Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife
The Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is held each February in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the capital of the largest of the Canary Islands, attracts people from all over the world. It is considered the second most popular and internationally known carnival, after the one held in Rio de Janeiro. For this reason, the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is twinned with the city of Rio de Janeiro. In 1980, it was declared a Tourist Festival of International Interest by the Secretary of State for Tourism; the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife aspires to become a World Heritage Site, as a declaration of its status as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO would promote the festival internationally. In 1987, singer Celia Cruz went to the Carnival Chicharrero with Billo's Caracas Boys. In 2019 for its part, more than 400,000 people danced to the rhythm of Juan Luis Guerra during the Carnival of the day thus surpassing the record reached in 1987 with Celia Cruz. Although, due to the unexpected mass response there was no notary officializing this figure for the Guinness Book.
The festivities on the streets of Santa Cruz de Tenerife start on the Friday before Carnival with an opening parade, which reaches its height during the night when thousands of people in fancy dresses dance until the early hours of the next day. The party continues night after night until Ash Wednesday; that day, people of Santa Cruz de Tenerife celebrate the "entierro de la sardina", with this event the carnival is over. However, the party starts up again the following weekend, known as the weekend of the piñata; the festival has two parts: the official Carnival, the Carnival on the street. The official carnival has more than a hundred groups, including murgas, comparsas and other musical groups; the street carnival is more loosely organized, comprises the people celebrating on the streets. Thousands of people come each day to the streets to participate, most of whom wear a disguise in accordance with Carnival tradition; the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife has been celebrated since the time of the earliest European settlement, earlier.
In 1605 Gaspar Luis Hidalgo alluded to the habit of reversing the sexes in dress. Early written references date in the writings of visitors; the journal of Lope Antonio de la Guerra Peña in 1778 includes a dance held in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where he talked about comparsas. In 1783, the Corregidor reported the use of masks "being banned by royal instructions". In practice the ban was not carried out, a carnival feature was the mixing of the masked upper class with the common people. During the dictatorships of Miguel Primo de Rivera, General Franco, the Carnival was known as "Winter holiday" as a ruse to circumvent the ban, enacted against it. Despite the ban, the festival continued to take place in Cádiz, Spain. In 1954 with Los Bigotudos performed the first murga. Since 1962, a poster for each year of the Carnival has been created. Artists such as John Galarza, Javier Mariscal Dokoupil César Manrique Cuixart Pedro González, Paco Martinez, Mel Ramos, Enrique Gonzalez, Maribel Nazca, Elena Lecuona and many others have contributed to their designs.
For the 2009 Carnival, it was proposed that an open competition take place for participants to design the official poster for that year. The main venues for Carnival competitions and the election of the Queen have been the Teatro Guimerá and the Plaza de Toros Its central circular stage was decorated with a silver crown in 1986–1987 and a golden crown in 1988. Additional venues have included the Plaza de España in 2005, the Centro Internacional de Ferias y Congresos de Tenerife and the Esplanade of Parks in 2008. Since the construction of the Centro Internacional de Ferias y Congresos de Tenerife, additional Carnival venues have varied. In recent years tickets for several events have sold out between 15 and 60 minutes after tickets go on sale; the Gala of the Queen, with a stage spectacle that crowns the first lady of the Carnival and groups awarded for their efforts, is broadcast each year by a national network for the entire country and broadcast via satellite to all continents. Networks covering the event include RTVE, Televisión Canaria, Antena 3 Televisión, Canal +, Galavisión and Telecinco.
In May 2000, the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife became the Carnival Capital of the World and headquarters of the 20th Convention of the Federation of European Carnival Cities. The convention, held on the island of Gran Canaria, featured appearances by Carnival performers and concluded with performers from the Carnival of Las Palmas. 1987 – Rome: This was the first year that the Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, was themed. For this, the perimeter of the Plaza de España was surrounded by an Ionic-style paired colonnade, giving the appearance of a circular Roman temple; the portal of the lintel of each pair of columns, was adorned by two Atlantic mackerel crowned with laurels. This was the year. 1988 – Wild World: The colonnade of the previous year was recycled, painted in salmon and topped with white palm leaves made from fiberglass, giving the appearance of palm trees. Every two or three palms were on platforms which wer
Feria de Jerez
Feria de Jerez known as Feria del Caballo is one of the most important celebrations in the Spanish municipality Jerez de la Frontera, only comparable to Easter religious celebrations. It is the most important fair in and is listed as one of the Fiestas of International Tourist Interest of Spain by the Ministry of Industry, its origins are in the medieval ages, during one week farmers gathered to sell and buy beautiful animals, in Jerez beautiful horses drinking to celebrate the deals. Nowadays it is celebrated in Parque González Hontoria, it is always celebrated before El Rocío. The Feria is divided in two parts: one is a kind of small village, with streets that have bars and restaurants at both sides; the other is a Theme Park/carnival style area where kids and grown ups can have fun on different rides such as roller coasters, bumper cars etc... At the Feria de Jerez all the casetas are public, so anyone can just walk into any one and enjoy the food and dancing; this is one of the main features that differentiates it from the Seville Fair as most of the "casetas" there are private and therefore only card holding members are allowed in.
In the casetas, throughout the day and night, people will be found drinking fino sherry, in more recent years a new trend is to mix the fino with lemonade and ice cubes creating a cocktail known as Rebujito. At night time there is a sort of "roof" of pretty decorative lights lighting this little "village" like area, which allows the party to last all the way till dawn
Virgen Blanca Festivities
The Fiestas de la Virgen Blanca have been celebrated every year, since 1884. It is held on 5 August, but the celebrations begin the day before, on the 4th, end on 9 August it honours the patron saint of the city, features a programme of special events and free open-air concerts; the actual festivity starts at six o'clock in the afternoon with the txupinazo and Celedon's descent. Once Celedón reaches a balcony in the square, it is replaced by a human Celedón who crosses the square on foot with some difficulty amongst the crowds. On arriving to the balcony of the Church of San Miguel, Celedón greets the crowds below and wishes everyone a happy celebration. On the morning of 5 August, the Neskak offer flowers to the Virgen Blanca. On 7 August the Children's Day is celebrated; the little Celedón or Celedón txiki descends in the same square as the first day, Celedón txiki and neska txiki wish a happy celebration to all the children in Vitoria, from the Town Hall. On 10 August at one o'clock in the morning Celedon ascends and this marks the end of the Virgen Blanca Festivities This festitvity has been celebrated since 1884.
In 1957, a group of friends created a Celedon’s descent, as an analogy to the inhabitants of nearby villages, who went to Vitoria-Gasteiz to celebrate the festivities. The initial idea was a parachutist, but due to technical difficulties they created a rag doll that descends from the Church-tower to a balcony in the square. At six o'clock in the afternoon, Celedon's descent is performed from the top of the Church of San Miguel to a balcony in the square below, where Celedón goes down suspended by a wire. Mean while the citizens below, shower themselves in champagne and sing Celedón's song. Once he reaches the balcony the staff hide the rag doll and a human Celedón appears. Next, he has to cross the square, helped by a group of friends, to reach the Church of San Miguel and greet the crowds below and wish everyone a happy celebration; this performance marks the starting of the celebration in Vitoria-Gasteiz. At ten o'clock at night, the Virgen Blanca brotherhood is in charge of organizing a lantern procession.
The Virgen Blanca Day is celebrated on this day. At seven o'clock in the morning the dawn procession and the rosary take place. Afterwards, at nine o'clock in the morning a group of friends called the blusas and the neskak offer bunches of flowers to the Virgen Blanca Saint and places them at the entrance of San Miguel church Celedón txiki; this day is focused on children. At twelve o'clock in the morning a recreation of Celedón's descent is made and celedón txiki and neska txiki come down the same way as Celedón did three days before. Children have special activities for them all around the city; the veteran blusa and neska's day. This day is focused on the veterans of the city; the streets are bursting with older people dressed in blouses belonging to the blusas from the 60's Traditionally the'dirty' day is celebrated on 9 August. In the parades taking place this day, the blusas and the neskak used to throw flour at each other and danced covered in flour and got dirty, but nowadays, this tradition is only carried out by a group of blusas called batasuna.
At one o'clock in the morning, Celedón goes up to San Miguel Church the same way he came down on 4 August. This marks the end of the celebration in the city; every year several traditional basque sports tournaments take place to entertain spectators and increase tourism. The most popular and traditional basque sport is eskupilota and every year the Virgen Blanca Eskupilota Txapelketa Championship is organized and other traditional Basque sports can be followed every morning in the'Fueros' Square. Concerts are one of the most important highlights these days. Famous local and national celebrities come to Vitoria and perform on stages all around the city centre; the concerts organized by the Town Hall, are performed in the squares of'Plaza del Machete','Plaza del Arca','Plaza de los Fueros' and'Plaza Nueva'. But the concerts organized by the Txosnas are performed in the campus of the University of the Basque Country in Vitoria; these are groups of boys blusas and girls from the city, who take an active part throughout the Virgen Blanca festivities.
Most groups are made up of both Neskak. These groups of friends, get together and take part in a parade from the'Plaza Nueva' to the bullring every day, they organize different activities around the city centre. All groups have their own identity and are given one of the following names: Alegrios Basatiak Batasuna Belakiak Bereziak Biznietos de Celedón Los Desiguales Galtzagorri Gasteiztarrak Hegotarrak Jatorrak Karraxi Luken Martinikos Okerrak Nekazariak Petralak Turutarrak Txinpartak Txirrita Txolintxo Zintzarri Zoroak Town Hall of Vitoria-Gasteiz «Celebration ends with Celedón's ascension», Video from EITB, 10-08-2010
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
The Falles is a traditional celebration held in commemoration of Saint Joseph in the city of Valencia, Spain. The term Falles refers to the monuments burnt during the celebration. A number of towns in the Valencian Community have similar celebrations inspired by the original Falles de València celebration; the Falles festival was added to UNESCO's intangible cultural heritage of humanity list on 30 November 2016. Each neighbourhood of the city has an organised group of people, the Casal faller, that works all year long holding fundraising parties and dinners featuring the noted dish, paella, a specialty of the region; each casal faller produces a construction known as a falla, burnt. A casal faller is known as a comissió fallera and there are 400 registered in Valencia; the name of the festival is the plural of the Valencian word falla. The word's derivation is as follows: Latin fax, "torch" → Latin facula → Vulgar Latin *faclam → Valencian falla. Much time would be spent by the casal faller preparing the ninots.
During the four days leading up to 19 March, each group takes its ninot out for a grand parade, mounts it, each on its own elaborate firecracker-filled cardboard and paper-mâché artistic monument in a street of the given neighbourhood. This whole assembly is a falla; the ninots and their falles are constructed according to an agreed-upon theme that has traditionally been a satirical jab at whatever draws the attention of the fallers. In modern times, the two-week-long festival has spawned a substantial local industry, to the point that an entire suburban area has been designated the Ciutat fallera. Here, crews of artists and artisans, sculptors and other craftsmen, all spend months producing elaborate constructions of paper and wax and polystyrene foam tableaux towering up to five stories, composed of fanciful figures caricatures, in provocative poses arranged in a gravity-defying manner; each of them is produced under the direction of one of the many individual neighbourhood casals fallers who vie with each other to attract the best artists, to create the most outrageous allegorical monument to their target.
There are about 750 of these neighbourhood associations in Valencia, with over 200,000 members, or a quarter of the city's population. During Falles, many people wear their casal faller dress of regional and historical costumes from different eras of València's history; the dolçaina and tabalet are heard, as most of the different casals fallers have their own traditional bands. Although the Falles is a traditional event and many participants dress in medieval clothing, the ninots for 2005 included such modern characters as Shrek and George W. Bush, the 2012 Falles included characters like Barack Obama and Lady Gaga; the five days and nights of Falles might be described as a continuous street party. There are a multitude of processions: historical and comedic. Crowds in the restaurants spill out into the streets. Explosions can be heard sporadically through the night. Everyone from small children to elderly people can be seen throwing fireworks and noisemakers in the streets, which are littered with pyrotechnical debris.
The timing of the events is fixed, they fall on the same date every year, though there has been discussion about holding some events on the weekend preceding the Falles, to take greater advantage of the tourist potential of the festival or changing the end date in years where it is due to occur in midweek. Each day of Falles begins at 8:00 am with La Despertà. Brass bands begin to march down every street playing lively music. Close behind them are the fallers; the Mascletà, an explosive barrage of coordinated firecracker and fireworks displays, takes place at 2:00 pm every day of the festival. At 2:00 pm the clock chimes and the Fallera Major, dressed in her fallera finery, will call from the balcony of City Hall, Senyor/a pirotècnic/a, pot començar la mascletà!, the Mascletà begins. The Mascletà is unique to the Valencian Community, popular with the Valencian people. Smaller neighbourhoods hold their own mascletà for saint's days and other celebrations. A nighttime variant runs in the evening hours by the same pyrotechnicans that were present in the afternoon.
On the day of the 15th, all of the falles infantils are to be finished being constructed, that night all of the falles majors are to be completed. If not, they face disqualification. In this event, the flower offering, each of the casals fallers takes an offering of flowers to the Virgin Mary as Our Lady of the Forsaken; this occurs all day during 17–18 March. A statue of the Virgin Mary and its large pedestal are covered with all the flowers. On the nights of the 15, 16, 17, 18th there are firework displays in the old riverbed in València; each night is progressively grander and the last is called La Nit del Foc. On the final evening of Falles, at 7:00 pm on March 19, a parade known in Valencian as the Cavalcada del Foc takes place along Colon street and Porta de la Mar square; this spectacular celebration of fi
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Barcelona
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Barcelona is a Latin rite Catholic metropolitan archbishopric in northeastern Spain's Catalonia region. The cathedral archiepiscopal see is a Minor basilica: Catedral Basílica Metropolitana de la Santa Creu i Santa Eulàlia, Barcelona; the archbishopric has nine more Minor basilicas:... The current Archbishop of Barcelona is Juan José Omella Omella, appointed by Pope Francis on 6 November 2015; the ecclesiastical province of Barcelona includes the Metropolitan's own archbishopric and the following suffragan sees: Roman Catholic Diocese of Sant Feliu de Llobregat Roman Catholic Diocese of Terrassa. As per 2014, it pastorally served 2,116,479 Catholics on 340 km² in 214 parishes and 153 missions with 826 priests, 46 deacons, 3,092 lay religious and 19 seminarians. While local tradition and catalogues date back the first bishop, San Eteri, considered a disciple of Saint James the Great, to the first Apostles, historical evidence seems to be undisputed from the third century onwards, when bishop Pretextat attended the Council of Sardica in 343.
During the Visigothic Kingdom, Barcelona became one of the fourteen dioceses of the ecclesiastic province of Tarragona. Circa 450 it lost territory to establish the Diocese of Egara, which it regained circa 700 at the suppression of that Diocese of Egara After the Christian fall in 712, a long sede vacante was ended not before 850, when bishop Joan took office, the diocese became subjugated to the Carolingian See of Narbonne. During the Reconquista, bishop Oleguer was called to the archepiscopal see of Tarragona, which he took in 1017, though being granted to keep his Barcelonan see as well, reigning 1114–1137. Barcelona became suffragan to Tarragona once again, stayed so for the following centuries. In 1237 it lost Balearic territory to establish the Diocese of MallorcaIts bishops got used to live in the pontifical or royal courts instead of the city, until bishop Jaume Caçador inducted reforms according to the Council of Trent amidst the 16th century. Disregarding another year-lasting de facto sede vacante from 1808 to 1814 during the Napoleonic Wars and its diocese kept on grewing richer and more powerful.
On 25 March 1964 Pope Paul VI elevated the Diocese to the level of non-Metropolitan Archdiocese of Barcelona. However, it has only had the status of a Metropolitan Archdiocese since 2004, when Pope John Paul II dismembered its territory into the Archdiocese of Barcelona and the two new suffraganes of Sant Feliu de Llobregat and Terrassa together with the appointment of Archbishop Sistach, it enjoyed Papal visits from Pope John Paul II in February 1982 and Pope Benedict XVI in November 2010. BIOS TO ELABORATE Earliest bishops according to local traditionThe Catholic Encyclopedia states that “The See of Barcelona, unlike most ancient sees, whose origins are obscure, has preserved catalogues of its bishops from Apostolic times, although all the names given cannot be admitted as authentic, the greater number are handed down in all the catalogues.” The list includes: Eterius Saint Theodosius Aulus Victor Actius Theolycus Alexander I Lucius Totxa Deodatus I Theodoric Deodatus II Peneguardus Pusio Alexander II Albert Armengald Gandimar William St. Severus.
A native of the city, martyr of the Diocletian persecution. Early Suffragan bishops Praetextatus, the first recorded bishop, who attended a council at Sardica in 347. St. Pacianus Lampius Sigesari Nundinari Ireneus Berengari Agrici St. Nebridius Paternus. Ugno Emila Severus II Oia Quiricus bishop of Toledo Idalaci Laülf Medieval Period John Ataulfus. Frodoí. Theodoric. Guilara. Pere Vives Aeci Deusdat Guadall Domnuç Guislabert Berenguer Humbert. Bertram. Fulk II of Cardona Berenguer Bernat. Ramon Guillem. St. Olegarius Arnau Ermengol Guillem de Torroja Bernat de Berga Ramon de Castellvell Berenguer de Palou I Pere de Cirac In the twelfth century the diocese was restored by Ramon Berenguer, Count of Barcelona. Berenguer de Palou II Pere de Centelles Arnau de Gurb Guerau de Gualba Bernat Pelegrí Pontius de Gualba Ferrer d'Abella Bernat Oliver Miguel de Ricomá Guillem de Torrelles Berenguer d’Erill Pere de Planelles Ramon d’Escales Joan Armengol Francesc de Blanes Francesc Climent Andreu Bertrán Simó Salvador Jaume Girard Juan Soler Fra Juan Jiménez Cerdá Rodrigo Borgia Gonzalo Fernández de Heredia Pedro García Suffragan Bishops of Barcelona since 1505Enrique de Cardona y Enríquez Martín García (bisho
The Muixeranga is the collective name given to the performance of ancient street dances and human pyramids or castells, originating in the ancient Kingdom of Valencia, which are still preserved in the town of Algemesí, 30 km southwest from Valencia, certain other Valencian towns. The muixeranga is much more than an artistic acrobatic dance, it is a collection of ancient human choreographies of enormous plasticity illustrating various figures and shapes, which are held during the Algemesí town festival, in honor of the Virgin of Health. The Muixeranga resembles the modern castellers in many ways, the latter being spread all over Catalonia. Both traditions share the same origin, the "Moixiganga", once found throughout the Iberian Peninsula. Muixeranga differs from castellers in that the Muixeranga has a religious background and is accompanied by a traditional dance, it is focused in the height of the human towers, but focuses in the complexity and technique in order to create a plastic, figurative scene.
The feast day of Our Lady of Health, patroness of Algemesi is September 8, commemorates the legendary discovery in 1247 of a statue depicting the Madonna and Child. The image venerated in the town since the mid-twentieth century is a replica, because during the Civil War the original image of the Virgin of Health was destroyed, as was the chapel; the festival appears to have originated in a street party in the area of the Chapel of Finding and spread to other neighborhoods. The main celebration in held on 7 and 8 September, is preceded by a novena at the Chapel of the Finding, which begins August 29 and ends on September 6; the festival has preserved traditional dances and music, has served as a source for the recovery of dances that formally existed in other locations and have been able to be re-established. The involvement of the town’s inhabitants is the foundation upon which the continuity of this celebration is based; each ritual has been prepared independently since the 18th Century. From the “Muixeranga” through to each of the dances, the different variations and musical scores have been passed from generation to generation.
In the early 18th Century the dances belonged to different guilds. But social changes brought modifications to this custom and the traditions opened up to include people from other professional sectors. UNESCO has recognized the ritual and community participation dimension of the Valencian celebration Our Lady of Health as part of the "intangible heritage of humanity"; the Festivity of “la Mare de Déu de la Salut” has been studied by ethno-anthropologists and historians. It has inspired artists and poets. All of these people have remarked on the breadth of the cultural content of this event. Artistic groups such as the “Muixeranga”, it was this popularity and interest in the tradition that led to the creation in 2002, of the Museu Valencià de la Festa. At the centre, visitors can learn about the history, the ritual acts, the dances, the music and the costumes of the celebration, as well as enjoying many stories from the event. There are several theories on the origin of muixeranga in relation to its name.
The first theory advocates that the word comes from the Arabic word mochain, meaning "mask". A second theory links it with ancient processions held on the streets to commemorate some special event. Though the tradition in the Iberian Peninsula may date back to the 13th century, the first written record of the muixeranga in Algemesí can be traced to the first third of the 18th century. However, its constant, strong presence suggests a much older origin; the first solemn celebrations of the Virgin of Health happened in 1724, so this is the earliest that the muixeranga could be linked to this celebration. However, the first concrete date comes from the town account book in the year 1733, when the dulzaina players employed in the festival were given an annual stipend; the guilds were the real driving force behind the event, in changing times, they died out. The Muixeranga began to wane and by 1973 it had disappeared altogether. A group including writer Martí Domínguez i Barberà, Mayor Manuel Rico, Vicent Raga, festival organiser in the Capella neighbourhood, Father Vicent Castell Maiques, with the support of the students’ association Associació d'Antics Alumnes dels Maristes, were responsible for re-launching it under the guidance of Tomàs Pla.
A year the Friends of assossiació Muixeranga was founded. Eloi Miralles, a member of the Colla de Castellers de Vilafranca del Penedès, arranged for the muixeranguers to visit the Penedès capital and on August 31, 1978, the Muixeranga rose up in Villafranca’s main square, banishing forever that lack of visibility which might have proved fatal. At nightfall on 7 September, the beginning of the festivities is signaled by the ringing of the bells of the Basilica of St. James the Apostle; when the ringing stops and silence descends, the first notes of the flutes are sounded and the first of the processions begins. The procession, which begins with the mysteries and martyrdoms, has a scrupulous order with the towers of the Muixeranga second, followed by the Bastonets, the Carxofa, the