiful gardens, which the Nawab started as a charitable project to generate employment during the famine of 1784. In that famine the nobles were reduced to penury, it is said that Nawab Asaf employed over 20,000 people for the project, neither a masjid nor a mausoleum. The Nawab's sensitivity towards preserving the reputation of the upper class is demonstrated in the story of the construction of Imambara.
During daytime, common citizens employed on the project would construct the building. On the night of every fourth day, the noble and upper-class people were employed in secret to demolish the structure built, an effort for which they received payment, thus their dignity was preserved. The Nawab became so famous for his generosity that it is still a well-known saying in Lucknow that "he who does not receive from the Ali-Moula, will receive it from Asaf-ud-Doula"; the Rumi Darwaza, which stands sixty feet tall, was modeled after the Sublime Porte in Istanbul, is one of the important examples of the exchange between the two cultures. He is buried at Bara Imambara, Lucknow. Claude Martin Mir Taqi Mir Antoine Polier NIC Website Refer to mapsofindia.com Bara Imambara for details of the Imambara HISTORY OF AWADH a princely State of India by Hameed Akhtar Siddiqui States before 1947 A-J
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly