Leander Adrian Paes is an Indian professional tennis player, considered to be one of the best doubles and mixed doubles players of all time, having achieved a career Grand Slam in each discipline. He has won ten mixed doubles Grand Slam titles, he holds a career Grand Slam in men's doubles and mixed doubles, achieved the rare men's doubles/mixed doubles double at the 1999 Wimbledon tournament. His mixed doubles Wimbledon title in 2010 made him the second man to win Wimbledon titles in three decades. One of the most successful professional Indian tennis players, he has received the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award, India's highest sporting honour, in 1996–97, he won a bronze medal for India in singles in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. He competed in consecutive Olympic appearances from 1992 to 2016, making him the first Indian and only tennis player to compete at seven Olympic Games, he is a former Davis Cup team captain, holds the record for the most Davis Cup doubles wins with 43 victories. He plays in World TeamTennis for the Washington Kastles, being on the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 championship teams and was named Male MVP for 2009 and 2011 for all of World Team Tennis.
He is the sports ambassador of the Indian state of Haryana. Leander was born in Calcutta, India, on 17 June 1973 to Vece Paes, a Goan, Jennifer Paes, from Calcutta, he was educated at La Martiniere Calcutta, Madras Christian College Higher Secondary School and the St. Xavier's College of the University of Calcutta, his parents were both sports persons. Vece was a midfielder in the bronze medal-winning Indian field hockey team at the 1972 Munich Olympics, his mother captained the Indian basketball team in the 1980 Asian basketball championship. Paes enrolled with the Britannia Amritraj Tennis Academy in Madras in 1985, where he was coached by Dave O'Meara; the academy played a key role in his early development. Leander earned international fame when he won the 1990 Wimbledon Junior title and rose to no. 1 in the junior world rankings. Paes is a direct descendant of the 19th century Bengali poet Michael Madhusudan Dutta through his mother. Paes had a live-in-relationship with Rhea Pillai in 2005; the couple have Aiyana.
She has filed a case at a local metropolitan court against Paes in 2014, alleging that he had her belongings removed from a wing of his home so his visiting parents could stay there. In 2010, he joined the Board of Directors of Olympic Gold Quest, a foundation co-founded by Geet Sethi and Prakash Padukone to support talented athletes from India in winning Olympic medals. Paes first won titles at the Junior US Open and the Junior Wimbledon and he turned professional in 1991, he rose to the number 1 in the world junior rankings. In 1992, he reached the quarter finals of the doubles event in the 1992 Barcelona Olympics with Ramesh Krishnan, he went one better at the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, where he beat Fernando Meligeni to win the bronze medal, thus becoming the first Indian to win an individual medal since KD Jadhav won bronze at the 1952 Helsinki Olympics more than four decades earlier. Paes cited the match as one of his greatest performances on the court, in part because his wrist was injured.
He was awarded the highest sporting honour by the government of India, the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna in 1996. His first successful year in the ATP circuit came in 1993, when he partnered Sébastien Lareau to reach the US Open doubles semifinal. After having a moderate season in 1994, he reached the quarter-finals of the 1995 Australian Open doubles with Kevin Ullyett. From 1996, he partnered with fellow-Indian Mahesh Bhupathi, which would prove to be a winning combination, their first year was not a successful one in the Grand Slams, with a round of 32 finish at Wimbledon being the best. 1997 proved to be a much better year for the team of Paes and Bhupathi, with the semifinals of the US Open their best Grand Slam result. Paes climbed the doubles ranking from no. 89 at the beginning of the year to no. 14 at the end of the year. That year he made his best singles performance in a Grand Slam, getting to the third round of the 1997 US Open, beating Carlos Costa and Arnaud Boetsch before losing to Cédric Pioline.
The doubles team of Paes and Bhupathi grew stronger in 1998, reaching the semifinals of three Grand Slams, the Australian Open, the French Open, the US Open. In the same year, Paes had two of his biggest singles results in the ATP tour; the first one came by winning his only ATP singles title at Newport, the second was beating Pete Sampras, 6–3, 6–4 at the New Haven ATP tournament in the only meeting in their career. In 1999, the duo reached the finals of all four Grand Slams, winning Wimbledon and the French Open, thus becoming the first Indian pair to win a doubles event at a Grand Slam. Paes teamed up with Lisa Raymond to win the mixed doubles event at Wimbledon; the year marked his ascent to the no. 1 ranking in doubles. The following year, Paes partnered with Sébastien Lareau for the Australian Open and Jan Siemerink for the French Open, losing in the first round on both occasions. Paes lost in the first round again; the duo had a disappointing second round exit to Australian duo of Todd Woodbridge and Mark Woodforde at the Sydney Olympics, despite high hopes.
Paes was given the honour of carrying the Indian Flag at the opening ceremony of the Sydney Olympics. In spite of a winning the French Open in 2001, the team of Bhupathi and Paes had first-round exits in the other
Lyon is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located in the country's east-central part at the confluence of the rivers Rhône and Saône, about 470 km south from Paris, 320 km north from Marseille and 56 km northeast from Saint-Étienne. Inhabitants of the city are called Lyonnais. Lyon had a population of 513,275 in 2015, it is the capital of the region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes. The Lyon metropolitan area had a population of 2,265,375 in 2014, the second-largest urban area in France; the city is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, historical and architectural landmarks. Lyon was an important area for the production and weaving of silk. Lyon played a significant role in the history of cinema: it is where Auguste and Louis Lumière invented the cinematograph, it is known for its light festival, the Fête des Lumières, which begins every 8 December and lasts for four days, earning Lyon the title of Capital of Lights. Economically, Lyon is a major centre for banking, as well as for the chemical and biotech industries.
The city contains a significant software industry with a particular focus on video games, in recent years has fostered a growing local start-up sector. Lyon hosts the international headquarters of Interpol, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and Euronews, it was ranked 19th globally and second in France for innovation in 2014. It ranked second in 39th globally in Mercer's 2015 liveability rankings. According to the historian Dio Cassius, in 43 BC, the Roman Senate ordered the creation of a settlement for Roman refugees of war with the Allobroges; these refugees had been expelled from Vienne and were now encamped at the confluence of the Saône and Rhône rivers. The foundation was built on Fourvière hill and called Colonia Copia Felix Munatia, a name invoking prosperity and the blessing of the gods; the city became referred to as Lugdunum. The earliest translation of this Gaulish place-name as "Desired Mountain" is offered by the 9th-century Endlicher Glossary. In contrast, some modern scholars have proposed a Gaulish hill-fort named Lugdunon, after the Celtic god Lugus, dúnon.
The Romans recognised that Lugdunum's strategic location at the convergence of two navigable rivers made it a natural communications hub. The city became the starting point of the principal Roman roads in the area, it became the capital of the province, Gallia Lugdunensis. Two Emperors were born in this city: Claudius, whose speech is preserved in the Lyon Tablet in which he justifies the nomination of Gallic Senators, Caracalla. Early Christians in Lyon were martyred for their beliefs under the reigns of various Roman emperors, most notably Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. Local saints from this period include Blandina and Epipodius, among others. In the second century AD, the great Christian bishop of Lyon was Irenaeus. To this day, the archbishop of Lyon is still referred to as "Primat des Gaules". Burgundians fleeing the destruction of Worms by the Huns in 437 were re-settled at Lugdunum. In 443 the Romans established the Kingdom of the Burgundians, Lugdunum became its capital in 461.
In 843, by the Treaty of Verdun, Lyon went to the Holy Roman Emperor Lothair I. It was made part of the Kingdom of Arles. Lyon did not come under French control until the 14th century. Fernand Braudel remarked, "Historians of Lyon are not sufficiently aware of the bi-polarity between Paris and Lyon, a constant structure in French development...from the late Middle Ages to the Industrial Revolution". In the late 15th century, the fairs introduced by Italian merchants made Lyon the economic counting house of France; the Bourse, built in 1749, resembled a public bazaar where accounts were settled in the open air. When international banking moved to Genoa Amsterdam, Lyon remained the banking centre of France. During the Renaissance, the city's development was driven by the silk trade, which strengthened its ties to Italy. Italian influence on Lyon's architecture is still visible among historic buildings. In the 1400s and 1500s Lyon was a key centre of literary activity and book publishing, both of French writers and of Italians in exile.
In 1572, Lyon was a scene of mass violence by Catholics against Protestant Huguenots in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Two centuries Lyon was again convulsed by violence when, during the French Revolution, the citizenry rose up against the National Convention and supported the Girondins; the city was besieged by Revolutionary armies for over two months before surrendering in October 1793. Many buildings were destroyed around the Place Bellecour, while Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois and Joseph Fouché administered the execution of more than 2,000 people; the Convention ordered that its name be changed to "Liberated City" and a plaque was erected that proclaimed "Lyons made war on Liberty. A decade Napoleon ordered the reconstruction of all the buildings demolished during this period; the Convention was not the only target within Lyon during the 1789-1799 French Revolution. After the National Convention faded into history, the French Directory appeared and days after the September 4, 1797, Coup of 18 Fructidor, a Directory's commissioner was assassinated in Ly
La Martiniere Calcutta
La Martinière Calcutta is an independent private day school located in Kolkata, West Bengal. It comprises two single-gender girls schools, it was established in 1836 in accordance with the will of the French soldier of fortune and philanthropist, Major General Claude Martin. They are Christian schools, controlled by the Protestant Church of North India and independent from the Government, with English as the primary language of instruction. La Martiniere Calcutta is ranked among the best day schools in the country, has produced a distinguished list of alumni in all walks of Indian and British society, it has an annual meet with La Martiniere Lucknow hosted in September, as well as occasional meets with its sister school La Martiniere Lyon in France. Jaidip Mukerjea, tennis Chhanda Gain, first Bengali woman to climb Mount Everest Leander Paes, tennis: till Class VII only. Iconic'voice' and television anchor. Managing Trustee, Public Service Broadcasting Trust. Jug Suraiya and journalist Pritish Nandy, poet and film producer.
Swapan Dasgupta, political commentator and Member of Parliament. Chandan Mitra, Ex-Member of Parliament, owner of The Pioneer newspaper. Paranjoy Guha Thakurta, Editor of EPW. Prannoy Roy, television broadcaster. Suhel Seth, advertising professional and TV personality. Catchick Paul Chater, Father of modern Hong Kong, benefactor to the College. Chater was a Foundation Scholar. Vijay Mallya, Chairman of the United Breweries Group and ex Rajya Sabha member Harshavardhan Neotia, Chairman and CEO, Bengal Ambuja Group Pramod Bhasin and first CEO of Genpact. Hemant Kanoria and Chairman of SREI Infrastructure Finance John Mason, educationist. Mason was a Foundation Scholar and teacher. Nirmalya Kumar, business writer and Director for Aditya V. Birla India Centre at London Business School. Rahul Banerjee, activist Ashok Malik, official press spokesman for the President of India Rajit Gadh, Professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles Nafisa Ali, actress/ model, Miss India in 1975 a National Swimming champion Bickram Ghosh, tabla pandit Merle Oberon, Hollywood actress Kiran Rao, film producer Kumar Mukherjee, Hindustani Classical singer") Kamakhya Prasad Singh Deo, Union Cabinet minister in the 1980s Anuvab Pal, comedian and scriptwriter Ramit Tandon, Asian Games'18 squash bronze medalist Official website
Rajendra K. Pachauri
Rajendra Kumar Pachauri was the chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, was replaced by Hoesung Lee. He held the post from 2002 until his resignation in February 2015, due to sexual harassment allegations; the IPCC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize during his tenure. At that time, The Energy and Resources Institute Governing Council asked Pachauri to step down from the post of Director-General of the institute; the Governing Council of TERI appointed Ashok Chawla as its new chairman in February 2016. Ajay Mathur, a technocrat in the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, was appointed as the Director General of TERI by the Governing Council in July 2015. Pachauri was born in India, he was educated at La Martiniere College in Lucknow and at the Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering in Jamalpur, Bihar. He belongs to the Special Class Railway Apprentices, 1958 Batch, an elite scheme which heralded the beginning of mechanical engineering education in India, he began his career with the Indian Railways at the Diesel Locomotive Works in Varanasi.
He was admitted to North Carolina State University in Raleigh, United States, where he obtained an MS in Industrial Engineering in 1972, a PhD with co-majors in Industrial Engineering and Economics in 1974. His doctoral thesis was titled A dynamic model for forecasting of electrical energy demand in a specific region located in North and South Carolina, he is a strict vegetarian because of "the environmental and climate change implications." He served as Assistant Professor and Visiting Faculty Member in the Department of Economics and Business at NC State. He was a Visiting Professor of Resource Economics at the College of Mineral and Energy Resources, West Virginia University. On his return to India, he joined the Administrative Staff College of India, Hyderabad, as Member Senior Faculty and went on to become Director and Applied Research Division, he joined The Energy and Resources Institute as Director in 1982. He was a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Resource Systems Institute, Visiting Research Fellow at the World Bank, Washington DC.
On 20 April 2002, Pachauri was elected Chairman of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a United Nations panel established by the World Meteorological Organization and United Nations Environment Programme to assess information relevant for understanding climate change. Pachauri was on the Board of Shriram Scientific and Industrial Research Foundation, he has served as member of many commissions. He has been the Member of Board of the International Solar Energy Society, World Resources Institute Council, while Chairman of the World Energy Council and Chairman of the International Association for Energy Economics, the President of the Asian Energy Institute, he was a part-time advisor to the United Nations Development Programme in the fields of Energy and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources. In July 2001, Dr R K Pachauri was appointed Member, Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister of India. On 20 April 2002, Pachauri was elected Chairman of the United Nations established Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and during his tenure the IPCC received the Nobel Peace Price.
Pachauri has been vocal on the issue of climate change and said, "What is happening, what is to happen, convinces me that the world must be ambitious and determined at moving toward a 350 target." 350 refers to the level in parts per million of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that some climate scientists such as NASA's James Hansen agree to be a safe upper limit to avoid a climate tipping point. The IPCC shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with former US Vice-President Al Gore, who had earlier criticised Pachauri when he was first elected in 2002. In its press release, the Nobel Prize Committee said:...the Nobel Peace Prize for 2007 is to be shared, in two equal parts, between the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and Albert Arnold Gore Jr. for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change."On 11 December 2007, Pachauri and co-recipient Al Gore delivered their acceptance speeches at an awards ceremony in Oslo, Norway, on a day when delegates to a United Nations climate conference were meeting in Bali, Indonesia.
Pachauri referenced his belief that the Hindu philosophy of "'Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam', which means'the whole universe is one family,'" must dominate global efforts to protect the global commons." Returning to this theme throughout his speech, he quoted president of the Maldives in 1987: "...a mean sea level rise of two meters would suffice to submerge the entire country of 1,190 small islands, most of which rise two meters above sea level. That would be the death of a nation."Pachauri emphasised his concerns regarding the implications of climate change for the world's poorest nations, referring to studies that: "...have raised the threat of dramatic population migration and war over water and other resources, as
Asaf-ud-Daula was the nawab wazir of Oudh ratified by Shah Alam II, from 26 January 1775 to 21 September 1797, the son of Shuja-ud-Dowlah. His mother and grandmother were the begums of Oudh. Asaf-ud-Daula became nawab at the age of 26, on the death of his father, Shujauddaula, on 28 January 1775; when Shuja-ud-Daula died he left two million pounds sterling buried in the vaults of the zenana. The widow and mother of the deceased prince claimed the whole of this treasure under the terms of a will, never produced; when Warren Hastings pressed the nawab for the payment of debt due to the British East India Company, he obtained from his mother a loan of 26 lakh rupees, for which he gave her a jagir of four times the value. These jagirs were afterwards confiscated on the ground of the begum's complicity in the rising of Chai Singh, attested by documentary evidence, as the evidence now available seems to show that Warren Hastings did his best throughout to rescue the nawab from his own incapacity, was inclined to be lenient to the begums.
Painted several times by Johann Zoffany, he was self-obsessed. In 1775 he moved the capital of Awadh from Faizabad to Lucknow and built various monuments in and around Lucknow, including the Bara Imambara. Nawab Asaf-ud-Dowlah is considered the architect general of Lucknow. With the ambition to outshine the splendour of Mughal architecture, he built a number of monuments and developed the city of Lucknow into an architectural marvel. Several of the buildings survive today, including the famed Asafi Imambara which attracts tourists today, the Qaisar Bagh area of downtown Lucknow where thousands live in resurrected buildings; the Asafi Imambara is a famed vaulted structure surrounded by beautiful gardens, which the Nawab started as a charitable project to generate employment during the famine of 1784. In that famine the nobles were reduced to penury, it is said that Nawab Asaf employed over 20,000 people for the project, neither a masjid nor a mausoleum. The Nawab's sensitivity towards preserving the reputation of the upper class is demonstrated in the story of the construction of Imambara.
During daytime, common citizens employed on the project would construct the building. On the night of every fourth day, the noble and upper-class people were employed in secret to demolish the structure built, an effort for which they received payment, thus their dignity was preserved. The Nawab became so famous for his generosity that it is still a well-known saying in Lucknow that "he who does not receive from the Ali-Moula, will receive it from Asaf-ud-Doula"; the Rumi Darwaza, which stands sixty feet tall, was modeled after the Sublime Porte in Istanbul, is one of the important examples of the exchange between the two cultures. He is buried at Bara Imambara, Lucknow. Claude Martin Mir Taqi Mir Antoine Polier NIC Website Refer to mapsofindia.com Bara Imambara for details of the Imambara HISTORY OF AWADH a princely State of India by Hameed Akhtar Siddiqui States before 1947 A-J
Nafisa Ali is an Indian Bengali actress and a Politician from Indian National Congress and a social activist. Nafisa Ali was born in Kolkata, the daughter of Ahmed Ali, a Bengali Muslim man and Philomena Torresan, a Roman Catholic woman of Anglo-Indian heritage. Nafisa's paternal grandfather, S. Wajid Ali, was a prominent Bengali writer, her paternal aunt was a Pakistani journalist and feminist. Nafisa is related to the decorated Bangladeshi freedom fighter and soldier Bir Pratik Akhtar Ahmed. Nafisa's mother is now settled in Australia. Nafisa went to Sr. Cambridge from La Martiniere Calcutta, she has studied Vedanta taught by Swami Chinmayananda, who started the center Chinmaya Mission of World Understanding. Her husband is the renowned polo player and Arjuna awardee, retired Col R. S. Sodhi. After marriage, she chose to stop working and focus on her three children: daughters Armana and son Ajit. After a break of 18 years she returned to the film industry. Nafisa Ali has accomplishments in several fields.
She was the national swimming champion from 1972-1974. In 1976, she won the Femina Miss India title, represented India at the Miss International contest & was declared the 2nd runner-up. Ali was a jockey at the Calcutta Gymkhana in 1979, she has acted in several Bollywood films, the notable ones being Junoon with Shashi Kapoor, Major Saab with Amitabh Bachchan, Life In A... Metro and Yamla Pagla Deewana with Dharmendra, she has acted in a Malayalam film called Big B with Mammootty, is associated with Action India, an organisation working to spread AIDS awareness. Nafisa Ali contested the 2004 Lok Sabha elections unsuccessfully from South Kolkata. On 5 April 2009, she contested the Lok Sabha election from Lucknow on the Samajwadi Party ticket after Sanjay Dutt's disqualification by the Supreme Court on the basis of a prior conviction, she rejoined the Indian National Congress party in November 2009 and said she is returning to Congress for life. She is married to Colonel Sodhi a polo player. In September 2005, she was appointed the chairperson of the Children's Film Society of India.
In November 2018, Ali was diagnosed with stage 3 ovarian cancer. Junoon Aatank Major Saab Yeh Zindagi Ka Safar Bewafaa Big B Life in a... Metro Guzaarish Yamla Pagla Deewana Saheb, Biwi Aur Gangster 3 as Raj Mata Yashodhara List of Indian women athletes page Nafisa Ali on IMDb An interview with Nafisa Ali A write-up on Nafisa Ali Nafeesa Ali's website
East India Company
The East India Company known as the Honourable East India Company or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or The Company, was an English and British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region with Mughal India and the East Indies, with Qing China; the company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China. Chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade in basic commodities including cotton, indigo dye, spices, saltpetre and opium; the company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.
The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595; these Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company, which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612. By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares; the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established. During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s; the battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India.
In the following decades it increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys. By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561, expenses of £14,017,473; the company came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, it was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by rendered it vestigial and obsolete.
The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, the captured Spanish and Portuguese ships with their cargoes enabled English voyagers to travel the globe in search of riches. London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean; the aim was to deliver a decisive blow to the Portuguese monopoly of Far Eastern Trade. Elizabeth granted her permission and on 10 April 1591 James Lancaster in the Bonaventure with two other ships sailed from Torbay around the Cape of Good Hope to the Arabian Sea on one of the earliest English overseas Indian expeditions. Having sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula, they preyed on Spanish and Portuguese ships there before returning to England in 1594; the biggest capture that galvanised English trade was the seizure of the large Portuguese Carrack, the Madre de Deus by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Cumberland at the Battle of Flores on 13 August 1592.
When she was brought in to Dartmouth she was the largest vessel, seen in England and her cargo consisted of chests filled with jewels, gold, silver coins, cloth, pepper, cinnamon, benjamin, red dye and ebony. Valuable was the ship's rutter containing vital information on the China and Japan trades; these riches aroused the English to engage in this opulent commerce. In 1596, three more English ships were all lost at sea. A year however saw the arrival of Ralph Fitch, an adventurer merchant who, along with his companions, had made a remarkable fifteen-year overland journey to Mesopotamia, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. Fitch was consulted on the Indian affairs and gave more valuable information to Lancaster. On 22 September 1599, a group of merchants met and stated their intention "to venture in the pretended voyage to the East Indies, the sums that they will adventure", committing £30